RC4 Stream Cipher with a Random Initial State

  • Maytham M. Hammood
  • Kenji Yoshigoe
  • Ali M. Sagheer
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 253)


Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) is one of the modern encryption techniques utilized in many real time security applications; however, it has several weaknesses including a correlation problem in the initially generated key sequences. In this paper, we propose RC4 stream cipher with a random initial state (RRC4) to solve the RC4’s correlation problem between the public known outputs of the internal state. RRC4 solves the weak keys problem of the RC4 using random initialization of internal state S. Experimental results show that the output streams generated by RRC4 are more random than that generated by RC4. Moreover, RRC4’s high resistivity protects against many attacks vulnerable to RC4 and solves several weaknesses of RC4 such as predictable first bytes of intermediate outputs by RC4.


Stream cipher Random number generator RC4 



This work is based in part, upon research supported by the National Science Foundation (under Grant Nos. CNS-0855248 and EPS-0918970). Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies or those of the employers.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maytham M. Hammood
    • 1
  • Kenji Yoshigoe
    • 2
  • Ali M. Sagheer
    • 3
  1. 1.Applied ScienceUniversity of ArkansasLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.Computer ScienceUniversity of ArkansasLittle RockUSA
  3. 3.College of ComputerUniversity of AnbarAnbarIraq

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