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Characterization of Underwater Silk Proteins from Caddisfly Larva, Stenopsyche marmorata

  • Kousaku OhkawaEmail author
  • Takaomi Nomura
  • Ryoichi Arai
  • Koji Abe
  • Masuhiro Tsukada
  • Kimio Hirabayashi
Chapter
Part of the Biologically-Inspired Systems book series (BISY, volume 5)

Abstract

The underwater silk threads of a caddisfly larva, Stenopsyche marmorata, is composed of four kinds of proteins, which are designated as Smsp-1 to -4. Smsp-1 has been purified in a electrophoretic homogeneity, and the peptide sequencing of the Smsp-1 tryptic digests indicated the presence of eight kinds of characteristic segments, most of which are enriched in Pro residues. The segments 3 and 4 are the 14-residue sequences of SLGPYGDXLGPYGG (X = G, D, or V) and GVGPYGDGLGPYGG, respectively. Partial molecular cloning of the Smsp-1-C-end region suggested that the hydrophobic segment 3,4-repeating moieties occupy mostly a half of the entire primary sequence of Smsp-1 gene. The segments 7 and 8 contain highly phosphorylated regions, where the Ser residues are exclusively modified in the cluster-like sequences as –(Xaa S) n – (Xaa = G, A, V, or I; S = O-phospho-L-serine; n = 3 or 4). The O-phosphorylation of Smsp-1 may switch the protein function as the fiber-forming components to the underwater cements for building the pupal case in the late 5th instar stage of the larvae.

Keywords

Caddisfly Stenopsyche marmorata Biochemical characterization Underwater silk Cement protein 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Global COE Program from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan (MEXT), and also by Grants-in-Aid No. 22350103, No. 23651083 for KO, No. 22510028 for KH, and No. 22580060 for MT from MEXT. Part of this study was performed through Program for Dissemination of Tenure-Track System funded by MEXT. Part of this study was supported by Japanese Association for Marine Biology (JAMBIO) No 23–73.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kousaku Ohkawa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takaomi Nomura
    • 2
  • Ryoichi Arai
    • 3
  • Koji Abe
    • 4
  • Masuhiro Tsukada
    • 3
  • Kimio Hirabayashi
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of High Polymer Research, Faculty of Textile Science and TechnologyShinshu UniversityUedaJapan
  2. 2.Bioscience and Biotechnology Course, Division of Applied Biology, Faculty of Textile Science and TechnologyShinshu UniversityUedaJapan
  3. 3.Bioresources and Environmental Science Course, Division of Applied Biology, Faculty of Textile Science and TechnologyShinshu UniversityUedaJapan
  4. 4.Functional Polymer Science Course, Division of Chemistry and Materials, Faculty of Textile Science and TechnologyShinshu UniversityUedaJapan

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