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Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Prostate Cancer

  • Renato Franco
  • Paolo Chieffi
  • Sisto Perdonà
  • Gaetano Facchini
  • Michele Caraglia
Chapter

Abstract

Neuroendocrine differentiation (ND) is widely observed in prostate cancer (PC). Its role in clinical practice is controversial, but preclinical and clinical evidences underline the association of ND with poor prognosis in PC patients. Neuroendocrine (NE) cells could condition the PC progression, mainly stimulating the PC exocrine neoplastic cells proliferation through the production of paracrine growth factors. Thus, the castrated adapted neoplastic cells are favored to outgrowth through an androgen receptor independent mechanism. Moreover proportion of NE cells in PC increases because of tumor treatment, mainly androgen deprivation therapy, enormously amplifying the promotion of the PC exocrine component growth stimulated by neuroendocrine paracrine growth factors.

This chapter provides an overview of the most relevant clinical studies demonstrating a significant correlation between ND and PC behavior, indicating that ND could represent a prognostic parameter in PC, and strongly suggesting that NE cells in a castrate resistant patients could be targeted through specific treatment.

Keywords

Prostate Cancer Androgen Receptor Prostate Specific Antigen Androgen Deprivation Therapy Prostate Cancer Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ND

Neuroendocrine differentiation

NE

Neuroendocrine

PC

Prostate cancer

PSA

The prostate specific antigen

CGA

ChromograninA

NSE

Neuron-specific enolase

VIP

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

GRP

Bombesin/gastrin releasing peptide

aHCG

Alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin

PTHrP

Parathyroid hormonerelated protein

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

SCC

Small cell carcinomas

PIN

Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

AMACR

Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase

ADT

Androgen deprivation therapy

uPA

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator

PAI-1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

MMP

Metalloprotease

MDV

Microvascular density

MAPKs

Mitogen activated protein kinases

PKA

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

CDK

Cyclin-dependent kinase

CGB

Chromogranin B

CGC

Chromogranin C

ProGRP

Progastrin-releasing peptide

BPH

Prostatic hyperplasia

PS

Performance status

PET

Positron emission tomography

FDG

F18-fluorodeoxyglucose

DTPA

Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

DTX

Docetaxel

OS

Overall survival

TTP

Time to progression

DOTA

1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid

PTP

Protein tyrosine phosphatase

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renato Franco
    • 1
  • Paolo Chieffi
    • 2
  • Sisto Perdonà
    • 3
  • Gaetano Facchini
    • 3
  • Michele Caraglia
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory MedicineNational Institute of Tumors Fondazione “G. Pascale”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Experimental MedicinSecond University of NaplesNaplesItaly
  3. 3.Department of Urogynecologic OncologyNational Institute of Tumors Fondazione “G. Pascale”NaplesItaly
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry and BiophysicsSecond University of NaplesNaplesItaly

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