Advertisement

Optics and Heat Transfer in Solar Collectors

  • Brian Norton
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Energy book series (LNEN, volume 18)

Abstract

All substances emit electromagnetic radiation continuously in a particular range of the electromagnetic spectrum, the dominant form that such energy takes depends upon its nature and the form of the applied external excitation; electrical conductors emit radio waves when excited by an alternating current; certain elements emit X-rays if excited by atomic bombardment and if heated to a sufficiently high temperature all substances will emit visible light. Cosmic rays, X-rays, r-rays, visible light and radio waves are forms of electromagnetic radiation that, when absorbed by a substance, usually produces a very small heating effect. The wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum that interact with matter to produce significant radiative heating are confined to a band from approximately 0.1 to 100 μm; this includes a portion of the ultraviolet light together with all visible (0.40–0.7 μm) and infrared light bands. For many solar thermal systems the optical characteristics and geometries of aperture materials, reflectors and absorbers determines solar heat gains. How much of that heat is retained is determined largely by heat transfer (i) across air gaps, evacuated spaces, and insulation materials and (ii) provided by forced or buoyant removal of fluid from a collector.

Keywords

Solar Energy Application Optical Efficiency Acceptance Angle Solar Heat Gain Compound Parabolic Concentrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anon (1985) ASTM E424-71. Standard test methods for solar energy transmittance and reflectance (Terrestrial) of sheet materials. American Society for Testing and Materials, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Anon (1977a) ASHRAE Standard 94–77. Methods of testing thermal storage devices based on thermal performance. ASHRAE, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Baer S (1975) “Breadbox” water heater plans. Zomeworks, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker B, McDaniels OK, Kaehn HD, Lowndes DH (1978) Time integrated calculation of the insolation collected by a reflector-collector system. Solar Energy 20:415–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhaduri S, Nguyen NH (1983) Transmissivity of solar collector covers, ASME Paper 83-WA/Sol-17Google Scholar
  6. Blaga A (1978) Use of plastics in solar energy applications. Solar Energy 21:331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burek SAM, Norton B, Probert SD (1989) Transmission and forward scattering of insolation through transparent and semi­ transparent materials. Solar Energy 42(6):457–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burkhard DG, Shealy DL (1975) Design of reflectors which distribute light in a special manner. Solar Energy 17:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butti K, Perlin J (1980) A golden thread. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Cachorro VE, Casanova JL (1986) Optical efficiency of semistatic cylindrical-parabolic concentrator. Solar Energy 36:147–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carvalho MJ, Collares-Pereira M, Gordon JM, Rabl A (1985) Truncation of CPC solar collectors and its effect on energy collection. Solar Energy 35:393–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng H, Bannerot RB (1983) On the weathering of thin plastic films. ASME J Solar Energy Eng 105:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chinnery DNW (1967) Solar water heating in South Africa. SCIR Research Report, 284Google Scholar
  14. Driver P, Jones EW, Riddiford CL (1975) In: Proceedings symposium on solar energy resources, ISES, Australia and New Zealand, Sect 49Google Scholar
  15. Drude P (1904) Optische Eigenschaften und Electronen Theorie. An der Physik 14:936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duff W, Winston R, O’Gallagher J, Henkel T, Berquam J (2004) Performance of the Sacremento demonstration ICPC collector and double effect chiller in 200 and 2001. Solar Energy 76:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Duffie JA, Beckman WA (1974) Solar energy thermal processes. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Edlin FE (1959) Plastic glazings for solar energy absorption collectors. Solar Energy 2:3–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Evans DL (1977) On the performance of cylindrical parabolic solar collectors with flat absorbers. Solar Energy 19:379–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Favard GJ, Nawrocki AD (1981) Preliminary optical performance study of glazing-reflector systems in breadbox water heaters. In: Proceedings of 6th national passive solar conference, Portland, pp 188–191 (September)Google Scholar
  21. Fintel BW, Jakubowski GS (1985) Obtaining solar collector; cover transmissivities from a solar simulator, ASME paper 85-WA/Sol-3Google Scholar
  22. Godbey LC, Bond TE, Zornig HF (1979) Transmission of solar and long-wavelength energy by materials used as covers for solar collectors and greenhouses. Trans ASAE 22:1137–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grassie N (1972) Degradation. In: Jenkins AD (ed) Polymer science, vol 2. North-Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  24. Grassie SL, Sheridan NR (1977) The use of planar reflectors for increasing the energy yield of flat-plate collectors. Solar Energy 1(19):663–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grimmer DP, Zinn KG, Herr KC, Wood BE (1978) Augmented solar energy collection using various planar reflective surfaces, theoretical calculations and experimental results. Solar Energy 21:497–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gueymard C (1989) A simplified model for the computation of radiation transmission through a series of semi-transparent plates. Solar Energy 42:433–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harper CA (1975) Handbook of plastics and elastometers. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Hottel HC (1976) A simple model for estimating the transmittance of direct solar radiation through clear solar atmospheres. Solar Energy 18Google Scholar
  29. Hsieh CK (1981) Thermal analysis of CPC collectors. Solar Energy 27:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaehn HD, Geyer M, Fong D, Vignola F, McDaniels DK (1978) Experimental evaluation of the reflector-collector system. In: Proceedings of the American section of the international solar energy society, Denver, vol 2(1), p 654Google Scholar
  31. Kahlen S, Wallner G, Lang RW (2010a) Aging behavior and lifetime modeling of polycarbonate. Solar Energy 84:755–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kahlen S, Wallner G, Lang RW, Meir M, Rekstad J (2010b) Aging behavior of polymeric solar absorber materials: aging on the component level. Solar Energy 84:459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kienzlen V, Gordon JM, Kreider JF (1988) The reverse flat plate collector: a stationary, non-evacuated, low-technology, medium-temperature solar collector. ASME J Solar Energy Eng 110(1):23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kimball WH, Munir ZA (1978) The effect of accelerated weathering on the degradation of polymeric films. Polym Eng Sci 18:230–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kothandaraman CP, Subramanyan S (1977) Heat and mass transfer data book, 3rd edn. Wiley Eastern, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  36. Kothdiwala AF, Eames PC, Norton B, Zacharopoulos A (1999) Comparison between inverted absorber asymmetric and asymmetric tubular-absorber compound parabolic concentrations solar collectors. Renew Energy 18:277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kothdiwala AF, Norton B, Eames PC (1995) The effect of variation of angle of inclination on the performance of low-concentration ratio compound parabolic concentrating solar collectors. Solar Energy 55(4):301–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lampert CM, Washburn J (1979) Microstructure of a black chrome solar selective absorber. Solar Energy Mater 1:82–92Google Scholar
  39. Larson DC (1980) Concentration ratios for flat-plate solar collectors with adjustable mirrors. J Energy 4(4):170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Look DC, Sundvold PO (1983) Analysis of concentrating collectors of energy from a distant point source. Solar Energy 31:545–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mar HYB, Peterson RE, Zimmor PB (1976) Low cost coatings for flat plate solar collectors. Thin Solid Films 29:98–103Google Scholar
  42. McDaniels OK, Lowndes DH, Mather H, Reynold J, Gray R (1975) Enhanced solar energy collection using reflector – solar thermal collector combinations. Solar Energy 17:277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McIntire WR (1979) Truncation of non-imaging cusp concentrators. Solar Energy 23(4):351–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Meinel AB, Meinel MP (1976) Applied solar energy: an introduction. Addison-Wesley, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  45. Mills DR (1978) The place of extreme asymmetrical non-focusing concentrators in solar energy utilization. Solar Energy 21(5):431–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mills DR (1986) Relative cost-effectiveness of periodically adjusted solar collectors using evacuated absorber tubes. Solar Energy 36:323–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mills DR, Guitronich JE (1978) Asymmetrical non-imaging cylindrical solar concentrators. Solar Energy 20(1):45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Norton B, Eames PC, Yadav YP (1991) Symmetric and asymmetric linear compound parabolic concentrating solar energy collectors. The state-of-the-art in optical and thermophysical analysis. Int J Ambient Energy 12(4): 171–190Google Scholar
  49. Norton B, Eames PC, Yadav YP, Griffiths PW (1997) Solar concentrators for rural applications. Int J Ambient Energy 18(3):115–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Oreski G, Tscharnuter O, Wallner G (2010) Determination of the solar optical properties of transparent polymer films using UV/VIS spectroscopy. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells 94:884–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Prapas DE, Norton B, Probert SD (1987a) Optics of parabolic trough solar-energy collectors possessing small concentration ratios. Solar Energy 39(6):541–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Prapas DE, Norton B, Melidis PE, Probert SD (1987b) Convective heat transfers within air-spaces of compound parabolic concentrating solar-energy collectors. Appl Energy 28:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rabl A (1976) Comparison of solar concentrators. Solar Energy 18:93–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rabl A (1985) Active solar collectors and their applications. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  55. Rabl A, Bendt P (1982) Effect of circumsolar radiation on performance of focusing collectors. ASME J Solar Energy Eng 104:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ranby B, Rabek JF (1975) Photodegradation, photo-oxidation and photostabilization of polymers. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Ratzel A, Hickox C, Gartling D (1979) Techniques for reducing thermal conduction and natural convection heat losses in annular receiver geometries. ASME J Heat Transfer 101:108–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rawson H (1982) Properties and applications of glass. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  59. Resch K, Wallner GM, Hausner R (2009) Phase separated thermotropic layers based on UW cured acrylic resens – effect of material formulation on overheating properties and application in a solar collector. Solar Energy 83:1689–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rivero R (1958) Natural lighting – the calculation of the direct daylight factor for glazed and unglazed windows and for uniform and non-uniform skies. Building Research Station, Library Communication No. 860Google Scholar
  61. Robbins FV, Spillman CK (1980) Solar energy transmission through two transparent covers. Trans ASAE 22:1224–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Seitel SC (1975) Collector performance enhancement with flat reflectors. Solar Energy 17:291–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sharafi AS, Mukminova AG (1975) Procedure for computing the reflectivity, absorptivity and transmission coefficient for radiant energy in multilayer systems with varying optical properties. Geliotekhnika 11Google Scholar
  64. Shurcliff WA (1974) Transmittance and reflectance loss of multi-plate planar window of a solar-radiation collector formulas and tabulations of results for the case n = l.50. J Solar Energy 16:149–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Siegel R (1973) Net radiation method for transmission through partially transparent plates. J Solar Energy 15:273–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Simonis M, v.d Leij M, Hoogendoorn CJ (1979) Physics of doped tin dioxide films for spectral selective surfaces. Solar Energy Mate 1:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Snail KA, O’Gallagher JJ, Winston R (1984) A stationary evacuated collectors with integrated concentrator. Solar Energy 33:441–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sparrow EM, Ramsey JW, Mass EA (1979) Effect of finite width on heat transfer and fluid flow about and inclined rectangular plate. ASME J Heat Transfer 101:2Google Scholar
  69. Stephenson DG (1965) Tables of solar altitude, azimuth, intensity and heat gain factor for latitudes from 43 to 55 degrees north. Solar Energy 9:81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tabor H (1955) Selective radiations, wavelength discrimination. In: Transactions conference, use of solar energy, vol 2, 1A. Tuscon, pp 24–33Google Scholar
  71. Touloukian YS, Dewitt DP (1972) Thermal radiative properties, nonmetallic solids, thermophysica1 properties of matter 8, IFI/Plenum Data CorporationGoogle Scholar
  72. Tripanagnostopoulos Y, Yianoulis P (1992) Integrated collector-storage systems with suppressed thermal losses. Solar Energy 48(1):31–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wallner G, Resch K, Hausner R (2008) Property and performance requirements for thermotropic layers to prevent overheating in an all polymeric flat-plate collector. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells 92:614–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weinstein A, Duncan RT Jr, Sherbin WC (1977) Lessons learned from Atlanta (Towns). Solar Energy 8:45–46Google Scholar
  75. Whillier A (1953a) Solar energy collection and its utilization for house heating. ScD Thesis, MITGoogle Scholar
  76. Whillier A (1953b) The utilisation of solar energy in South Africa. J South African Inst Mech Eng 2:261–267Google Scholar
  77. Wijeysundera NE (1978) Geometric factors for plane specular reflectors. Solar Energy 20:81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Williams JR, Craig JI (1976) The Shenandoah solar community sharing the Sun. In: Proceedings of the American section of the international solar energy society, vol 3. Winnipeg, pp 200–212Google Scholar
  79. Winston R (1974) Principles of solar concentrators of a novel design. Solar Energy 16:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Norton
    • 1
  1. 1.Dublin Institute of TechnologyDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations