Endoscopic tunnel technique divides deliberately the wall of digestive tract into two-layer with the establishment of submucosal tunnel to ensure a safe barrier to prevent concerned serious complications in treatment of lesions from mucosa or muscularis propria. Even so, some complications might emerge inevitably. The most common complications are pneumatosis-related complications, including subcutaneous emphysema, mediastinal emphysema, pneumoperitoneum, and even pneumothorax. Mucosal perforation also happen occasionally, the incidence of which is 3.6–20 %. Hemorrhage, intraoperative or delayed, cannot be ignored in spite of its relatively low incidence. Gastroesophageal reflux is one of the most concerned complications of POEM, which influences the quality of life of the patients. Infection is one of most serious complications after operation, such as mediastinitis, peritonitis, pulmonary infection. Esophageal stricture is a major problem for patients with large esophageal mucosal lesions treated with tunnel technique, the incidence of which is closely related to length and circumferential area of lesions.
Muscularis Propria Esophageal Stricture Subcutaneous Emphysema Submucosal Tunnel Mediastinal Emphysema
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