The Solar Energy Resource

  • Brian Norton
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Energy book series (LNEN, volume 18)

Abstract

The earth rotates at an axial tilt in an elliptical orbit around the sun producing the annual variation of intensity outside the earth’s atmosphere (Lunde 1980) shown in Fig. 2.1. Beneath the atmosphere solar energy varies temporally and geographically in its

Keywords

Solar Radiation Incline Plane Diffuse Component Solar Water Heater Clearness Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Angstrom A (1924) Solar and terrestrial radiation. Q J Roy Meteorol Soc 150:121–126Google Scholar
  2. Bendt P, Collares-Pereira M, Rabl A (1981) The frequency distribution of daily insolation values. Solar Energy 27:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burek SAM, Norton B, Probert SD (1988) Analytical and experimental methods for shadow-band correction factors for solarimeters on inclined planes under isotropically-diffuse and overcast skies. Solar Energy 40(2):151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark DR, Klein SA, Beckman WA (1983) Algorithm for evaluating the hourly radiation utilizability function ASME. J Solar Energy Eng 105:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Collares-Pereira M, Rabl A (1979) Simple procedure for predicting long term average performance of non-concentrating and of concentrating solar collectors. Solar Energy 23:235–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dave JV (1977) Validity of the isotropic-distribution approximation in solar energy estimations. Solar Energy 19:331–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drummond AJ (1956) On the measurement of sky radiation. Arch Met Geophys Bioklim B7:413–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Erbs DG, Klein SA, Duffie JA (1982) Estimation of the diffuse radiation fraction for hourly, daily and monthly – average global radiation. Solar Energy 28:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Evans DL, Rule TT, Wood BD (1982) A new look at long term collector performance and utilizability. Solar Energy 28:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. George R, Maxwell E (1999) High-resolution ways of solar collector performance using a climatological solar radiation model. In: Proceedings of the annual conference of the American Solar Energy Society, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Gordon JM, Hochman M (1984) On correlations between beam and global radiation. Solar Energy 32:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hay JE (1979) Study of shortwave radiation on non-horizontal surfaces. Canadian Climate Center. Report 79–12, AES, DownviewGoogle Scholar
  13. Hogan WD, Loxsom FM (1981) Preliminary validation of models predicting insolation on tilted surfaces. In: Proceedings of the annual meeting of the American section of the international solar energy societyGoogle Scholar
  14. Hollands KGT, Huget RG (1983) A probability density function for the clearness index, with applications. Solar Energy 30:195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hottel HC (1976) A simple model for estimating the transmittance of direct solar radiation through clear solar atmospheres. Solar Energy 18Google Scholar
  16. Ineichen P, Gremaud JM, Guisan O, Mermoud A (1983) Study of the corrective factor involved when measuring the diffuse solar radiation by use of the ring method. Solar Energy 31:113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Iqbal M (1983) An Introduction to solar radiation. Academic, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  18. Kittler R (1986) Luminance model of homogeneous skies for design and energy performance predictions. In: Proceeding of the 2nd international daylighting conference, Long BeachGoogle Scholar
  19. Klein SA (1978) Calculation of flat-plate collector utilizability. Solar Energy 21:393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klucher TM (1979) Evaluation of models to predict insolation on tilted surfaces. Solar Energy 111–114Google Scholar
  21. Landsberg HE (1981) The urban climate. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. LeBaron BA, Peterson WA, Dirmhirn I (1980) Corrections for diffuse irradiance with shadowbands. Solar Energy 25:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Littlefair PJ (1985) The luminous efficacy of daylight, a review. Light Res Technol 17:162–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu BYH, Jordan RC (1960) The interrelationship and characteristic distribution of direct, diffuse and total solar radiation. Solar Energy 4:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu BYH, Jordan RC (1962) Daily insolation on surfaces tilted towards the equator. Trans ASHRAE 526–541Google Scholar
  26. Liu BYH, Jordan RC (1963) A rational procedure for predicting the long-term average performance of flat-plate solar energy collectors. Solar Energy 7:53–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu BYH, Jordan RE (1965) Performance and evaluation of concentrating collectors for power generation trans. ASME Journal of Engineering for Power 87:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lloyd PB (1984) Solar energy for engineers. Helios 22: Solar energy unit, University College, CardiffGoogle Scholar
  29. Lunde PJ (1980) Solar thermal engineering. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Ma CCY, Iqbal M (1983) Statistical comparison of models for estimating solar radiation on inclined surfaces. Solar Energy 31:31–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marion W, Wilcox S (1994) Solar radiation data manual for flat plate and concentrating collectors. Report NREL/TP-463-5607, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, GoldenGoogle Scholar
  32. Maxwell E, George R, Wilcox S (1998) A climatological solar radiation model. In: Proceedings of the annual conference of the American solar energy society, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  33. Mujahid A, Turner WD (1980) Diffuse sky measurements and determination of corrected shadow band multiplication factors. ASME annual winter meeting, paper no 80-WA/Sol-26Google Scholar
  34. Norton B, Abu-Ebeid M (1989) Estimation of mean monthly daily total insolation from mean monthly daily ambient temperature. Ambient Energy 10:151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Page JK (1961) The estimation of monthly mean values for daily total short wave radiation on vertical and inclined surfaces from sunshine hours for latitudes 40°N to 40°S. In: Proceedings of the UN conference on new sources of energy, Rome, pp 378–390Google Scholar
  36. Painter HE (1981) The shade ring correction factor for diffuse irradiance measurements. Solar Energy 26:361–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Perez R, Scott JT, Stewart R (1983) An anisotropic model for diffuse radiation incident of hopes of different orientations and possible applications to CPCs. Prog Solar Energy 6:883–888Google Scholar
  38. Perez R, Stewart R, Arbogast C, Seals R, Scott J (1986) An anisotropic hourly diffuse radiation model for sloping surfaces: description, performance validation, site dependency evaluation. Solar Energy 36:481–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Perez R, Ineichen P, Seals R, Zelenka A (1990a) Making full use of the clearness index for parameterising hourly insolation conditions. Solar Energy 45:111–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Perez R, Ineichen P, Seals R, Michalsky J, Stewart R (1990b) Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from direct and global irradiance. Solar Energy 44:271–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Perez R, Seals R, Zelenka A, Ineichen P (1990c) Climatic evaluation of models that predict hourly direct irradiance from hourly global irradiance; prospects for performance improvements. Solar Energy 44:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Perez R, Seals R, Michealsky J (1993) An all-weather model for sky luminance distribution – a preliminary configuration and validation. Solar Energy 50:235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Perez R, Ineichen P, Moore K, Kmiecik M, Chain C, George R, Vignola F (2002) A new operational satellite-to-irradiance model. Solar Energy 75:307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Prescott JA (1940) Evaporation from water surface in relation to solar radiation. Trans Roy Soc 54:114–118Google Scholar
  45. Rawlins F, Readings CJ (1986) The shade ring correction for measurements of diffuse irradiance under clear skies. Solar Energy 37:407–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reddy TA, Kumar S, Saunier GY (1985) Review of solar radiation analysis techniques for predicting long-term thermal collector performance – applicability to Bangkok data. Renew Energy Review J 7:56–80Google Scholar
  47. Reddy SJ (1987) The estimation of global solar radiation and evaporation through precipitation. Solar Energy 38:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Robinson N, Stoch L (1964) Sky radiation measurements and correction. J Appl Meteorol 3:179–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Robledo L, Soler A (2001) On the luminous efficiency of diffuse solar radiation. Energy Convers Manage 42:1181–1190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sharp K (1981) Sun angles and shading analysis for surfaces at any tilt or azimuth. In: Proceedings of the 1981 annual meeting, AS/ISESGoogle Scholar
  51. Sharp K (1982) Calculation of monthly average insolation on a shaded surface at any tilt and azimuth. Solar Energy 28:531–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Spencer DW, Oettinger BS, Stewart R (1982) Diffuse band correction factors for short time intervals. Progress in solar energy. In: Proceedings annual general meeting of the American Solar Energy Society, pp 1253–1257Google Scholar
  53. Steven MD, Unsworth MH (1980) Shade-ring corrections for pyranometer measurements of diffuse solar radiation from cloudless skies. Quart J Royal Meteorol Soc 106:865–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stine WB, Harrigan RW (1985) Solar energy fundamentals and design. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Temps RC, Coulson KL (1977) Solar radiation incident upon slopes of different orientations. Solar Energy 19:179–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Theilacker JC, Klein SA (1980) Improvements in the utilizability relationships. American Section of the international solar energy society. Proceedings, Phoenix, pp 271–275Google Scholar
  57. Trewarthu GT, Horn LH (1980) An introduction to climate, 5th edn. McGrew-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Van den Brink GJ (1982) Climatology of solar irradiance on inclined surfaces IV- part II. Validation of calculation models, Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI). Final report: EEC contract no ESF-006-80 NL (B)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Norton
    • 1
  1. 1.Dublin Institute of TechnologyDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations