MagViz: A Bottled Liquids Scanner Using Ultra-Low Field NMR Relaxometry

  • Robert Austin
  • Michelle Espy
  • Andrei Matlashov
  • Henrik Sandin
  • Larry Schultz
  • Algis Urbaitis
  • Petr Volegov
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics book series (NAPSB)

Abstract

Field Forensics, Inc. (FFI) has built a bottled liquids scanner utilizing ultra–low field NMR relaxometry. This device, called MagViz, is based upon a prototype developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) (Espy et al. Appl Supercond IEEE Trans 21(3):530, 2011; Espy et al. Supercond Sci Technol 23:034023. doi:10.1088/0953-2048/23/3/034023, 2010) [1, 2]. Despite using conventional Faraday detection coils in lieu of SQUIDs, MagViz, has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to identify a number of threat liquids of interest to the Department of Homeland Security (Matlashov et al. Appl Supercond IEEE Trans 21(3):465–468, 2011) [3]. By accurate measurement of T1 and T2, liquids contained in opaque bottles and even non-ferromagnetic metal containers can be reliably identified. Protons are aligned using a 50 mT pre-polarizing field. T1 is determined in the pre-polarizing field, and T2 relaxation time is typically measured at 2,048 Hz in a 48 μT field. The coil assembly is contained within a table-top 0.79 m tall magnetically shielded enclosure. Although primarily intended for commercial and security applications, MagViz, works at Larmor frequencies that correspond to timescales that are characteristic of a host of interesting, slow, molecular dynamic processes like diffusion and intramolecular motion as well as biological processes such as protein folding, catalysis, and ligand binding and could conceivably serve as a COTS research instrument for fundamental studies in these areas.

Keywords

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Signal Local Magnetic Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Liquid Explosive 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work presented here accomplished under the support of Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate under agreement HSHQPM12X00166. The authors would also like to personally thank Stephen Surko for his guidance at DHS, Valerie Lively and Paul Ruwaldt at TSL for helping with data collection, the support of LANL colleagues John Gomez, Shaun Newman, Mark Peters, Robert Sedillo, our FFI colleagues Al Guim, Mark Tesone, and special thanks to Lloyd Bastian for his expert electronics help.

LA-UR-12-24380Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

References

  1. 1.
    Espy M, Baguisa S, Dunkerley D, Magnelind P, Matlashov A, Owens T, Sandin H, Savukov I, Schultz L, Urbaitis A, Volegov P (2011) Progress on detection of liquid explosives using ultra-low field MRI. Appl Supercond IEEE Trans 21(3):530ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Espy M, Flynn M, Gomez J, Hanson C, Kraus R, Magnelind P, Maskaly K, Matlashov A, Newman S, Owens T, Peters M, Sandin H, Savukov I, Schultz L, Urbaitis A, Volegov P, Zotev V (2010) Ultra-low-field MRI for the detection of liquid explosives. Supercond Sci Technol 23:034023. doi: 10.1088/0953-2048/23/3/034023 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Matlashov A, Schultz L, Espy M, Kraus R, Savukov I et al (2011) SQUIDs vs. induction coils for ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance: experimental and simulation comparison. Appl Supercond IEEE Trans 21(3):465–468ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    2006 transatlantic aircraft plot. (n.d.) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_transatlantic_aircraft_plot, Accessed January 2013
  5. 5.
    Smith’s HI-SCAN 6040aTiX. 64 Clarendon Road, Watford, Herts WD17 1DA, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thomas S, Joly G, Swager T (2007) Chemical sensors based on amplifying fluorescent conjugated polymers. Chem Rev 107:1339–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Caygill J et al (2012) Current trends in explosive detection techniques. Talanta 88:14–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moore D, Scharff R (2009) Portable Raman explosives detection. Anal Bioanal Chem 393:1571–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hargreaves M, Matousek P (2009) Threat detection of liquid explosive precursor mixtures by Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS). In: Lewis C (ed) Optics and photonics for counterterrorism and crime fighting V, vol 7486, Proceedings of the SPIE. SPIE, Berlin, p 74860BCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    CEIA USA Ltd (n.d.) EMa series bottle and liquid scanner. http://www.ceia.net/security/pdf/EMAbrochureUS.pdf, Accessed January 2013
  11. 11.
    Joyce D, Gibson G, Radley I, Senior M Method for the identification of materials in a container. http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2012/0116691.html, Accessed January 2013
  12. 12.
    Fraissard J, Lapina O (eds) (2009) Explosives detection using magnetic and nuclear resonance techniques, NATO science for peace and security series B: physics and biophysics. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gudmundson E, Jakobsson A, Poplett I, Smith J (2009) In: IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Taipei, 1924 April 2009Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kimmic R, Anoardo E (2004) Field-cycling NMR relaxometry. Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc 44:257–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bene G (1980) Nuclear magnetism of liquid systems in the earth field-range. Phys Rep 58:213–267ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Panservic, 847 Pinecone Drive, Scotts Valley, CA 95066Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Research Electronics Development, Inc. 20 Maple Avenue, East Setauket, NY 11733, USAGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    AE Techron, Inc., 2507 Warren St., Elkhart, IN 46516 USAGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Analog-S, 608 Roxboro Rd, Oxford, NC 26565Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Austin
    • 1
  • Michelle Espy
    • 2
  • Andrei Matlashov
    • 2
  • Henrik Sandin
    • 2
  • Larry Schultz
    • 2
  • Algis Urbaitis
    • 2
  • Petr Volegov
    • 2
  1. 1.Field Forensics, Inc.Saint PetersburgUSA
  2. 2.Los Alamos National LaboratoryPhysics DivisionLos AlamosUSA

Personalised recommendations