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Reproductive Patterns of Gymnolaemate Bryozoa: General Overview and Comparative Analysis

  • Andrew (Andrey N.) Ostrovsky
Chapter

Abstract

Chapter 1 is devoted to reproductive patterns in gymnolaemate bryozoans, especially oogenesis, fertilization and brooding in the order Cheilostomata. Following a brief review of the history of studies on cheilostome reproduction, the cell source, position and development of the gonads, sexual structure of colonies and fertilization are described, followed by a detailed description and comparative analysis of the five major reproductive patterns. Correlations are demonstrated between the type of oogenesis (oligolecithal vs macrolecithal), ovary structure and type of embryonic incubation (non-placental vs placental). Matrotrophy is far more common in Cheilostomata than previously realized, with placental analogues being associated with the various brood-chamber types. Both incipient and substantial matrotrophy have been recorded. Sexual polymorphism, precocious fertilization, nurse cells, coelomopores and oviposition are described from the literature and new data and their evolution is discussed.

Keywords

Embryonic incubation Evolution Fertilization Matrotrophy Oogenesis Sexual polymorphism 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew (Andrey N.) Ostrovsky
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Saint Petersburg State UniversitySt PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.University of ViennaViennaAustria

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