Evolution of Reproductive Patterns in Cheilostomata

  • Andrew (Andrey N.) Ostrovsky


This chapter contains an analysis of the main directions in the evolution of sexual reproduction in bryozoans – changes in modes of oogenesis and fertilization, the transition from planktotrophy to a non-feeding larva and its consequences, the origin of embryo incubation, and the repeated evolution of matrotrophy and placental analogues. The trends that emerge from this analysis are compared with reproductive analogues in the evolution of the bryozoan order Ctenostomata as well as other marine invertebrate groups (predominantly echinoderms, molluscs and polychaetes). The conditions under which the cheilostomes radiated in the Late Cretaceous are considered in detail, and the consequences of the transitions to new reproductive patterns are analyzed. It is suggested that a shift in oogenesis (reduction in egg number and increase in their size) and parental care can apparently evolve in Cheilostomata sequentially, with a short time lag: oogenesis becomes modified first, with the decrease in the number of offspring compensated soon after by the origin of brooding. Finally, the stages in the evolution of sexual reproduction in other bryozoan groups (classes Phylactolaemata and Stenolaemata) are reconstructed.


Brooding Evolution Fertilization Lecithotrophy Oogenesis Placentotrophy Planktotrophy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew (Andrey N.) Ostrovsky
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Saint Petersburg State UniversitySt PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.University of ViennaViennaAustria

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