Bottled Liquid Scanner for Security Checkpoints

  • Pablo J. Prado
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics book series (NAPSB)


Sealed bottles of any opacity are automatically inspected for hazardous liquids in seconds using a novel Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method. Liquid explosives and explosive precursors such as hydrogen peroxide are detected using a multi-element Nuclear Magnetic Resonance protocol, solving the shortcomings of optical techniques. The Bottled Liquid Scanner is capable of inspecting multiple bottles in a single scan with unprecedented low false alarm rates, ensuring minimal or no disruption at security checkpoints.


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Parameter Liquid Explosive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Instrument 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author would like to thank Robert Lown for his valuable help designing and building a compact magnet to screen full-sized bottles, to James Chepin and Nikolay Rusakov for their critical contribution to the development of the NMR system and to the implementation of measurement protocols, to Shouqin Huo for his help with data collection and analysis, and to Sankaran Kumar and Lowell Burnett for valuable discussions and their continuous encouragement.

The author would also like to thank the organizing committee of the MRDE 2013 meeting in Izmir, Turley, particularly to Tomaz Apih and Bulat Rameev.


  1. 1.
    Burnett LJ (1993) Liquid explosives detection. Proc SPIE 2092:208–217ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carr HY, Purcell EM (1954) Effects of diffusion on free precession in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Phys Rev 94:630–638ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eliasson C, Macleod NA, Matousek P (2008) Non-invasive detection of powders concealed within diffusely scattering plastic containers. Vib Spectrosc 48:8–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Espy M, Baguisa S, Dunkerley D, Magnelind PE, Matlashov AN, Owens T, Sandin HH, Savukov IM, Schultz LJ, Urbaitis AV, Volegov PL (2011) Progress on detection of liquid explosives using ultra-low field MRI. IEEE Trans Appl Supercond 21:530–533ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gudmundson E, Jakobsson A, Poplett I, Smith J (2009) Detection and classification of liquid explosives using NMR. In: Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE international conference on acoustics, speech, and signal processing, Taipei, pp 3053–3056Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Itozaki H, Miyamura R, Sato-Akaba H (2012) Detection of bottled liquid explosives by near infrared. Proc SPIE 8546:85460EADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kumar S, McMichael WC, Kim Y-W, Sheldon A, Magnuson EE, Ficke L, Chhoa TK-L, Moeller CR, Barrall GA, Burnett LJ, Czipott PV, Pence JS, Skvoretz DC (1997) Screening sealed bottles for liquid explosives. In: Proceedings of the SPIE conference on security systems and nonlethal technologies for law enforcement, Boston, vol 2934, pp 126–137Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kumar S, McMichael WC, Magnuson EE, Lee YK, Moeller CR, Czipott PV, Rayner TJ, Newman DE, Wroblewski D (2001) Liquid contents verification for explosives, chemical agents, and dissolved narcotics. In: Proceedings of the SPIE conference on enabling technologies for law enforcement and security, Boston, vol 4232, pp 206–216Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Loeffen PW, Maskall G, Bonthron S, Bloomfield M, Tombling C, Matousek P (2011) Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) for liquid screening. Proc SPIE 8018:80181E-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mauler J, Danieli E, Casanova F, Blumich B (2009) Identification of liquids encountered in carry-on-luggage by mobile NMR. In: Fraissard J, Lapina O (eds) Proceedings of the NATO advanced research workshop on explosives detection using magnetic and nuclear resonance techniques, St. Petersburg, Russia, 7–9 July 2008, NATO science for peace and security series B: physics and biophysics. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meiboom S, Gill D (1958) Modified spin-echo method for measuring nuclear relaxation times. Rev Sci Instrum 29:688–691ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Prado PJ, Mastikhin I, Karlsson MT (2012) Rapid method to screen unopened bottles to detect concealed drugs. J Appl Nucl Magn Reson 43(4):531–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sato-Akaba H, Itozaki H (2012) Development of the earth’s field NMR spectrometer for liquid screening. Appl Magn Reson 43(4):579–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.One Resonance Sensors, LLCSan DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations