Advertisement

Physiological Ecology of Peatland Bryophytes

  • Tomáš Hájek
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 37)

Summary

Bryophytes, notably mosses of the genus Sphagnum, are significant and essential primary producers in peatlands. Peatland bryophytes face specific physical conditions; they are exposed to direct sunlight, but due to their permanent hydration they do not escape by drying as typical xeric bryophytes of open habitats. Being desiccation avoiders they are actually sensitive to drought. During photosynthesis, hydration increases the diffusion resistance to CO2, which can be supplied also from respiration in the underlying peat. The distance to the water table affects the degree of hydration, but also influences nutrient availability as mineral nutrients can be carried in capillary water. Consequently, gradients of nutrient and water availability are related in peatlands and their variation in addition to light maintains bryophyte species diversity in peatlands. Habitats with low stress intensity, typically forested peatlands and wet microhabitats of open bogs and fens, host mosses with competitive life strategies, characterized by high rates of photosynthesis, growth and production. In contrast, mosses inhabiting sun-exposed, nutrient poor microhabitats, typically hummocks, must cope with low water availability and photodamage. Their stress-tolerance/avoidance strategy is reflected by slow photosynthetic and growth rates, and allocation to water holding tissues.

In this chapter, I review the effects of ecologically relevant (stress) factors affecting photosynthesis and growth, especially in Sphagnum. Potential consequences of global climate change are also discussed. I mention how the non-uniform experimental conditions used in photosynthetic gas exchange measurements may affect the diffusion resistance to CO2 and consequent estimates of photosynthesis and evaporation. Suggestions for further research are proposed.

Keywords

Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density Capillary Water Sphagnum Moss Optimum Water Content Sphagnum Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations:

A

– photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (rate);

E

– evaporation rate;

Fv/Fm

– maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry;

NPQ

– non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence;

QY PSII –

quantum yield of PSII photochemistry;

PPFD –

photosynthetic photon flux density;

PSII –

photosystem II;

RETR –

relative electron transport rate;

RH –

relative air humidity;

WC

– water content

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to the editors for helpful comments and language correction. This work was supported by long-term research development project no. RVO 67985939 (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) and grant GAP505/10/0638 (The Czech Science Foundation).

References

  1. Abel WO (1956) Die Austrocknungsresistenz der Laubmoose. Sitzungsberichte. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abt. I 165:619–707Google Scholar
  2. Asada T, Warner BG, Banner A (2003) Growth of mosses in relation to climate factors in a hypermaritime coastal peatland in British Columbia, Canada. Bryologist 106:516–527Google Scholar
  3. Backéus I (1988) Weather variables as predictors of Sphagnum growth on a bog. Holarct Ecol 11:146–150Google Scholar
  4. Badger MR, von Caemmerer S, Ruuska S, Nakano H (2000) Electron flow to oxygen in higher plants and algae: rates and control of direct photoreduction (Mehler reaction) and Rubisco oxygenase. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:1433–1445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bain JT, Proctor MCF (1980) The requirement of aquatic bryophytes for free CO2 as an inorganic carbon source: some experimental evidence. New Phytol 86:393–400Google Scholar
  6. Bond-Lamberty B, Gower ST, Amiro B, Ewers BE (2011) Measurement and modeling of bryophyte evaporation in a boreal forest chronosequence. Ecohydrology 4:26–35Google Scholar
  7. Bonnett SAF, Ostle N, Freeman C (2010) Short-term effect of deep shade and enhanced nitrogen supply on Sphagnum capillifolium morphophysiology. Plant Ecol 207:347–358Google Scholar
  8. Bragazza L (2008) A climatic threshold triggers the die-off of peat mosses during an extreme heat wave. Glob Change Biol 14:2688–2695Google Scholar
  9. Bragazza L, Tahvanainen T, Kutnar L, Rydin H, Limpens J, Hájek M, Grosvernier P, Hájek T, Hájková P, Hansen I, Iacumin P, Gerdol R (2004) Nutritional constraints in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants under increasing atmospheric nitrogen depositions in Europe. New Phytol 163:609–616Google Scholar
  10. Britto DT, Kronzucker HJ (2002) NH4 + toxicity in higher plants: a critical review. J Plant Physiol 159:567–584Google Scholar
  11. Brock TCM, Bregman R (1989) Periodicity in growth, productivity, nutrient content and decomposition of Sphagnum recurvum var. mucronatum in a fen woodland. Oecologia 80:44–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bukhov NG, Heber U, Wiese C, Shuvalov VA (2001) Energy dissipation in photosynthesis: does the quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence originate from antenna complexes of photosystem II or from the reaction center? Planta 212:749–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Clymo RS (1973) The growth of Sphagnum: some effects of environment. J Ecol 61:849–869Google Scholar
  14. Clymo RS, Hayward PM (1982) The ecology of Sphagnum. In: Smith AJE (ed) Bryophyte ecology. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 229–289Google Scholar
  15. Dorrepaal E, Aerts R, Cornelissen JHC, Callaghan TV, van Logtestijn RSP (2003) Summer warming and increased winter snow cover affect Sphagnum fuscum growth, structure and production in a sub-arctic bog. Glob Change Biol 10:93–104Google Scholar
  16. Fritz C, van Dijk G, Smolders AJ, Pancotto VA, Elzenga TJ, Roelofs JG, Grootjans AP (2012) Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads. Plant Biol 14:491–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gaberščik A, Martinčič A (1987) Seasonal dynamics of net photosynthesis and productivity of Sphagnum papillosum. Lindbergia 13:105–110Google Scholar
  18. Gerdol R (1995) The growth dynamics of Sphagnum based on field measurements in a temperate bog and on laboratory cultures. J Ecol 83:431–437Google Scholar
  19. Gerdol R, Vicentini R (2011) Response to heat stress of populations of two Sphagnum species from alpine bogs at different altitudes. Environ Exp Bot 74:22–30Google Scholar
  20. Gerdol R, Bonora A, Poli F (1994) The vertical pattern of pigment concentrations in chloroplasts of Sphagnum capillifolium. Bryologist 97:158–161Google Scholar
  21. Gerdol R, Bonora A, Gualandri R, Pancaldi S (1996) CO2 exchange, photosynthetic pigment composition, and cell ultrastructure of Sphagnum mosses during dehydration and subsequent rehydration. Can J Bot 74:726–734Google Scholar
  22. Gerdol R, Bonora A, Marchesini R, Gualandri R, Pancaldi S (1998) Growth response of Sphagnum capillifolium to nighttime temperature and nutrient level: mechanisms and implications for global change. Arct Alp Res 30:388–395Google Scholar
  23. Granath G, Strengbom J, Breeuwer A, Heijmans MMPD, Berendse F, Rydin H (2009a) Photosynthetic performance in Sphagnum transplanted along a latitudinal nitrogen deposition gradient. Oecologia 159:705–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Granath G, Weidermann MM, Strengbom J (2009b) Physiological responses to nitrogen and sulphur addition and raised temperature in Sphagnum balticum. Oecologia 161:481–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Granath G, Strengbom J, Rydin H (2012) Direct physiological effects of nitrogen on Sphagnum: a greenhouse experiment. Funct Ecol 26:353–364Google Scholar
  26. Grime JP (1977) Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am Nat 111:1169–1194Google Scholar
  27. Hájek T, Beckett RP (2008) Effect of water content components on desiccation and recovery in Sphagnum mosses. Ann Bot 101:165–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hájek T, Tuittila E-S, Ilomets M, Laiho R (2009) Light responses of mire mosses – a key to survival after water-level drawdown? Oikos 118:240–250Google Scholar
  29. Harley PC, Tenhunen JD, Murray KJ, Beyers J (1989) Irradiance and temperature effects on photosynthesis of tussock tundra Sphagnum mosses from the foothills of the Philip Smith Mountains, Alaska. Oecologia 79:251–259Google Scholar
  30. Harris A, Bryant RG, Baird AJ (2005) Detecting near-surface moisture stress in Sphagnum spp. Remote Sens Environ 97:371–381Google Scholar
  31. Hoosbeek MR, van Breemen N, Berendse F, Grosvernier P, Vasander H, Wallén B (2001) Limited effect of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration on ombrotrophic bog vegetation. New Phytol 150:459–463Google Scholar
  32. Hulme PD, Blyth AW (1982) The annual growth period of some Sphagnum species on the Silver Flowe National Nature Reserve, south-west Scotland. J Bryol 12:287–291Google Scholar
  33. Jauhiainen J, Silvola J (1999) Photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum at long-term raised CO2 concentrations. Ann Bot Fennici 36:11–19Google Scholar
  34. Jauhiainen J, Silvola J, Vasander H (1998a) Effects of increased carbon dioxide and nitrogen supply on mosses. In: Bates JW, Ashton NW, Duckett JG (eds) Bryology for the twenty-first century. Maney Publishing and the British Bryological Society, Leeds, pp 343–360Google Scholar
  35. Jauhiainen J, Wallén B, Malmer N (1998b) Potential 15NH4 15NO3 uptake in seven Sphagnum species. New Phytol 138:287–293Google Scholar
  36. Johansson LG, Linder S (1980) Photosynthesis of Sphagnum in different microhabitats on a subarctic mire. In: Sonesson M (ed) Ecology of a subarctic mire, Ecological bulletins, 30. Swedish Natural Science Research Council, Stockholm, pp 181–190Google Scholar
  37. Karunen P, Salin M (1982) Seasonal changes in lipids of photosynthetically active and senescent parts of Sphagnum fuscum. Lindbergia 8:35–44Google Scholar
  38. Kip N, van Winden JF, Pan Y, Bodrossy L, Reichart G-J, Smolders AJP, Jetten MSM, Damste JSS, Op den Camp HJM (2010) Global prevalence of methane oxidation by symbiotic bacteria in peat-moss ecosystems. Nat Geosci 3:617–621Google Scholar
  39. Laine A, Juurola E, Hájek T, Tuittila E-S (2011) Sphagnum growth and ecophysiology during mire succession. Oecologia 167:1115–1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Larmola T, Tuittila E-S, Tiirola M, Nykäne H, Martikainen JP, Yrjälä K, Tuomivirta T, Fritze H (2010) The role of Sphagnum mosses in the methane cycling of a boreal mire. Ecology 91:2356–2365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Li Y, Glime JM (1991) Growth response of two Sphagnum species to photoperiod. Can J Bot 69:2643–2646Google Scholar
  42. Li Y, Glime JM, Drummer TD (1993) Effects of phosphorous on the growth of Sphagnum magellanicum Brid. and S. papillosum Lindb. Lindbergia 18:25–30Google Scholar
  43. Liebner S, Zeyer J, Wagner D, Schubert C, Pfeiffer E-M, Knoblauch C (2011) Methane oxidation associated with submerged brown mosses reduces methane emissions from Siberian polygonal tundra. J Ecol 99:914–922Google Scholar
  44. Limpens J, Berendse F (2003) Growth reduction of Sphagnum magellanicum subjected to high nitrogen deposition: the role of amino acid nitrogen concentration. Oecologia 135:339–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Limpens J, Heijmans MMPD, Berendse F (2006) The nitrogen cycle in boreal peatlands. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH (eds) Boreal peatland ecosystems, vol 188, Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 195–230Google Scholar
  46. Limpens J, Granath G, Gunnarsson U, Aerts R, Bayley S, Bragazza L, Bubier J, Buttler A, van den Berg LJL, Francez A-J, Gerdol R, Grosvernier P, Heijmans MMPD, Hoosbeek MR, Hotes S, Ilomets M, Leith I, Mitchell EAD, Moore T, Nilsson MB, Nordbakken JF, Rochefort L, Rydin H, Sheppard LJ, Thormann M, Wiedermann MM, Williams BL, Xu B (2011) Climatic modifiers of the response to N deposition in peat-forming Sphagnum mosses: a meta-analysis. New Phytol 191:496–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lindholm T (1990) Growth dynamics of the peat moss Sphagnum fuscum on hummocks on a raised bog in southern Finland. Ann Bot Fennici 27:67–78Google Scholar
  48. Loisel J, Garneau M, Hélie J-F (2009) Modern Sphagnum δ13C signatures follow a surface moisture gradient in two boreal peat bogs, James Bay lowlands, Québec. J Quart Sci 24:209–214Google Scholar
  49. Malmer N, Svensson BM, Wallén B (1994) Interactions between Sphagnum mosses and field layer vascular plants in the development of peat forming systems. Folia Geobot Phytotaxon 29:483–496Google Scholar
  50. Manninen S, Woods C, Leith ID, Sheppard LJ (2011) Physiological and morphological effects of long-term ammonium or nitrate deposition on green and red (shade and open grown) Sphagnum capillifolium. Environ Exp Bot 72:140–148Google Scholar
  51. Maseyk KS, Green TGA, Klinac D (1999) Photosynthetic responses of New Zealand Sphagnum species. N Z J Bot 37:155–165Google Scholar
  52. Murray KJ, Harley PC, Beyers J, Walz H, Tenhunen JT (1989) Water content effects on the photosynthetic response of Sphagnum mosses from the foothills of the Philip Smith Mountains, Alaska. Oecologia 79:244–250Google Scholar
  53. Murray KJ, Tenhunen JD, Nowak RS (1993) Photoinhibition as a control on photosynthesis and production of Sphagnum mosses. Oecologia 96:200–207Google Scholar
  54. Oechel WC, Collins NJ (1976) Comparative CO2 exchange patterns in mosses from two tundra habitats at Barrow, Alaska. Can J Bot 54:1355–1369Google Scholar
  55. Peñuelas J (1985) HCO3 as an exogenous carbon source for aquatic bryophytes Fontinalis antipyretica and Fissidens grandifrons. J Exp Bot 36:441–448Google Scholar
  56. Proctor MCF (2005) Why do Polytrichaceae have lamellae? J Bryol 27:219–227Google Scholar
  57. Proctor MCF, Smirnoff N (2011) Ecophysiology of photosynthesis in bryophytes: major roles for oxygen photoreduction and non-photochemical quenching? Physiol Plant 141:130–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Proctor MCF, Ligrone R, Duckett JG (2007a) Desiccation tolerance in the moss Polytrichum formosum: physiological and fine-structural changes during desiccation and recovery. Ann Bot 99:75–93Google Scholar
  59. Proctor MCF, Oliver MJ, Wood AJ, Alpert P, Stark LR, Cleavitt NL, Mishler BD (2007b) Desiccation-tolerance in bryophytes: a review. Bryologist 110:595–621Google Scholar
  60. Raghoebarsing AA, Smolders AJP, Schmid MC, Rijpstra WI, Wolters-Arts M, Derkens J, Jetten MSM, Schouten S, Sinninghe Damste JS, Lamers LPM, Roelofs JGM, Op den Camp HJM, Strous M (2005) Methanotrophic symbionts provide carbon for photosynthesis in peat bogs. Nature 436:1153–1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Raven JA (1991) Implications of inorganic carbon utilization: ecology, evolution, and geochemistry. Can J Bot 69:908–924Google Scholar
  62. Raven JA (2011) The cost of photoinhibition. Physiol Plant 142:87–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Rice SK (1995) Patterns of allocation and growth in aquatic Sphagnum species. Can J Bot 73:349–359Google Scholar
  64. Rice SK, Giles L (1996) The influence of water content and leaf anatomy on carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis in Sphagnum. Plant Cell Environ 19:118–124Google Scholar
  65. Rice SK, Aclander L, Hanson DT (2008) Do bryophyte shoot systems function like vascular plant leaves or canopies? Functional trait relationships in Sphagnum mosses (Sphagnaceae). Am J Bot 95:1366–1374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Robroek BJM, Limpens J, Breeuwer A, van Ruijven J, Schouten MGC (2007a) Precipitation determines the persistence of hollow Sphagnum species on hummocks. Wetlands 27:979–986Google Scholar
  67. Robroek BJM, Limpens J, Breeuwer A, Schouten MGC (2007b) Effects of water level and temperature on performance of four Sphagnum mosses. Plant Ecol 190:97–107Google Scholar
  68. Robroek BJM, Schouten MGC, Limpens J, Berendse F, Poorter H (2009) Interactive effects of water table and precipitation on net CO2 assimilation of three co-occurring Sphagnum mosses differing in distribution above the water table. Glob Change Biol 15:680–691Google Scholar
  69. Rudolph H (1968) Gaswechselmessungen an Sphagnum magellanicum. Ein Beitrag zur Membranochromie der Sphagnen (III). Planta 79:35–43Google Scholar
  70. Rudolph H, Jöhnk A (1982) Physiological aspects of phenolic compounds in the cell walls of Sphagna. J Hattori Bot Lab 53:195–203Google Scholar
  71. Rudolph H, Voigt JU (1986) Effects of NH4 +-N and NO3 -N on growth and metabolism of Sphagnum magellanicum. Physiol Plant 66:339–343Google Scholar
  72. Rudolph H, Kabsch U, Schmidt-Stohn G (1977) Änderungen des Chloroplastenpigment-Spiegels bei Sphagnum magellanicum im Verlauf der Synthese von Sphagnorubin und anderer membranochromer Pigmente. Z Pflanzenphysiol 82:107–116Google Scholar
  73. Ruttner F (1947) Zur Frage der Karbonatassimilation der Wasserpflanzen. I. Teil: Die beiden Haupttypen der Kohlenstoffaufnahme. Ost Bot Z 94:265–294Google Scholar
  74. Rydin H (1985) Effect of water level on desiccation of Sphagnum in relation to surrounding Sphagna. Oikos 45:374–379Google Scholar
  75. Rydin H (1993) Mechanisms of interactions among Sphagnum species along water level gradients. Adv Bryol 5:153–185Google Scholar
  76. Rydin H, Clymo RS (1989) Transport of carbon and phosphorus compounds about Sphagnum. Proc R Soc Lond B 237:63–84Google Scholar
  77. Rydin H, Jeglum JK (2006) The biology of peatlands. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. Rydin H, McDonald AJS (1985) Photosynthesis in Sphagnum at different water contents. J Bryol 13:579–584Google Scholar
  79. Rydin H, Gunnarsson U, Sundberg S (2006) The role of Sphagnum in peatland development and persistence. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH (eds) Boreal peatland ecosystems, vol 188, Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 49–65Google Scholar
  80. Sagot C, Rochefort L (1996) Tolérance des sphaignes à la dessiccation. Cryptogam Bryol Lichénol 17:171–183Google Scholar
  81. Schipperges B, Rydin H (1998) Response of photosynthesis of Sphagnum species from contrasting microhabitats to tissue water content and repeated desiccation. New Phytol 148:677–684Google Scholar
  82. Shotyk W (1988) Review of the inorganic geochemistry of peats and peatland waters. Earth Sci Rev 25:95–176Google Scholar
  83. Silvola J (1985) CO2 dependence of photosynthesis in certain forest and peat mosses and simulated photosynthesis at various actual and hypothetical CO2 concentrations. Lindbergia 11:86–93Google Scholar
  84. Silvola J (1990) Combined effects of varying water content and CO2 concentration on photosynthesis in Sphagnum fuscum. Holarctic Ecol 13:224–228Google Scholar
  85. Silvola J (1991) Moisture dependence of CO2 exchange and its recovery after drying in certain boreal forest and peat mosses. Lindbergia 17:5–10Google Scholar
  86. Silvola J, Aaltonen H (1984) Water content and photosynthesis in the peat mosses Sphagnum fuscum and S. angustifolium. Ann Bot Fennici 21:1–6Google Scholar
  87. Skre O, Oechel WC (1981) Moss functioning in different taiga ecosystems in interior Alaska. I. Seasonal, phenotypic, and drought effects on photosynthesis and response patterns. Oecologia 48:50–59Google Scholar
  88. Skre O, Oechel WC, Miller PM (1983a) Moss leaf water content and solar radiation at the moss surface in a mature black spruce forest in central Alaska. Can J For Resour 13:860–868Google Scholar
  89. Skre O, Oechel WC, Miller PM (1983b) Patterns of translocation of carbon in four common moss species in a black spruce Picea mariana dominated forest in interior Alaska. Can J For Resour 16:869–878Google Scholar
  90. Smolders AJP, Tomassen HBM, Pijnappel H, Lamers LPM, Roelofs JGM (2001) Substrate-derived CO2 is important in the development of Sphagnum spp. New Phytol 152:325–332Google Scholar
  91. Štroch M, Špunda V, Kurasová I (2004) Non-radiative dissipation of absorbed excitation energy within photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants. Photosynthetica 42:323–337Google Scholar
  92. Tamm CO (1964) Growth of Hylocomium splendens in relation to tree canopy. Bryologist 67:423–426Google Scholar
  93. Titus JE, Wagner DJ (1984) Carbon balance for two Sphagnum mosses: water balance resolves a physiological paradox. Ecology 65:1765–1774Google Scholar
  94. Titus JE, Wagner DJ, Stephens MD (1983) Contrasting water relations of photosynthesis for two Sphagnum mosses. Ecology 64:1109–1115Google Scholar
  95. Tolonen K, Possnert G, Jungner H, Sonninen E, Alm J (1992) High resolution 14C dating of surface peat using the AMS technique. Suo 43:271–276Google Scholar
  96. Tomassen HBM, Smolders AJP, Lamers LPM, Roelofs JGM (2003) Stimulated growth of Betula pubescens and Molinia caerulea on ombrotrophic bogs: role of high levels of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. J Ecol 91:357–370Google Scholar
  97. Turetsky MR, Wieder RK (1999) Boreal bog Sphagnum refixes soil-produced and respired 14CO2. Ecoscience 6:587–591Google Scholar
  98. Tutschek R (1982) An evaluation of phenylpropanoid metabolism during cold-induced sphagnorubin synthesis in Sphagnum magellanicum BRID. Planta 155:301–306Google Scholar
  99. Ueno T, Kanda H (2006) Photosynthetic response of the arctic semi-aquatic moss Calliergon giganteum to water content. Aquat Bot 85:241–243Google Scholar
  100. van Breemen N (1995) How Sphagnum bogs down other plants. Trends Ecol Evol 10:270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. van der Heijden E, Verbeek SK, Kuiper PJC (2000) Elevated atmospheric CO2 and increased nitrogen deposition: effects on C and N metabolism and growth of peat moss Sphagnum recurvum P. Beauv. var. mucronatum (Russ.) Warnst. Glob Change Biol 6:201–212Google Scholar
  102. van Gaalen KE, Flanagan LB, Peddle DR (2007) Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral reflectance in Sphagnum moss at varying water contents. Oecologia 153:19–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Vitt DH, Wieder RK (2009) The structure and function of bryophyte-dominated peatlands. In: Goffinet B, Shaw AJ (eds) Bryophyte biology, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 357–392Google Scholar
  104. Vogelmann JE, Moss DM (1993) Spectral reflectance measurements in the genus Sphagnum. Remote Sens Environ 45:273–279Google Scholar
  105. Wagner DJ, Titus JE (1984) Comparative desiccation tolerance of two Sphagnum mosses. Oecologia 62:182–187Google Scholar
  106. Waite M, Sack L (2010) How does moss photosynthesis relate to leaf and canopy structure? Trait relationships for 10 Hawaiian species of contrasting light habitats. New Phytol 185:156–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Whalen SC (2005) Biogeochemistry of methane exchange between natural wetlands and the atmosphere. Environ Eng Sci 22:73–94Google Scholar
  108. Wieder RK (2006) Primary production in boreal peatlands. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH (eds) Boreal peatland ecosystems, vol 188, Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 145–164Google Scholar
  109. Wilhelm C, Selmar D (2011) Energy dissipation is an essential mechanism to sustain the viability of plants: the physiological limits of improved photosynthesis. J Plant Physiol 168:79–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Williams TG, Flanagan LB (1996) Effect of changes in water content on photosynthesis, transpiration and discrimination against 13CO2 and C18O16O in Pleurozium and Sphagnum. Oecologia 108:38–46Google Scholar
  111. Williams TG, Flanagan LB (1998) Measuring and modelling environmental influences on photosynthetic gas exchange in Sphagnum and Pleurozium. Plant Cell Environ 21:555–564Google Scholar
  112. Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M, Ackerly DD, Baruch Z, Bongers F, Cavender-Bares J, Chapin FS, Cornelissen JHC, Diemer M, Flexas J, Garnier E, Groom PK, Gulias J, Hikosaka K, Lamont BB, Lee T, Lee W, Lusk C, Midgley JJ, Navas M-L, Niinemets Ü, Oleksyn J, Osada N, Poorter H, Poot P, Prior L, Pyankov VI, Roumet C, Thomas SC, Tjoelker MG, Veneklaas E, Villar R (2004) The world-wide leaf economics spectrum. Nature 428:821–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Zona D, Oechel WC, Richards JH, Hastings S, Kopetz I, Ikawa H, Oberbauer S (2011) Light stress avoidance mechanisms in a Sphagnum-dominated wet coastal Arctic tundra ecosystem in Alaska. Ecology 92:633–644PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of BotanyAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicTřeboňCzech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations