Skip to main content

Psychosocial Consequences and Treatments for Maltreated Children

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Handbook of Child Maltreatment

Part of the book series: Child Maltreatment ((MALT,volume 2))

Abstract

Research shows that child abuse and neglect and exposure to trauma in childhood is highly prevalent and can result in developmental disruption, significant psychosocial, behavioral, and physical health problems, as well as cognitive deficits in children. Abused children have higher levels of involvement in the child welfare system and many of the children in need of mental health services do not receive services. When mental health services are received, the majority of children do not receive high-quality, effective mental health treatment that is matched to their specific needs. Fortunately, effective treatments exist for abused and trauma-exposed children that address both the consequences of abuse and trauma and the causes of abuse and neglect. Evidence-based treatments (EBT) are now recommended standard of care. EBTs are intervention programs specific to the clinical target for which they have been shown to work, proven to have overall better results compared to non-specific or alternative interventions. This chapter will discuss evidence-based mental health intervention approaches for the primary targets of externalizing and internalizing problems focusing on treatments for child behavior problems (e.g., child oppositionality, defiance, and aggression, parenting behaviors (e.g., emotionally and physically harsh, coercive, abusive, and/or neglectful), and child psychological distress(i.e., posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression). Increasing availability of these interventions within the child welfare system through proactive brokering for access to these interventions is emphasized. An “evidence-based service planning” (EBSP) approach is described to promote connecting families with relevant services, tracking their response and outcomes, and optimally prescribing a service or set of services designed to benefit children and families.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 219.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997 (PL 105-89, Nov. 19, 1997). (1997). United States Statutes at Large 105.

    Google Scholar 

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • Angold, A., Prendergast, M., Cox, A., Harrington, R., Simonoff, E., & Rutter, M. (1995). The child and adolescent psychiatric assessment (CAPA). Psychological Medicine, 25, 739–753.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beers, S. R., & De Bellis, M. D. (2002). Neuropsychological function in children with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 483–486.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bernard, K., Dozier, M., Bick, J., Lewis-Morrarty, E., Lindheim, O., & Carlson, E. (2012). Enhancing attachment organization among maltreated children: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Child Development, 83(2), 623–636.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bickman, L., Kelley, S. D., Breda, C., Regina de Andrade, A., & Riemer, M. (2011). Effects of routine feedback to clinicians on mental health outcomes of youths: Results of a randomized trial. Psychiatric Services, 62(12), 1423–1429.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Birmaher, B., Khetarpal, S., Brent, D., Cully, M., Balach, L., Kaufman, J., & Neer, S. M. (1997). The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): Scale construction and psychometric characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(4), 545–553.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59, 20–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bonanno, G. A., Brewin, C. R., Kaniasty, K., & La Greca, A. M. (2010). Weighing the costs of disaster: Consequences, risks, and resilience in individuals, families, and communities. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 11(1), 1–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bonanno, G. A., Westphal, M., & Mancini, A. D. (2011). Resilience to loss and potential trauma. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 511–535.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brestan, E. V., & Eyberg, S. M. (1998). Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(2), 180–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burns, B. J., Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Tweed, D., Stangl, D., Farmer, E. M., & Erkanli, A. (1995). Children’s mental health service use across service sectors. Health Affairs, 14(3), 147–159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Wagner, H. R., Barth, R. P., Kolko, D. J., Campbell, Y., & Landsverk, J. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(8), 960–970.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carpentier, M. Y., Silovsky, J. F., & Chaffin, M. (2006). Randomized trial of treatment for children with sexual behavior problems: Ten-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(3), 482.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Casanueva, C., Smith, K., Dolan, M., Tueller, S., & Lloyd, S. (2012). NSCAW II wave 2 report: Child safety (OPRE Rep. #2013–07). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chadwick Center for Children and Families. (2004). Closing the quality chasm in child abuse treatment: Identifying and disseminating best practices. The findings of the Kauffman Best Practices Project to help children heal from child abuse. San Diego: Children’s Hospital–San Diego.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chaffin, M., Berliner, L., Block, R., Johnson, T. C., Friedrich, W. N., Louis, D. G., & Madden, C. (2008). Report of the ATSA task force on children with sexual behavior problems. Child Maltreatment, 13(2), 199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chaffin, M., & Friedrich, B. (2004). Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect. Children and Youth Services Review, 26(11), 1097–1113.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chaffin, M., Funderburk, B., Bard, D., Valle, L. A., & Gurwitch, R. (2011). A combined motivation and parent–child interaction therapy package reduces child welfare recidivism in a randomized dismantling field trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(1), 84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chaffin, M., Silovsky, J. F., Funderburk, B., Valle, L. A., Brestan, E. V., Balachova, T., Jackson, S., Lensgraf, J., & Bonner, B. L. (2004). Parent-child interaction therapy with physically abusive parents: Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(3), 500–510.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen, L. P., Murad, M. H., Paras, M. L., Colbenson, K. M., Sattler, A. L., Goranson, E. N., Elamin, M. B., Seime, R. J., Shinozaki, G., Prokop, L. J., & Zirakzadeh, A. (2010). Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85(7), 618–629.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cisler, J. M., Begle, A. M., Amstadter, A. B., Resnick, H. S., Kmett Danielson, C., Saunders, B. E., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2012). Exposure to interpersonal violence and risk for PTSD, depression, delinquency, and binge drinking among adolescents: Data from NSA-R. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 33–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, J. A., Berliner, L., & Mannarino, A. (2010). Trauma focused CBT for children with co-occurring trauma and behavior problems. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(4), 215–224.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2006a). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A., Murray, L. K., & Igelman, R. (2006b). Psychosocial interventions for maltreated and violence-exposed children. Journal of Social Issues, 62(4), 737–766.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Iyengar, S. (2011). Community treatment of post traumatic stress disorder for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 165(1), 16–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Kliethermes, M., & Murray, L. A. (2012). Trauma-focused CBT for youth with complex trauma. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36(6), 528–541.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Copeland, W. E., Keeler, G., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2007). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(5), 577–584.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Currie, J., & Widom, C. S. (2010). Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect on adult economic well-being. Child Maltreatment, 15(2), 111–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delany-Black, V., Covington, C., Ondersma, S., Nordstrom-Klee, B., Templin, T., Ager, J., Janisse, J., & Sokol, R. J. (2002). Violence exposure, trauma, and IQ and/or reading deficits among urban children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescents Medicine, 156(3), 280–285.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dorsey, S., & Deblinger, E. (2012). Children in foster care. Trauma-focused CBT for children and adolescents: Treatment applications (pp. 49–72). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dorsey, S., Kerns, S. E., Trupin, E. W., Conover, K. L., & Berliner, L. (2012). Child welfare caseworkers as service brokers for youth in foster care findings from project focus. Child Maltreatment, 17(1), 22–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dozier, M., Lindhiem, O., & Ackerman, J. P. (2005). Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up: An intervention targeting empirically identified needs of foster infants. In L. J. Berlin, Y. Ziv, L. Amaya-Jackson, & M. T. Greenberg (Eds.), Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up: An intervention targeting empirically identified needs of foster infants. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eyberg, S. M., Nelson, M. M., & Boggs, S. R. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with disruptive behavior. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), 215–237.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Koss, M. P., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Finkelhor, D., Hamby, S. L., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2009). Violence, abuse, & crime exposure in a national sample of children & youth. Pediatrics, 24(5), 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finkelhor, D., & Jones, L. M. (2004). Explanations for the decline in child sexual abuse cases (Juvenile Justice Bulletin No. NC199298). Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, P. A., Kim, H. K., & Pears, K. C. (2009). Effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) on reducing permanent placement failures among children with placement instability. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(5), 541–546.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Foa, E. B., Johnson, K., Feeny, N. C., & Treadwell, K. R. T. (2001). The child PTSD symptom scale (CPSS): Preliminary psychometrics of a measure for children with PTSD. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 376–384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ford, J. D., Chapman, J. F., Hawke, J., & Albert, D. (2007). Trauma among youth in the juvenile justice system: Critical issues and new directions (p. 8). New York: National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice.

    Google Scholar 

  • Forgatch, M. S., Patterson, G. R., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2005). Evaluating fidelity: Predictive validity for a measure of competent adherence to the Oregon model of parent management training. Behavior Therapy, 36(1), 3–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gardner, W., Lucas, A., Kolko, D., & Campo, J. (2007). Comparison of the PSC-17 and alternative mental health screens in an at-risk primary care sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(5), 611–618.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581–586.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grogger, J. (1997). Local violence and educational attainment. Journal of Human Resources, 32, 659–682.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hamby, S. L., Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., & Turner, H. (2005). The juvenile victimization questionnaire: Reliability, validity, and national norms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 383–412.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horwitz, S. C., Chamberlain, P., Landsverk, J., & Mullican, C. (2010). Improving the mental health of children in child welfare through the implementation of evidence-based parenting interventions. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 37(1–2), 27–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horwitz, S. M., Hurlburt, M. S., Goldhaber-Fiebert, J. D., Heneghan, A. M., Zhang, J., Rolls-Reutz, J., Fisher, E., Landsverk, J., & Stein, R. E. (2012). Mental health services use by children investigated by child welfare agencies. Pediatrics, 130(5), 861–869.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hovens, J. G. F. M., Wiersma, J. E., Giltay, E. J., Van Oppen, P., Spinhoven, P., Penninx, B. W. J. H., & Zitman, F. G. (2010). Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 122(1), 66–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hurt, H., Malmud, E., Brodsky, N. L., & Giannetta, J. (2001). Exposure to violence: Psychological and academic correlates in child witnesses. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 155(12), 1351–1356.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • James, S., Landsverk, J., & Slymen, D. J. (2004). Placement movement in out-of-home care: Patterns and predictors. Children and Youth Services Review, 26(2), 185–206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaminski, J. W., Valle, L. A., Filene, J. H., & Boyle, C. L. (2008). A meta-analytic review of components associated with parent training program effectiveness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 567–589.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kazdin, A. E. (1997). Parent management training: Evidence, outcomes, and issues. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(10), 1349–1366.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kearney, C. A., Wechsler, A., Kaur, H., & Lemos-Miller, A. (2010). Posttraumatic stress disorder in maltreated youth: A review of contemporary research and thought. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13(1), 46–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kerker, B. D., & Dore, M. M. (2006). Mental health needs and treatment of foster youth: Barriers and opportunities. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(1), 138–147.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kerns, S. E. U., Dorsey, S., Trupin, E. W., & Berliner, L. (2010). Project focus: Promoting emotional health and wellbeing for youth in foster care through connections to evidence-based practices. Report on Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Youth, 10, 30–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kilpatrick, D. G., Saunders, B. E., & Smith, D. W. (2003). Youth victimization: Prevalence and implications. Retrieved from the U.S. Department of Justice National Institute of Justice website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/194972.pdf

  • Kolko, D. J. (1996a). Individual cognitive behavioral treatment and family therapy for physically abused children and their offending parents: A comparison of clinical outcomes. Child Maltreatment, 1(4), 322–342.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolko, D. J. (1996b). Clinical monitoring of treatment course in child physical abuse: Psychometric characteristics and treatment comparisons. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20(1), 23–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolko, D., & Swanson, C. C. (2002). Assessing and treating physically abused children and their families: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kolko, D. J., Brown, E. J., & Berliner, L. (2002). Children’s perceptions of their abusive experience: Measurement and preliminary findings. Child Maltreatment, 7, 41–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolko, D. J., Hoagwood, K. E., Springgate, B. (2010). Treatment research for children and youth exposed to traumatic events: Moving beyond efficacy to amp up public health impact. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(5), 465–476.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kolko, D. J., Iselin, A. M. R., & Gully, K. J. (2011). Evaluation of the sustainability and clinical outcome of alternatives for families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) in a child protection center. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35(2), 105–116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, R. L. (2002). The PHQ-9: A new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric Annals, 32(9), 509–515.

    Google Scholar 

  • Labellarte, M. J., Ginsburg, G. S., Walkup, J. T., & Riddle, M. A. (1999). The treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 46(11), 1567–1578.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Landsverk, J. A., Burns, B. J., Stambaugh, L. F., & Rolls Reutz, J. A. (2009). Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents in foster care: Review of research literature. Child Welfare, 88(1), 49–69.

    Google Scholar 

  • Landsverk, J., Davis, I., Ganger, W., Newton, R., & Johnson, I. (1996). Impact of child psychosocial functioning on reunification from out-of-home placement. Children and Youth Services Review, 18(4), 447–462.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leslie, L. K., Hulburt, M. S., Landsverk, J., Barth, R., & Slymen, D. J. (2004). Outpatient mental health services for children in foster care: A national perspective. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 697–712.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leslie, L. K., Hurlburt, M. S., James, S., Landsverk, J., Slymen, D. J., & Zhang, J. (2005). Relationship between entry into child welfare and mental health service use. Psychiatric Services, 56(8), 981–987.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lieberman, A. F., Van Horn, P., & Ippen, C. G. (2005). Toward evidence-based treatment: Child-parent psychotherapy with preschoolers exposed to marital violence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(12), 1241–1248.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Runyon, M. K., & Steer, R. A. (2012). Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for children sustained impact of treatment 6 and 12 months later. Child Maltreatment, 17(3), 231–241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2012). Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of U.S. adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(11), 1151–1161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. L. (2005). Helping the noncompliant child: Family-based treatment for oppositional behavior. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Child maltreatment 2011. Retrieved from Children’s Bureau website: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/cm11.pdf

  • Patterson, G. R. (1973). Changes in status of family members as controlling stimuli: A basis for describing treatment process (4th ed., Vol. 12). Eugene, OR: Oregon Research Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Price, J. M., Chamberlain, P., Landsverk, J., & Reid, J. (2009). KEEP foster‐parent training intervention: Model description and effectiveness. Child & Family Social Work, 14(2), 233–242.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pynoos, R. S., Steinberg, A. M., Schreiber, M. D., & Brymer, M. J. (2006). Children and families: A new framework for preparedness and response to danger, terrorism, and trauma. Psychological effects of catastrophic disasters: Group approaches to treatment (pp. 83–112). Binghamton: Hawthorn Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rakovshik, S. G., & McManus, F. (2010). Establishing evidence-based training in cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of current empirical findings and theoretical guidance. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(5), 496–516.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rubin, A. (2011). Teaching EBP in social work: Retrospective and prospective. Journal of Social Work, 11(1), 64–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ruggiero, K. J., Smith, D. W., Hanson, R. F., Resnick, H. S., Saunders, B. E., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Best, C. L. (2004). Is disclosure of childhood rape associated with mental health outcome? Results from the National Women’s Study. Child Maltreatment, 9(1), 62–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Runyon, M. K., Deblinger, D., & Steer, R. (2010). Comparison of combined parent-child and parent-only cognitive-behavioral treatments for offending parents and children in cases of child physical abuse. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 32, 196–218.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanders, M. R. (2008). Triple P-Positive Parenting Program as a public health approach to strengthening parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 506–517.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saunders, B. E. (2011). Determining best practice for treating sexually victimized children. In P. Goodyear-Brown (Ed.), Handbook of child sexual abuse: Identification, assessment, and treatment (pp. 171–197). Hoboken: Wiley.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Scaramella, L. V., & Leve, L. D. (2004). Clarifying parent-child reciprocities during early childhood: The Early Childhood Coercion model. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7(2), 89–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scheeringa, M. S., & Haslett, N. (2010). The reliability and criterion validity of the diagnostic infant and preschool assessment: A new diagnostic instrument for young children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(3), 299–312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snyder, J., Cramer, A., Afrank, J., & Patterson, G. R. (2005). The contributions of ineffective discipline and parental hostile attributions of child misbehavior to the development of conduct problems at home and school. Developmental Psychology, 41(1), 30–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spieker, S. J., Oxford, M. L., Kelly, J. F., Nelson, E. M., & Fleming, C. B. (2012). Promoting first relationships: Randomized trial of a relationship-based intervention for toddlers in child welfare. Sage Journals, 17, 271–286.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stahmer, A. C., Leslie, L. K., Hurlburt, M., Barth, R. P., Webb, M. B., Landsverk, J., & Zhang, J. (2005). Developmental and behavioral needs and service use for young children in child welfare. Pediatrics, 116(4), 891–900.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stevens, T., Ruggiero, K., Kilpatrick, D., Resnick, H., & Saunders, B. (2005). Variables differentiating singly and multiply victimized youth: Results from the national survey of adolescents and implications for secondary prevention. Child Maltreatment, 10, 211–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stiffman, A. R., Pescosolido, B., & Cabassa, L. J. (2004). Building a model to understand youth service access: The Gateway Provider model. Mental Health Services Research, 6(4), 189–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Swenson, C. C., Schaeffer, C. M., Henggeler, S. W., Faldowski, R., & Mayhew, A. M. (2010). Multisystemic therapy for child abuse and neglect: A randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(4), 497–507.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thyer, B. A., & Myers, L. L. (2011). The quest for evidence-based practice: A view from the United States. Journal of Social Work, 11(1), 8–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., Herschell, A. D., McGrath, J. M., & Zebell, N. M. (2006). Parent-child interaction therapy: Application of an empirically supported treatment to maltreated children in foster care. Journal of Policy, Practice and Program, 85(6), 919–939.

    Google Scholar 

  • Timmer, S. G., Urquiza, A. J., Zebell, N. M., & McGrath, J. M. (2005). Parent-child interaction therapy: Application to maltreating parent-child dyads. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(7), 825–842.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Turner, H. A., Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2010). Poly-victimization in a national sample of children and youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38(3), 323–330.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau. (2010). Child maltreatment. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/index.htm#can

  • Urquiza, A. J., & McNeil, C. B. (1996). Parent-child interaction therapy: An intensive dyadic intervention for physically abusive families. Child Maltreatment, 1(2), 134–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Eys, P., & Truss, A. (2011). Comprehensive and therapeutic assessment of child sexual abuse: A bridge to treatment. In P. Goodyear-Brown (Ed.), Handbook of child sexual abuse (1st ed., pp. 2011–2143). Hoboken: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP). (2012). Inventory of evidence-based, research-based, and promising practices. Retrieved from Washington State Institute for Public Policy and University of Washington Evidence-based Practice Institute website: www.wsipp.wa.gov

  • Webster-Stratton, C. (1992). The incredible years. Seattle [citerad dec. 2007]. http://www.incredibleyears.com

  • Weersing, V. R., & Brent, D. A. (2006). Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression in youth. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15(4), 939–957.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wegman, H. L., & Stetler, C. (2009). A meta-analytic review of the effects of childhood abuse on medical outcomes in adulthood. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(8), 805–812.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weich, S., Patterson, J., Shaw, R., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2009). Family relationships in childhood and common psychiatric disorders in later life: Systematic review of prospective studies. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(5), 392–398.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weisz, J. R., & Kazdin, A. E. (2010). Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolfe, D. A., Edwards, B., Manion, I., & Koverola, C. (1988). Early intervention for parents at risk of child abuse and neglect: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(1), 40–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Monica M. Fitzgerald Ph.D. .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Fitzgerald, M.M., Berliner, L. (2014). Psychosocial Consequences and Treatments for Maltreated Children. In: Korbin, J., Krugman, R. (eds) Handbook of Child Maltreatment. Child Maltreatment, vol 2. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7208-3_20

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics