Climate Change and Plant Biosecurity: Implications for Policy

  • Jo Luck
  • Ian D. Campbell
  • Roger Magarey
  • Scott Isard
  • Jean-Philippe Aurambout
  • Kyla Finlay
Chapter

Abstract

Projected future climates, such as increasing temperature, increasing atmospheric CO2, altered precipitation patterns and increases in the frequency of climatic extremes, are likely to alter the performance and distribution of crops as well as influence the entry, establishment and spread of invasive weeds, pests and pathogens that affect them. Climate change will require a revision of current biosecurity practices, such as preparedness, prevention, containment policies, surveillance response, incursion management and trade and market access issues.

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the climate change events affecting the biology and distribution of species that represent a biosecurity threat to agricultural and forestry production. Using two case studies, the Asiatic Citrus Psyllid (Diaphorina citriSKuwayama) and Asian Soybean Rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow and P. Sydow), we explore ways that climate change will affect invasive species and how biosecurity agencies can use information to minimise the spread of invasive weeds, pests and pathogens. Armed with knowledge of the likely effects of climate change on the biology of organisms and their geographical distribution, we examine the implications to existing biosecurity policy. We recommend that future research focus on: (1) Improvement to atmospheric transport models of species due to major storm events; (2) Identification and prioritization of new and existing pest threats; (3) Identification and documentation of pest status changes and potential new interactions; (4) Development of guidelines for incorporating climate change into pest risk analysis and other policy guidelines and (5) Incorporation of future climate scenarios into currently deployed operational pest models.

Keywords

Tropical Cyclone Climate Change Impact Citrus Canker Mountain Pine Beetle Weed Risk Assessment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. AAFC (2011) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Climate change adaptation workshop report, 26ppGoogle Scholar
  2. ABRS (2005) Australian biological resources study – flora of Australia online. Rutaceae Department of Environment, Heritage, Water and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/index.html.23/06/2009
  3. Ackerman F, Finlayson I (2006) The economics of inaction on climate change: a sensitivity analysis. Global Development and Environment Institute working paper no. 06–07. Tufts University, MedfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Agrell J, McDonald E, Lindroth R (2000) Effects of CO2 and light on tree phytochemistry and insect performance. Oikos 88:259–272Google Scholar
  5. Allison TD, Moeller RE, Davis MB (1986) Pollen in laminated sediments provides evidence for a mid-Holocene forest pathogen outbreak. Ecology 67:1101–1105Google Scholar
  6. Anderson P, Cunningham A, Patel N, Morales F, Epstein P, Daszak P (2004) Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. Trends Ecol Evol 19:535–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson R (2008) Diversity and no-till: keys for pest management in the US Great Plains. Weed Sci 56:141–145Google Scholar
  8. Anon (2005) Rare and threatened wet tropics plant species wet tropics management authority. http://www.wettropics.gov.au/st/rainforest_explorer/Resources/Documents/4to7/RareandThreatenedPlantSpeciesList.pdf.23/06/2009
  9. Anon (2009) Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act list of threatened flora. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra, ACT. http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicthreatenedlist.pl?wanted=flora
  10. Aubert B (1987) Trioza erytreae Del Guercio and Diaphorina citri Kuwayana (Homoptera Psylloidea), the two vectors of citrus greening disease: biological aspects and possible control strategies. Fruits 42:149–162Google Scholar
  11. Aurambout J-P, Constable F, Finlay K, Luck J, Sposito V (2006) The impacts of climate change on plant biosecurity – literature review published by the Victorian Government Department of Primary Industries, Landscape Systems Science and Primary Industries Research Victoria, 42 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Aurambout J-P, Finlay K, Luck J, Beattie G (2009) A concept model to estimate the potential of the Asiatic citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) in Australia under climate change – a means for assessing biosecurity risk. Ecol Model 220:2512–2524Google Scholar
  13. Australian Citrus Growers (2007) 59th annual report, Mildura. http://www.australiancitrusgrowers.com.au/gen_pdfs/AnnualReport2007.pdf
  14. AVH (2009) Australian virtual herbarium. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian National Herbarium. http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/. Accessed 15 June 2009
  15. Baker R, Sansford C, Jarvis C, Cannon R, MacLeod A, Walters K (2000) The role of climatic mapping in predicting the potential geographical distribution of non-indigenous pests under current and future climates. Agric Ecosyst Environ 82:57–71Google Scholar
  16. Bale J (2002) Herbivory in global climate research: direct effects of rising temperature on insect herbivores. Glob Chang Biol 8:1–16Google Scholar
  17. Bale J, Harrington R, Clough M (1988) Low temperature mortality of the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. Ecol Entomol 13:121–129Google Scholar
  18. Barkley B, Miles P (2006) Report on Huanglongbing. Greening international workshop, Ribeirao PretoGoogle Scholar
  19. Bayer RS, Mabberley DJ, Morton C, Miller C, Sharma I, Pfeil B, Rich S, Hitchcock R, Sykes S (2009) A molecular phylogeny of the orange subfamily (Rutaceae: Aurantioidea) using nine cpDNA sequences. Am J Bot 96:668–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Beare S, Elliston L, Abdalla A, Davidson A (2005) Improving plant biosecurity systems. A cost-benefit framework for assessing incursion management decisions. ABARE eReport 05.10. Prepared for the Victorian Department of Primary Industries, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  21. Beattie GAC (2002) Huanglongbing and Asiatic citrus psyllid in Asia and Australasia: overview, research objectives and incursion management. Background paper: Citrus industry biosecurity planning workshop. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry – Australia, Canberra, p 24Google Scholar
  22. Beattie GAC, Barkley P (2009) Huanglongbing and its vectors. a pest specific contingency plan for the citrus and nursery and garden industries. Version 2: 10 Feb 2009. Horticulture Australia, Sydney, p 271Google Scholar
  23. Bellis G, Hollis D, Jacobson S (2005) Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), and huanglongbing disease do not exist in the Stapleton station area of the Northern Territory of Australia. Aust J Entomol 44:68–70Google Scholar
  24. Bo J, Hall A, Qu X (2009) September sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean projected to vanish by 2100. Nat Geosci 2(5):341. doi: 10.1038/ngeo467 Google Scholar
  25. Bové JM (2006) Huanglongbing: a destructive newly emerging, century-old disease of citrus. J Plant Pathol 88:7–37Google Scholar
  26. Bowes G (1993) Facing the inevitable: plants and increasing atmospheric CO2. Annu Rev Plant Biol 44:309–332Google Scholar
  27. Bradley C, Allen T, Dorrance A, Dunphy E, Giesler L, Hershman D, Hollier C, Horn V, Wrather J (2010) Evaluation of the soybean rust pest information platform for extension and education (PIPE) public website’s impact on certified crop (Online). Plant Health Prog. doi: 10.1094/PHP-2010-0701-01-RS Google Scholar
  28. Bray R, Sands D (1986) Arrival of the Leucaena psyllid in Australia: impact, dispersal and natural enemies. Leucaena research reports (EUA); Special 7, 1987Google Scholar
  29. Bromfield K (1984) Soybean rust monograph, vol 11. American Phytopathological Society, St PaulGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown J, Hovmøller M (2002) Aerial dispersal of fungi on the global and continental scales and its consequences for plant disease. Science 297:537–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Campbell I, Flannigan M (2000) Long-term perspectives on fire-climate-vegetation relationships in the North American boreal forest. In: Kasischke E, Stocks B (eds) Fire, climate change, and carbon cycling in the boreal forest. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 151–172Google Scholar
  32. Campbell ID, McAndrews JH (1993) Forest disequilibrium caused by rapid Little Ice Age cooling. Nature 366:336–338Google Scholar
  33. Cannon R (1998) The implications of predicted climate change for insect pests in the UK, with emphasis on non-indigenous species. Glob Chang Biol 4:785–796Google Scholar
  34. Cardwell KF, Hoffman WJ (2009) Early detection and diagnosis of high consequence plant pests in the United States. Wiley handbook of science and technology for homeland security, 1–33. doi:  10.1002/9780470087923.hhs9780470087385
  35. Carroll AL, Taylor SW, Régnière J, Safranyik L (2003) Effects of climate change on range expansion by the mountain pine beetle in British Columbia. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Information report BC-X-399, Victoria. In: Shore T, Brooks J, Stone J (eds) Mountain pine beetle symposium: challenges and solutions. Kelowna, pp 223–232Google Scholar
  36. CCSP (2008) Climate change science program. Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate: regions of focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and US Pacific Islands. A report by the U.S. climate change science program and the subcommittee on global change research. In: Karl T, Meehl G, Miller C, Hassol S, Waple A, Murray W (eds) Department of Commerce, NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center, Washington, DC, p 164Google Scholar
  37. Chakraborty S (2005) Potential impact of climate change on plant-pathogen interactions. Aust Plant Pathol 34:443–448Google Scholar
  38. Chakraborty S, Datta S (2003) How will plant pathogens adapt to host plant resistance at elevated CO2 under changing climate? New Pathol 159:733–742Google Scholar
  39. Chakraborty S, Murray G, Magarey P, Yonow T, O’Brien R, Barbetti M, Old K, Dudzinski M, Penrose L, Emmett R (1998) Potential impact of climate change on plant diseases of economic significance to Australia. Aust Plant Pathol 27:15–35Google Scholar
  40. Chakraborty S, Pangga I, Lupton J, Hart L, Room P, Yates D (2000a) Production and dispersal of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides spores on Stylosanthes scabra under elevated CO2. Environ Pollut 108:381–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chakraborty S, Tiedemann AV, Teng PS (2000b) Climate change: potential impact on plant diseases. Environ Pollut 108:317–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Christiano R, Scherm H (2007) Quantitative aspects of the spread of Asian soybean rust in the southeastern United States, 2005 to 2006. Phytopathology 97:1428–1433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Coakley S, Scherm H, Chakraborty S (1999) Climate change and plant disease management. Annu Rev Phytopathol 37:399–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Coll M, Hughes L (2008) Effects of elevated CO2 on an insect omnivore: a test for nutritional effects mediated by host plants and prey. Agric Ecosyst Environ 123:271–279Google Scholar
  45. Coviella C, Trumble J (1999) Review: effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on insect-plant interactions. Conserv Biol, pp 700–712Google Scholar
  46. CSIRO, BoM (2007) Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and the Bureau of Meterology. Climate change in Australia: technical report 2007, CSIRO, Canberra, 148 ppGoogle Scholar
  47. da Graça JV (1991) Citrus greening disease. Annu Rev Phytopathol 29:109–136Google Scholar
  48. de Jong C, Takken F, Cai X, de Wit P, Joosten M (2002) Attenuation of Cf-mediated defense responses at elevated temperatures correlates with a decrease in elicitor-binding sites. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 15:1040–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dempsey S, Evans G, Szandala E (2002) A target list of high risk pathogens of citrus. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Office of the Chief Plant Protection Officer, Canberra, 36 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. Dewar R, Watt A (1992) Predicted changes in the synchrony of larval emergence and budburst under climatic warming. Oecologia 89:557–559Google Scholar
  51. Ehleringer J, Cerling T, Helliker B (1997) C4 photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2 and climate. Oecologia 112:285–299Google Scholar
  52. FAO (2002) Food and Agricultural Organisation. FAOSTAT agricultural data website. http://faostat.fao.org/
  53. FAO (2006) International standards for phytosanitary measures ISPM no. 11. Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risk and living modified organisms (2004). Food and Agricultural Organisation and Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention. https://www.ippc.int/file_uploaded/1146658377367_ISPM11.pdf
  54. FAO (2009) International treaty of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. http://www.planttreaty.org/, ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0510e/i0510e.pdf
  55. Finlay K, Yen A, Aurambout J-P, Beattie G, Barkley P, Luck J (2009) Consequences for Australian biodiversity with establishment of the Asiatic citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, under present and future climates. Biodiversity 10:25–32Google Scholar
  56. Fisher D, Dyke A, Koerner R, Bourgeois J, Kinnard C, Zdanowicz C, De Vernal A, Hillaire-Marcel C, Savelle J, Rochon A (2006) Natural variability of Arctic sea ice over the Holocene. Eos 87:273–280Google Scholar
  57. Fleming RA, Candau JN, McAlpine RS (2002) Landscape-scale analysis of interactions between insect defoliation and forest fire in central Canada. Clim Change 55:251–272Google Scholar
  58. Fuhrer J (2003) Agroecosystem response to combinations of elevated CO2, ozone, and global climate change. Agric Ecosyst Environ 97:1–20Google Scholar
  59. Giesler L (2006) Overview of soybean rust in North America in 2006. In: 2nd National Soybean Rust Symposium, American Phytopathology Society. St. Louis. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/infocenter/topic/soybeanrust/2006/presentations/Giesler. pdf. Accessed 12 Sept 2007
  60. Giesler L, Hershman D (2007) Overview and value of sentinel plots for 2007. In: 3rd National Soybean Rust Symposium, American Phytopathology Society, Louisville. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/infocenter/topic/soybeanrust/2007/presentations/Giesler.pdf. Accessed 24 July 2010
  61. Gomi T, Nagasaka M, Fukuda T, Hagihara H (2007) Shifting of the life cycle and life-history traits of the fall webworm in relation to climate change. Entomol Exp Appl 125:179–184Google Scholar
  62. Gottwald T, Irey M (2007) Post-hurricane analysis of citrus canker II: predictive model estimation of disease spread and area potentially impacted by various eradication protocols following catastrophic weather events. Plant Health Prog. doi: 10.1094/PHP-2007-0405-01-RS Google Scholar
  63. Gottwald TR, da Graça JV, Bassanezi RB (2007) Citrus huanglongbing: the pathogen and its impact. Plant Health Prog. doi: 10.1094/PHP-2007-0906-01-RV Google Scholar
  64. Goverde M, Bazin A, Shykoff JA, Ehhardt A (1999) Influence of leaf chemistry of Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) on larval development of Polyommatus icarus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): effects of elevated CO2 and plant genotype. Funct Ecol 13:801–810Google Scholar
  65. Goverde M, Erhardt A (2003) Effects of elevated CO2 on development and larval food-preference in the butterfly Coenonympha pamphuis (Lepidoptera, Satyridae). Glob Chang Biol 9:74–83Google Scholar
  66. Guerra M, dos Santos KGB, e Silva ARB, Ehrendorfer F (2000) Hetrochromatin banding patterns in Rutaceae – Aurantioideae – a case of parallel chromosomal evolution. Am J Bot 87:735–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ha A, Larson K, Harvey S, Fisher B, Malcolm B (2010) Benefit-cost analysis of options for managing fruit fly in Victoria. Evaluation report series no. 11. Economic and Policy Research Branch, Policy and Strategy Group, DPI VICGoogle Scholar
  68. Halbert S, Manjunath K (2004) Asian citrus psyllids (Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) and greening disease of citrus: a literature review and assessment of risk in Florida. Florida Entomol 87:330–353Google Scholar
  69. Harmon P, Momol M, Marois J, Dankers H, Harmon C (2005) Asian soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean and kudzu in Florida. Plant Health Prog. doi: 10.1094/PHP-200-0613- 01-RS Google Scholar
  70. Harrington R, Fleming R, Woiwod I (2001) Climate change impacts on insect management and conservation in temperate regions: can they be predicted? Agr Forest Entomol 3:233–240Google Scholar
  71. Hartley SE, Jones CG, Couper GC, Jones TH (2000) Biosynthesis of plant phenolic compounds in elevated atmospheric CO2. Glob Chang Biol 6:497–506Google Scholar
  72. Harvell CD, Mitchell CE, Ward JR, Altizer S, Dobson AP, Ostfeld RS, Samuel MD (2002) Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296:2158–2162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hershman D (2010) Changes in 2010 sentinel plot system. Paper presented at the 3rd national soybean rust symposium, American Phytopathology Society, New Orleans. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/infocenter/topic/soybeanrust/2009/presentations/Hershman.pdf. Accessed 22 Jan 2010
  74. Hibberd J, Whitbread R, Farrar J (1996) Effect of elevated concentrations of CO2 on infection of barley by Erysiphe graminis. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 48:37–53Google Scholar
  75. Howden SM (2002) Potential global change impacts on Australia’s wheat cropping systems. In: Doering O, Randolph J, Southworth J, RA P (eds) Effects of climate change and variability on agricultural production systems. Kluwer, Sydney, pp 219–247Google Scholar
  76. Hughes L, Cawsey E, Westoby M (1996) Climatic range sizes of Eucalyptus species in relation to future climate change. Glob Ecol Biogeogr Lett 5:23–29Google Scholar
  77. Hunter M (2001) Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on insect plant interactions. Agr Forest Entomol 3:153–159Google Scholar
  78. Husain MF, Nath D (1927) The Citrus Psylla (Diaphorini citri, Kuw.) [Psyllidae: Homoptera]. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India, 10:5–27Google Scholar
  79. Hutton RJ (2004) Effects of cultural management and different irrigation regimes on tree growth, production, fruit quality and water relations of sweet orange C.sinensis (L.) Osbeck. Ph.D. Department of Crop Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, 271 ppGoogle Scholar
  80. IPCC (2007a) Summary for policymakers. In Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Xhen Z, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor M, Miller H (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  81. IPCC (2007b) Summary for policymakers. In climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel for climate change In: Parry M, Canziani O, Palutikof J, van der Linden P, Hansen C (eds) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Irey M, Gottwald T, Graham J, Riley T, Carlton G (2006) Post-hurricane analysis of citrus canker spread and progress towards the development of a predictive model to estimate disease spread due to catastrophic weather events. Plant Health Prog. doi: 10.1094/PHP-2006-0822-01-RS
  83. Isard SA, Gage SH, Comtois P, Russo JM (2005) Principles of the atmospheric pathway for invasive species applied to soybean rust. Bioscience 55:851–861Google Scholar
  84. Isard SA, Russo J, DeWolf E (2006) The establishment of a national pest information platform for extension and education. Plant Health Prog, Online: doi:  10.1094/PHP-2006-0915-01-RV. http://www.ceal.psu.edu/Isard06.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2006
  85. Isard SA, Russo JM, Ariatti A (2007) The integrated aerobiology modeling system applied to the spread of soybean rust into the Ohio River valley during September 2006. Aerobiologia 23:271–282Google Scholar
  86. Jagouiex S, Bové JM, Garnier M (1994) The phloem-limited bacterium of greening disease of citrus is a member of the α subdivision of the proteobacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:379–386Google Scholar
  87. Johns C (2004) National citrus industry biosecurity plan pest risk review Huanglongbing (Citrus greening). Plant Health Australia, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  88. Johns C, Hughes L (2002) Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the leaf-miner Dialectica scalariella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in Paterson’s Curse, Echium plantagineum (Boraginaceae). Glob Chang Biol 8:142–152Google Scholar
  89. Johnson R, Lincoln D (1991) Sagebrush carbon allocation patterns and grasshopper nutrition: the influence of CO2 enrichment and soil mineral limitation. Oecologia 87:127–134Google Scholar
  90. Jönsson A, Harding S, Bärring L, Ravn H (2007) Impact of climate change on the population dynamics of Ips typographus in southern Sweden. Agr Forest Meteorol 146:70–81Google Scholar
  91. Keeley JE, Lubin D, Fotheringham C (2003) Fire and grazing impacts on plant diversity and alien plant invasions in the southern Sierra Nevada. Ecol Appl 13:1355–1374Google Scholar
  92. Kiritani K (2006) Predicting impacts of global warming on population dynamics and distribution of arthropods in Japan. Popul Ecol 48:5–12Google Scholar
  93. Kopper B, Lindroth R (2003) Responses of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) phytochemistry and aspen blotch leafminer (Phyllonorycter tremuloidiella) performance to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and O3. Agri Forest Entomol 5:17–26Google Scholar
  94. Kriticos D, Sutherst R, Brown J, Adkins S, Maywald G (2003) Climate change and the potential distribution of an invasive alien plant: Acacia nilotica spp. indica in Australia. J Appl Ecol 40:111–124Google Scholar
  95. Kuparinen A (2006) Mechanistic models for wind dispersal. Trends Plant Sci 11:296–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lawler I, Foley W, Woodrow I, Cork S (1996) The effects of elevated CO2 atmospheres on the nutritional quality of Eucalyptus foliage and its interaction with soil nutrient and light availability. Oecologia 109:59–68Google Scholar
  97. Li X, Esker P, Pan Z, Dias A, Xue L, Yang X (2010) The uniqueness of the soybean rust pathosystem: an improved understanding of the risk in different regions of the world. Plant Dis 94:796–806Google Scholar
  98. Lin SJ, Ke YF, Tao CC (1973) Bionomics observation and interfrated control of citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. J Hortic Soc China 19:234–242Google Scholar
  99. Lindroth RL, Roth S, Kruger EL, Volin JC, Koss PA (1997) CO2-mediated changes in aspen chemistry: effects on gypsy moth performance and susceptibility to virus. Glob Chang Biol 3:279–289Google Scholar
  100. Liu YH, Tsai JH (2000) Effects of temperature and biology on life table parameters of the Asian citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae). Ann Appl Biol 137:201–206Google Scholar
  101. Livingston M, Johansson R, Daberkow S, Roberts M, Ash M, Breneman V (2004) Economic and policy implications of wind-borne entry of Asian soybean rust into the United States. Electronic outlook report from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, OCS-04D-02. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/OCS/APR04/OCS04D02/. Accessed 12 Sept 2007
  102. Lobell DB, Burke MB, Tebaldi C, Mastrandrea MD, Falcon WP, Naylor RL (2008) Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030. Science 319:607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lorenz M (2009) Migration and trans-Atlantic flight of locusts. Quat Int 196:4–12Google Scholar
  104. Luck J, Spackman M, Freeman A, Trębicki P, Griffiths W, Finlay K, Chakraborty S (2011) Climate change and diseases of food crops. Plant Pathol 60:113–121Google Scholar
  105. Mabberley DJ (1998) Australian Citreae with notes on other Aurantioideae (Rutaceae). Telopea 7:333–344Google Scholar
  106. Mabberley DJ (2004) Citrus (Rutaceae): a review of recent advances in etymology, systematics and medical applications. Blumea 49:481–498Google Scholar
  107. Magarey R, Borchert D, Schlegel J (2008) Global plant hardiness zones for phytosanitary risk analysis. Scientia Agricola 65:54–59Google Scholar
  108. Magarey R, Fowler G, Borchert D, Sutton T, Colunga-Garcia M, Simpson J (2007) NAPPFAST: an internet system for the weather-based mapping of plant pathogens. Plant Dis 91:336–345Google Scholar
  109. Manning W, Tiedemann A (1995) Climate change: potential effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant diseases. Environ Pollut 88:219–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Masters G, Brown V, Clarke I, Whittaker J, Hollier J, Clarke W (1998) Direct and indirect effects of climate change on insect herbivores: Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera). Ecol Entomol 23:45–52Google Scholar
  111. Mavrodieva V, Levy L, Gabriel DW (2004) Improved sampling methods for real-time polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of citrus canker from field samples. Phytopathology 94:61–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Meehl G, Stocker T, Collin W, Friedlingstein P, Gaye A, Gregory J, Kitoh A, Knutti R, Murphy J, Noda N, Raper S, Watterson I, Weaver A, Zhao Z-C (2007) The physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor M, Miller H (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Miles M, Hartman G, Frederick R (2003) Soybean rust: is the U.S. soybean crop at risk? American Phytopathological Society. http://apsnet.org/online/feature/rust. Accessed 3 July 2004
  114. Musolin D (2007) Insects in a warmer world: ecological, physiological and life-history responses of true bugs (Heteroptera) to climate change. Glob Chang Biol 13:1565–1585Google Scholar
  115. Nakićenović N, Swart R (2000) Special report on emissions scenarios a special report of working group III of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  116. Padgett HS, Watanabe Y, Beachy RN (1997) Identification of the TMV replicase sequence that activates the N gene-mediated hypersensitive response. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 10:709–715Google Scholar
  117. Pangga I, Chakraborty S, Yates D (2004) Canopy size and induced resistance in Stylosanthes scabra determine anthracnose severity at high CO2. Phytopathology 94:221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Patterson D, Westbrook J, Joyce R, Lingren P, Rogasik J (1999) Weeds, insects, and diseases. Clim Change 43:711–727Google Scholar
  119. PHA (2009) Plant Health Australia. Industry biosecurity plan for the citrus industry. Version 2.0. Plant Health Australia, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  120. Pheloung P, Scott J, Randall R (1996) Predicting the distribution of Emex in Australia. Plant Prot Quart 11:138–140Google Scholar
  121. Pheloung P, Williams P, Halloy S (1999) A weed risk assessment model for use as a biosecurity tool evaluating plant introductions. J Environ Manage 57:239–251Google Scholar
  122. Pivonia S, Yang X (2004) Assessment of the potential year-round establishment of soybean rust throughout the world. Plant Dis 88:523–529Google Scholar
  123. Porter JR, Semenov MA (2005) Crop responses to climatic variation. Philos Trans Roy Soc B Biol Sci 360:2021Google Scholar
