Identifying Evacuees’ Demand of Tsunami Shelters Using Agent Based Simulation

Part of the Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research book series (NTHR, volume 35)


In plain areas prone to tsunami, finding a way to shelter and escape from the inundation becomes a difficult task for residents. The 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami has shown that the horizontal evacuation using cars can compromise the safety of people. Another alternative is the vertical evacuation. In many cases, not only the capacity of these shelters plays an important role, but the spatial distribution and the evacuee preference for the nearest shelter. Such preference and location creates a conflict between capacity offer and demand. In this paper, we used an agent based model to simulate the evacuation of pedestrians and cars in La Punta, Peru. Twenty designated buildings for vertical evacuation are available for sheltering and escape from tsunami. The stochastic simulation of population spatial distribution and their refuge preferences revealed the over demand of some shelters. Finally, a capacity-demand map was created to share results with local authorities as a first step for future countermeasures in the district.


Agent based model Evacuation simulation Tsunami evacuation building Tsunami simulation 



We would like to express our deep appreciation to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and JST-JICA (Peru) for the financial support throughout the study. Also, a special thanks to the authorities and residents in La Punta for their participation and insights.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Research Institute of Disaster ScienceTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil EngineeringNational University of EngineeringLimaPeru
  3. 3.Department of Urban Environment SystemsChiba UniversityChibaJapan
  4. 4.Japan Peru Center for Earthquake Engineering Research and Disaster MitigationNational University of EngineeringLimaPeru

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