Phytoparasitic Nematodes: Risks and Regulations

Chapter

Abstract

Agricultural spread of important phytoparasitic nematodes remains a global concern for producers, stakeholders and regulators. The initial spread occurred before the significance of nematodes was realized and detection/control methods were used. Notably, spread of nematodes has slowed in nations with effective biosecurity programs. However, even with strict controls and huge regulatory expenditure, high-profile nematode pests have become established. The challenge is to develop and maintain programs to exclude the most important nematodes using integrated methods. Regulators must detect nematodes at an early stage and eradicate them to prevent further spread. Even in countries with effective programs and few main ports for importation (e.g., NZ), it is difficult to effectively inspect imported items that could be contaminated with nematodes. Inspection is more difficult in countries with many entry ports and huge volumes of imports. Trade is constantly growing and this increases difficulty for regulators to identify goods that represent the highest nematode risk. The best way to manage/regulate nematodes begins at export with suppression using integrated programs and official regulatory management. Programs often involve exclusion and eradication, resistant cultivars, soil and crop treatments (before or after crop growth), post-harvest inspection, programmed certification and targeted treatments. Detection technique advances (especially molecular) will also improve regulatory decisions in the future. Finally, close cooperation must exist between all production stakeholders and regulators in exporting and importing countries, and reliance on international guidelines for the effective biosecurity regulation of nematodes must also occur.

Keywords

Nematode Species Cyst Nematode Potato Cyst Nematode Root Lesion Nematode Golden Nematode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside of the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Biosecurity and Environment GroupPlants, Food and Environment Directorate, Ministry for Primary IndustriesWellingtonNew Zealand

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