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Cheilostome Brood Chambers: Structure, Formation, Evolution

  • Andrew (Andrey N.) Ostrovsky
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter focuses on brood-chamber structure and evolution in different cheilostome lineages. Following a review of the history of studies on brooding in the order Cheilostomata, different variants of brood-chamber structure and development are described, most for the first time. Their classification is developed and the terminology involved has been clarified. The data obtained show that cheilostome brooding evolved independently several times from modified mural spines, kenozooids, outgrowths of the zooid wall and fertilization envelopes. Accordingly, suborder Flustrina as currently conceived is considered polyphyletic. Major trends in the evolution of skeletal brood chambers (ovicells) are reconstructed using living and fossil taxa. The early evolution of conventional ovicells included curvature of the most proximal mural spines, their flattening, and reduction in number as well as loss of joints and fusion. Further changes were intimately connected with the evolution of complex frontal zooidal shields.

Keywords

Brood chambers Diversity Frontal shields Independent evolution Kenozooids Ovicells Spines 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew (Andrey N.) Ostrovsky
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Saint Petersburg State UniversitySt PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.University of ViennaViennaAustria

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