  124. Pruvost O, Boher B, Brocherieux C, Nicole M, Chiroleu F (2002) Survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in leaf lesions under tropical environmental conditions and simulated splash dispersal of inoculum. Phytopathology 92:336–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Purdy L, Krupa S, Dean J (1985) Introduction of sugarcane rust into the Americas and its spread to Florida. Plant Dis 69:689–693Google Scholar
  126. Rafoss T, Sæthre M (2003) Spatial and temporal distribution of bioclimatic potential for the codling moth and the Colorado potato beetle in Norway: model predictions versus climate and field data from the 1990s. Agr Forest Entomol 5:75–86Google Scholar
  127. Richardson CH, Nemeth DJ (1991) Hurricane-borne African locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) on the Windward Islands. Geojournal 23:349–357Google Scholar
  128. Roberts M, Schimmelpfennig D, Ashley E, Livingston M (2006) The value of plant disease early-warning systems: a case study of USDA’s soybean rust coordinated framework. Economic research report no. 18 United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research ServiceGoogle Scholar
  129. Romero A, Kousik C, Ritchie D (2002) Temperature sensitivity of the hypersensitive response of Bell Pepper to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria. Phytopathology 92:197–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Root T, Price J, Hall K, Schneider S, Rosenzweig C, Pounds J (2003) Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants. Nature 421:57–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Rosenberg J, Burt PJA (1999) Windborne displacements of desert locusts from Africa to the Caribbean and South America. Aerobiologia 15:167–175Google Scholar
  132. Rosenzweig C, Iglesias A, Yang X, Epstein P, Chivian E (2001) Climate change and extreme weather events; implications for food production, plant diseases and pests. Glob Chang Hum Health 2:90–104Google Scholar
  133. Roth S, Lindroth R (1995) Elevated atmospheric CO2: effects on phytochemistry, insect performance and insect-parasitoid interactions. Glob Chang Biol 1:173–182Google Scholar
  134. Samuel R, Ehrendorfer F, Chase MW, Greger H (2001) Phylogenetic analyses of Aurantioideae (Rutaceae) based on non-coding plastid DNA sequences and phytochemical features. Plant Biol 3:77–87Google Scholar
  135. Scherm H, Coakley SM (2003) Plant pathogens in a changing world. Aust Plant Pathol 32:157–165Google Scholar
  136. Scherm H, Sutherst RW, Harrington R, Ingram JSI (2000) Global networking for assessment of impacts of global change on plant pests. Environ Pollut 108:333–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Schneider R, Hollier C, Whitam H, Palm M, McKemy J, Hernandez J, Levy L, DeVries-Paterson R (2005) First report of soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in the continental United States. Plant Dis 89:774Google Scholar
  138. Shamoun-Baranes J, Leyrer J, van Loon E, Bocher P, Robin F, Meunier F, Piersma T (2010) Stochastic atmospheric assistance and the use of emergency staging sites by migrants. Proc Royal Soc B Biol Sci 277:1505–1511Google Scholar
  139. Shaner G, Stromberg EL, Lacy GH, Barker KR, Pirone TP (1992) Nomenclature and concepts of pathogenicity and virulence. Annu Rev Phytopathol 30:47–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sheppard A, Gillespie I, Hirsch M, Begley C (2011) Biosecurity and sustainability within the growing global Bioeconomy. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 3:4–10Google Scholar
  141. Sinclair J, Hartman G (1996) Soybean rustworkshop, 9–11 Aug 1995, National Soybean Research Laboratory Publication No. 1. College of Agriculture, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  142. Smith P, Jones T (1998) Effects of elevated CO2 on the chrysanthemum leaf-miner, Chromatomyia syngenesiae: a greenhouse study. Glob Chang Biol 4:287–291Google Scholar
  143. Stiling P, Rossi AM, Hungate B, Dijkstra P, Hinker CR, Knott WM, Drake B (1999) Decreased leaf-miner abundance in elevated CO2: reduced leaf quality and increased parasitoid attack. Ecol Appl 9:240–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Stokstad E (2006) New disease endangers Florida’s already-suffering citrus tree. Science 312:523–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Straw N (1995) Climate change and the impact of green spruce aphid, Elatobium abietinum (Walker), in the UK. Scott Forestry 49:134–145Google Scholar
  146. Stroeve J, Serreze M, Drobot S, Gearheard S, Holland M, Maslanik J, Meier W, Scambos T (2008) Arctic sea ice extent plummets in 2007. Eos 89:13–14Google Scholar
  147. Sutherst R, Collyer B, Yonow T (2000) The vulnerability of Australian horticulture to the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) tryoni, under climate change. Aust J Agr Res 51:467–480Google Scholar
  148. Sutherst RW, Maywald GF (1985) A computerised system for matching climates in ecology. Agric Ecosyst Environ 13:281–299Google Scholar
  149. Sykes SR (1997) Citrus germplasm in Australia with special reference to indigenous members of the sub-family Aurantioideae. In: Broadbent P, Sykes SR, Bevington KB, Hailstones D (eds) Proceedings citrus germplasm conservation workshop, 6–7 Oct 1997. Brisbane, pp 76–84Google Scholar
  150. Thuiller W, Richardson D, Pyšek P, Midgley G, Hughes G, Rouget M (2005) Niche-based modelling as a tool for predicting the risk of alien plant invasions at a global scale. Glob Chang Biol 11:2234–2250Google Scholar
  151. Umina PA, Weeks AR, Kearney MR, McKechnie SW, Hoffmann AA (2005) A rapid shift in classic clinal pattern in Drosophila reflecting climate change. Science 308:691–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. USDA (2011) United States Department of Agriculture. Integrated pest management – pest information platform for extension and education – soybean rust. http://sbr.ipmpipe.org/cgi-bin/sbr/public.cgi. Accessed 2 Feb 2011
  153. Venette R, Kriticos D, Magarey R, Koch F, Baker R, Worner S, Gomez Raboteaux N, McKenney D, Dobesberger E, Yemshanov D (2010) Pest risk maps for invasive alien species: a roadmap for improvement. Bioscience 60:349–362Google Scholar
  154. Veteli T, Kuokkanen K, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Roininen H, Tahvanainen J (2002) Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on plant growth and herbivore defensive chemistry. Glob Chang Biol 8:1240–1252Google Scholar
  155. Walther GR (2002) Weakening of climatic constraints with global warming and its consequences for evergreen broad-leaved species. Folia Geobot 37:129–139Google Scholar
  156. Weinert MP, Jacobson SC, Grimshaw JF, Bellis GA, Stephens PM, Gunua TG, Kame MF, Davis RI (2004) Detection of Huanglongbing (citrus greening disease) in Timor-Leste (East Timor) and in Papua New Guinea. Aust Plant Pathol 33:135–136Google Scholar
  157. White T, Campbell B, Kemp P, Hunt C (2001) Impacts of extreme climatic events on competition during grassland invasions. Glob Chang Biol 7:1–13Google Scholar
  158. Williams R, Lincoln D, Norby R (1997) Effects of elevated CO2, soil nutrient levels, and foliage age on the performance of two generations of Neodiprion lecontei (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) feeding on loblolly pine. Environ Entomol 126:1312–1322Google Scholar
  159. Woiwod I (1997) Detecting the effects of climate change on Lepidoptera. J Insect Conserv 1:149–158Google Scholar
  160. Yang Y, Huang M, Beattie A, Xia Y, Ouyang G, Xiong J (2006) Distribution, biology, ecology and control of the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, a major pest of citrus: a status report for China. Int J Pest Manage 52:343–352Google Scholar
  161. Yorinori J, Paiva W, Frederick R, Costamilan L, Bertagnolli P, Hartman G, Godoy C, Nunes J Jr (2005) Epidemics of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in Brazil and Paraguay from 2001 to 2003. Plant Dis 89:675–677Google Scholar
  162. Zhang DX, Hartley TG, Mabberley DJ (2008) Rutaceae. In: Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (eds) Flora of China, vol 11, Oxalidaceae through Aceraceae. Science Press/Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing/St. Louis, pp 51–97Google Scholar
  163. Zhou X, Harrington R, Woiwood I, Perry J, Bale J, Clark S (1995) Effects of temperature on aphid phenology. Glob Chang Biol 1:303–313Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside of the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jo Luck
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ian D. Campbell
    • 3
  • Roger Magarey
    • 4
  • Scott Isard
    • 5
  • Jean-Philippe Aurambout
    • 2
    • 6
  • Kyla Finlay
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Biosciences Research Division, Department of Environment and Primary IndustriesLa Trobe UniversityBundooraAustralia
  2. 2.Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Innovation CentreUniversity of CanberraBruceAustralia
  3. 3.Integrated Natural Resources DivisionAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaOttawaCanada
  4. 4.North Carolina State University and Co-operator with USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST PERALRaleighUSA
  5. 5.Departments of Plant Pathology and MeteorologyPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  6. 6.Department of Primary Industries VictoriaFuture Farming Systems ResearchParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations