Advertisement

Foster Care and Child Well-Being: A Promise Whose Time Has Come

  • Heather N. TaussigEmail author
  • Tali Raviv
Chapter
Part of the Child Maltreatment book series (MALT, volume 2)

Abstract

Children in foster care, and those who have emancipated from care, experience high rates of cognitive, academic, physical, social, emotional and behavior problems and are more likely to experience negative outcomes. The federal Administration on Children, Youth and Families recently called for increased attention to child well-being outcomes, expanding the focus beyond the traditional child welfare outcomes of safety and permanency. Adopting a child well-being framework, this chapter aims to briefly review the history of foster care in the US, review the efficacy of programs designed to promote well-being for youth in foster care, discuss the challenges of adapting existing evidence-based programs for this population, and finally review some adaptations of evidence-based programming for youth in foster care. We conclude that although there have been some programs that have demonstrated efficacy in improving social, emotional, and behavioral well-being in maltreated children and adolescents in foster care, there are not nearly enough evidence-based interventions to meet the significant needs of these youth and their families.

Keywords

Child Welfare Foster Care Foster Parent Child Welfare System Foster Child 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children, Youth and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (ACYF). (2012). Information memorandum: Promoting social and emotional well-being for children and youth receiving child welfare services (ACYF-CB-IM-12-04). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Ahrens, K. R., Richardson, L. P., Courtney, M. E., McCarty, C., Simoni, J., & Katon, W. (2010). Laboratory-diagnosed sexually transmitted infections in former foster youth compared with peers. Pediatrics, 126(1), e97–e103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (text rev) (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Bellamy, J. L., Gopalan, G., & Traube, D. E. (2010). A national study of the impact of outpatient mental health services for children in long-term foster care. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15(4), 467–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bess, R., Andrews, C., Jantz, A., Russell, V., & Geen, R. (2002). The cost of protecting vulnerable children III: What factors affect states’ decisions (No. 61). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  6. Blumberg, E., Landsverk, J., Ellis-MacLeod, E., Ganger, W., & Culver, S. (1996). Use of the public mental health system by children in foster care: Client characteristics and service use patterns. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 23(4), 389–405.Google Scholar
  7. Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Wagner, H. R., Barth, R. P., Kolko, D. J., Campbell, Y., & Landsverk, J. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youth involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(8), 960–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bywater, T., Hutchings, J., Linck, P., Whitaker, C., Daley, D., Yeo, S. T., & Edwards, R. T. (2010). Incredible years parent training support for foster carers in Wales: A multi-centre feasibility study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(2), 233–243.Google Scholar
  9. California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse. (2012). Retrieved from www.cebc4cw.org
  10. Chaffin, J., Silovsky, J., Funderburk, B., Valle, L., Brestan, E., Balachova, T., Jackson, S., et al. (2004). Parent-child interaction therapy with physically abusive parents. Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 491–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. (1998). Comparison of two community alternatives to incarceration for chronic juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(4), 624–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chamberlain, P., Price, J., Leve, L. D., Laurent, H., Landsverk, J., & Reid, J. B. (2008). Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: Outcomes and mediation effects. Prevention Science, 9(1), 17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Child Welfare Information Gateway, Children’s Bureau/Administration for Children, Youth and Families. (2012). Major federal legislation concerned with child protection, child welfare and adoption [Fact sheet]. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  14. Clark, H. B., Prange, M. E., Lee, B., Boyd, L. A., McDonald, B. A., & Stewart, E. S. (1994). Improving adjustment outcomes for foster children with emotional and behavioral disorders: Early findings from a controlled study on individual services. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2(4), 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clark, H. B., Prange, M. E., Lee, B., Stewart, E. S., McDonald, B. B., & Boyd, L. A. (1998). An individualized wraparound process for children in foster with emotional/behavioral disturbances: Follow-up findings and implications from a controlled study. In M. H. Epstein, K. Kutash, & A. Duchnowski (Eds.), Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families: Program and evaluation best practices (pp. 513–542). Austin: Pro Ed.Google Scholar
  16. Clausen, J. M., Landsverk, J., Ganger, W., Chadwick, D., & Litrownik, A. (1998). Mental health problems of children in foster care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 7(3), 283–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2006). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cook, A., Spinazzola, J., Ford, J., Lanktree, C., Blaustein, M., Cloitre, M., DeRosa, R., et al. (2005). Complex trauma in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 390–398.Google Scholar
  19. Courtney, M. E., & Barth, R. P. (1996). Pathways of older adolescents out of foster care: Implications for independent living services. Social Work, 41(1), 75–83.Google Scholar
  20. Courtney, M. E., & Dworsky, A. (2005). Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth: Outcomes at age 19. Chicago: Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  21. Courtney, M. E., & Dworsky, A. (2006). Early outcomes for young adults transitioning from out-of-home care in the U.S.A. Child and Family Social Work, 11, 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Courtney, M. E., & Heuring, D. H. (2005). The transition to adulthood for youth “aging out” of the foster care system. In D. W. Osgood, E. M. Foster, C. Flanagan, & G. R. Ruth (Eds.), On your own without a net: The transition to adulthood for vulnerable populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  23. Courtney, M., Piliavin, I., Grogan-Kaylor, A., & Nesmith, A. (2001). Foster youth in transitions to adulthood: A longitudinal view of youth leaving care. Child Welfare, 80(6), 685–717.Google Scholar
  24. Courtney, M. E., Terao, S., & Bost, N. (2004). Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth: Conditions of youth preparing to leave state care. Chicago: Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  25. Courtney, M. E., Dworsky, A., Cusick, G., Havlicek, J., Perez, A., & Keller, T. (2007). Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth: Outcomes at age 21. Chicago: Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  26. Courtney, M. E., Dworsky, A., Lee, J., & Raap, M. (2009). Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth: Outcomes at age 23 and 24. Chicago: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  27. Deblinger, E., Lippman, J., & Steer, R. (1996). Sexually abused children suffering posttraumatic stress symptoms: Initial treatment outcome findings. Child Maltreatment, 1(4), 310–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. DeRosa, R., Habib, M., Pelcovitz, D., Rathus, J., Sonnenklar, J., Ford, J., Sunday, S., et al. (2006). Structured psychotherapy for adolescents responding to stress [Brochure]. Manhasset.Google Scholar
  29. Donkoh, C., Underhill, K., & Montgomery, P. (2006). Independent living programmes for improving outcomes for young people leaving the care system. Children and Youth Services Review, 28(12), 1435–1448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. dosReis, S., Zito, J. M., Safer, D. J., & Soeken, K. L. (2001). Mental health services for foster care and disabled youth. American Journal of Public Health, 91(7), 1094–1099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lindhiem, O., Gordon, M. K., Manni, M., Sepulveda, S., Ackerman, J., et al. (2006). Developing evidence-based interventions for foster children: An example of a randomized clinical trial with infants and toddlers. Journal of Social Issues, 62(4), 767–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lewis, E., Laurenceau, J. P., & Levine, S. (2008). Effects of an attachment-based intervention on the cortisol production of infants and toddlers in foster care. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 845–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dozier, M., Lindhiem, O., Lewis, E., Bick, J., Bernard, K., & Peloso, E. (2009). Effects of a foster parent training program on young children’s attachment behaviors: Preliminary evidence from a randomized clinical trial. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26(4), 321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fisher, P. A., & Kim, H. K. (2007). Intervention effects on foster preschoolers’ attachment-related behaviors from a randomized trial. Prevention Science, 8(2), 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fisher, P. A., Burraston, B., & Pears, K. C. (2005). The early intervention foster care program: Permanent placement outcomes from a randomized trial. Child Maltreatment, 10(1), 61–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fisher, P. A., Stoolmiller, M., Gunnar, M. R., & Burraston, B. (2007). Effects of a therapeutic intervention for foster preschoolers on diurnal cortisol activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32(8–10), 892–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Garland, A. F., Landsverk, J. L., Hough, R. L., & Ellis-MacLeod, E. (1996). Type of maltreatment as a predictor of mental health service use for children in foster care. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 675–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garland, A. F., Hough, R. L., McCabe, K. M., Yeh, M. Y., Wood, P. A., & Aarons, G. A. (2001). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in youths across five sectors of care. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(4), 409–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ghera, M. M., Marshall, P. J., Fox, N. A., Zeanah, C. H., Nelson, C. A., Smyke, A. T., & Guthrie, D. (2009). The effects of foster care intervention on socially deprived institutionalized children’s attention and positive affect: Results from the BEIP study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(3), 246–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hacsi, T. (1995). From indenture to family foster care: A brief history of child placing. Child Welfare, 74(1), 162–180.Google Scholar
  42. Hadley, A. M., Mbwana, K., & Hair, E. C. (2010). What works for older youth during transition to adulthood: Lessons from experimental evaluations of programs and interventions (Report No. 2010-05). Washington, DC: Child Trends.Google Scholar
  43. Halfon, N., Berkowitz, G., & Klee, L. (1992). Mental health service utilization by children in foster care in California. Pediatrics, 89(6), 1238–1244.Google Scholar
  44. Halfon, N., Zepeda, A., & Inkelas, M. (2002). Mental health services for children in foster care. UCLA Center for Healthier Children, Families and Communities, 4(9), 1–13.Google Scholar
  45. Harman, J. S., Childs, G. D., & Kelleher, K. J. (2000). Mental health care utilization and expenditures by children in foster care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 154(11), 1114–1117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kempe, C. H., Silverman, F. N., Steele, B. F., Droegemueller, W., & Silver, H. K. (1962). The battered-child syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 181(1), 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kim, H. K., & Leve, L. D. (2011). Substance use and delinquency among middle school girls in foster care: A three-year-follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(6), 740–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Koverola, C., Murtaugh, C. A., Connors, K. M., Reeves, G., & Papas, M. A. (2007). Children exposed to intra-familial violence. Journal of Maltreatment and Trauma, 14(4), 19–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Landsverk, J., & Garland, A. (1998). Foster care and pathways to mental health services. In P. A. Curtis, G. Dale Jr., & J. C. Kendall (Eds.), The foster care crisis: Translating research into practice and policy (pp. 193–210). Nebraska: The University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  50. Leathers, S. J., Atkins, M. S., Spielfogel, J. E., McMeel, L. S., Wesley, J. M., & Davis, R. (2009). Context-specific mental health services for children in foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 1289–1297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leslie, L. K., Landsverk, J., Ezzet-Lofstrom, R., Tschann, J. M., Slymen, D., & Garland, A. F. (2000). Children in foster care: Factors influencing outpatient mental health service use. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(4), 465–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leslie, L. K., Hurlburt, M. S., Landsverk, J., Barth, R., & Slymen, D. J. (2004). Outpatient mental health services for children in foster care: A national perspective. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28(6), 697–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Letarte, M., Normandeau, S., & Allard, J. (2010). Effectiveness of a parent training program “Incredible Years” in a child protection service. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 253–261.Google Scholar
  54. Leve, L. D., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (2005). Intervention outcomes for girls referred from juvenile justice: Effects on delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(6), 1181–1185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leve, L. D., Fisher, P. A., & Chamberlain, P. (2009). Multidimensional treatment foster care as a preventive intervention to promote resilience among youth in the child welfare system. Journal of Personality, 77(6), 1869–1902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lewis-Morrarty, E., Dozier, M., Bernard, K., Terracciano, S. M., & Moore, S. V. (2012). Cognitive flexibility and theory of mind outcomes among foster children: Preschool follow-up results of a randomized clinical trial. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(2), S17–S22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lieberman, A. F., Van Horn, P., & Ippen, C. G. (2005). Toward evidence-based treatment: child-parent psychotherapy with preschoolers exposed to marital violence. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(12), 1241–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Linares, L. O., Montalto, D., Li, M., & Oza, V. S. (2006). A promising parenting intervention in foster care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 32–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lou, C., Anthony, E. K., Stone, S., Vu, C. M., & Austin, M. J. (2008). Assessing child and youth well-being: Implications for child welfare practice. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 5(1–2), 91–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. MacMillan, H. L., Thomas, B. H., Jamieson, E., Walsh, C. A., Boyle, M. H., Shannon, H. S., & Gafni, A. G. (2005). Effectiveness of home visitation by public-health nurses in prevention of the recurrence of child physical abuse and neglect: A randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 365(9473), 1786–1793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Maher, E. J., Jackson, L. V., Pecora, P. J., Schultz, D. J., Chandra, A., & Barnes-Proby, D. S. (2009). Overcoming challenges to implementing and evaluating evidence-based interventions in child welfare: A matter of necessity. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 555–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marshall, P. J., Reeb, B. C., Fox, N. A., Nelson, C. A., & Zeanah, C. H. (2012). Effects of early intervention on EEG power and coherence in previously institutionalized children in Romania. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 861–880.Google Scholar
  63. McCrae, J. S., Barth, R. P., & Guo, S. (2010). Changes in maltreated children’s emotional-behavioral problems following typically provided mental health services. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(3), 350–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McDonald, T. P., Allen, R. I., Westerfelt, A., & Piliavin, I. (1996). Assessing the long-term effects of foster care: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: CWLA Press.Google Scholar
  65. McKay, M. M., Hibbert, R., Hoagwood, K., Rodriguez, J., Murray, L., Legerski, J., & Fernandez, D. (2004). Integrating evidence-based engagement interventions into “real world” child mental health settings. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4(2), 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McMillen, J. C., Scott, L. D., Zima, B. T., Ollie, M. T., Munson, M. R., & Spitznagel, E. (2004). Use of mental health services among older youths in foster care. Psychiatric Services, 55(7), 811–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McNeil, C. B., Herschell, A. D., Gurwitch, R. H., & Clemens-Mowrer, L. (2005). Training foster parents in parent-child interaction therapy. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(2), 182–196.Google Scholar
  68. Murray, K. O., & Gesiriech, S. (2004). A brief legislative history of the child welfare system. Washington, DC: Pew Charitable Trust.Google Scholar
  69. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. (n.d.). Who are the children in foster care? Research brief, findings from the NSCAW study (NSCAW No. 1). Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/abuse_neglect/nscaw/reports/children_fostercare/childrefostercare.html
  70. Nelson, C. A., Zeanah, C. H., Fox, N. A., Marshall, P. J., Smyke, A. T., & Guthrie, D. (2007). Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. Science, 318(5858), 1937–1940.Google Scholar
  71. Price, J. M., Chamberlain, P., Landsverk, J., Reid, J. B., Leve, L. D., & Laurent, H. (2008). Effects of a foster parent training intervention on placement changes of children in foster care. Child Maltreatment, 13(1), 64–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Samuels, B. (2012). Looking to the future: An agenda for the Children’s Bureau’s next 100 years. 18th National conference on child abuse and neglect. Conference conducted at the Washington Hilton Hotel of Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  73. Smith, D. K., Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2011). Preventing internalizing and externalizing problems in girls in foster care as they enter middle school: Impact of an intervention. Prevention Science, 12(3), 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smyke, A. T., Zeanah, C. H., Fox, N. A., Nelson, C. A., & Guthrie, D. (2010). Placement in foster care enhances quality of attachment among young institutionalized children. Child Development, 81(1), 212–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sprang, G. (2009). The efficacy of a relational treatment of maltreated children and their families. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 14(2), 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stewart, A., Dennison, S., & Waterson, E. (2002). Pathways from child maltreatment to juvenile offending. Trends and issues in crimes and criminal justice, 241. Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  77. Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Homish, D. L., & Wei, E. (2001). Maltreatment of boys and the development of disruptive and delinquent behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 13(4), 941–944.Google Scholar
  78. Tarren-Sweeney, M. (2010). It’s time to re-think mental health services for children in care, and those adopted from care. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 15(4), 613–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Taussig, H. N., & Culhane, S. E. (2005). Foster care as an intervention for abused and neglected children. In K. A. Kendall-Tackett & S. M. Giacomoni (Eds.), Child victimization: Maltreatment, bullying and dating violence, prevention and intervention (pp. 20:1–20:25). Kingston: Civic Research Institute.Google Scholar
  80. Taussig, H. N., & Culhane, S. E. (2010). Impact of a mentoring and skills group program on mental health outcomes for maltreated children in foster care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(8), 739–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Taussig, H. T., Culhane, S. E., & Hettleman, D. H. (2007). Fostering healthy futures: An innovative preventive intervention for preadolescent youth in out-of-home care. Child Welfare, 86(5), 113–131.Google Scholar
  82. Taussig, H. T., Culhane, S. E., Garrido, E., & Knudtson, M. D. (2012). RCT of a mentoring and skills group program: Placement and permanency outcomes for foster youth. Pediatrics, 130(1), e33–e39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thornberry, T. P., Huizinga, D., & Loeber, R. (2004). The causes and correlates studies: Findings and policy implications. Journal of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 9, 3–19. Reprinted in T. J. Bernard (ed.). (2006). Serious delinquency: An anthology (pp. 39–52). Los Angeles: Roxbury.Google Scholar
  84. Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., Zebell, N. M., & McGrath, J. M. (2005). Parent-child interaction therapy: Application to maltreating parent-child dyads. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 825–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., Herschell, A. D., McGrath, J. M., Zebell, N. M., Porter, A. L., & Vargas, E. C. (2006a). Parent-child interaction therapy: An application of empirically supported treatment to maltreated children in foster care. Child Welfare League of America, 85(6), 919–939.Google Scholar
  86. Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., & Zebell, N. M. (2006b). Challenging foster caregiver-maltreated child relationships: The effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy. Children and Youth Services Review, 28, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Trowell, J., Kolvin, I., Weeramanthri, T., Sadowski, H., Berelowitz, M., Glasser, D., & Leitch, I. (2002). Psychotherapy for sexually abused girls: Psychopathological outcome findings and patterns of change. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 234–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration for Children, Youth, and Families. (2012). AFCARS data: Trends in foster care and adoptionFY 2002-FY 2011. www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb
  89. Webster-Stratton, C. (1984). Randomized trial of two parent-training programs for families with conduct-disordered children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(4), 666–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Weiner, D. A., Schneider, A., & Lyons, J. S. (2009). Evidence-based treatments for trauma among culturally-diverse foster care youth: Treatment retention and outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(11), 1199–1205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Widom, C. S. (1991). The role of placement experiences in mediating the criminal consequences of early childhood victimization. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6(2), 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Widom, C. S., & Maxfield, M. G. (1996). A prospective examination of risk for violence among abused and neglected children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 794, 224–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wiebush, R., Frietag, R., & Baird, C. (2001). Preventing delinquency through improved child protection services. OJJDP Bulletin. Available at: http://www.ojjdp.gov/publications/PubAbstract.asp?pubi=187759
  94. Zeanah, C. H., Egger, H. L., Smyke, A. T., Nelson, C. A., Fox, C. A., Marshall, P. J., & Guthrie, D. (2009). Institutional rearing and psychiatric disorders in Romanian preschool children. Journal of American Psychiatry, 166, 777–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zetlin, A., Weinberg, L., & Kimm, C. (2004). Improving education outcomes for children in foster care: Intervention by an education liaison. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 9(4), 421–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kempe Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and NeglectUniversity of Colorado School of Medicine, The Gary Pavilion at Children’s Hospital ColoradoAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of ChicagoNorthwestern University, Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations