Biogeography of Endemic Vascular Plants – Overview

  • Carsten Hobohm
  • Monika Janišová
  • Jan Jansen
  • Ines Bruchmann
  • Uwe Deppe
Part of the Plant and Vegetation book series (PAVE, volume 9)


Endemics are not incidentally or uniformly distributed around the world. We describe and analyse general distribution patterns of endemic vascular plants in different climate zones, ecoregions, and altitudes. We distinguish endemism of vascular plants related to mainland, continental and oceanic islands and different physiognomic habitat types.


Endemic Species Oceanic Island Altitudinal Gradient Vernal Pool High Endemism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abbott I (1977) Species richness, turnover and equilibrium in insular floras near Perth, Western Australia. Aust J Bot 25:193–208Google Scholar
  2. Adamson DA, Selkirk JM, Seppelt RD (1993) Serpentinite, harzburgite, and vegetation on subantarctic Macquarie Island. Arctic Alpine Res 25:216–219Google Scholar
  3. Akpulat HA, Celik N (2005) Flora of gypsum areas in Sivas in the eastern part of Cappadocia in Central Anatolia, Turkey. J Arid Environ 61:27–46Google Scholar
  4. Alexander EB, Coleman RG, Keeler-Wolf T, Harrison S (2007) Serpentine geoecology of western North America: geology, soils, and vegetation. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Allison A, Eldridge LG (2004) Polynesia-Micronesia. URL: Downloaded 15 October 2012
  6. Anádon-Irizarry V, Wege DC, Upgren A, Young R, Boom B, León YM, Arias Y, Koenig K, Morales AL, Burke W, Perez-Leroux A, Levy S, Koenig S, Gape L (2012) Sites for priority biodiversity conservation in the Caribbean Islands Biodiversity Hotspot. J Threatened Taxa 4(8):2806–2844Google Scholar
  7. Ashworth AC, Vestal WD, Hokanson G, Joseph L, Martin M, McGlynn K, Newbrey MG, Schlecht N, Turnbull J, White A, Zimmerman T (2000) Tristan da Cunha Island Group and Gough Island. Last updated 2001
  8. Ashworth AC, Vestal WD, Hokanson G, Joseph L, Martin M, McGlynn K, Newbrey MG, Schlecht N, Turnbull J, White A, Zimmerman T (2004) Biota Australis Terrestris. Last updated 01/2004.
  9. Atamuradov H, Fet GN, Fet V, Valdez R, Feldman W (1999) Biodiversity, genetic diversity, and projected areas in Turkmenistan. J Sustain For 9:73–88Google Scholar
  10. Bailey RG (1998) Ecoregions: the ecosystem geography of the oceans and continents. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Barthlott W, Mutke J, Rafiqpoor D, Kier G, Kreft H (2005) Global centers of vascular plant diversity. Nova Acta Leopoldina NF 92(342):61–83Google Scholar
  12. Beard JS, Chapman AR, Gioia P (2000) Species richness and endemism in the Western Australian flora. J Biogeogr 27:1257–1268Google Scholar
  13. Bhandari NN (1979) Phytogeography of the tropical flora of the Indian Desert. In: Larsen K, Holm-Nielsen LB (eds) Tropical botany. Academic, London, pp 143–152Google Scholar
  14. Blom A (2001) Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests (AT0121). In: Word Wildlife Fund (ed) Wild world. URL:
  15. Bohn U, Neuhäusel R, Gollub G, Hettwer C, Neuhäuslová Z, Schlüter H, Weber H (2000/2003) Karte der natürlichen Vegetation Europas/Map of the natural vegetation of Europe. Maßstab/scale 1:2500000. Teil 1: Erläuterungstext mit CD-ROM. -Landwirtschaftsverlag, BonnGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolay E (1997) The Dominicain Republic. A country between rain forest and desert. Contributions to the ecology of a Caribbean Island. Markgraf, WeikersheimGoogle Scholar
  17. Borges PAV, Abreu C, Aguiar AMF, Carvalho P, Jardim R, Melo I, Oliveira P, Sergio C, Serrano ARM, Vieira P (eds) (2008) A list of the terrestrial fungi, flora and fauna of Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos. Direccao Regional do Ambiente da Madeira and Universidade dos Acores, Funchal und Angro do HeroismoGoogle Scholar
  18. Breckle S-W (2000) Biodiversität von Wüsten und Halbwüsten. Berichte der RTG 12:207–222Google Scholar
  19. Breymeyer AI (ed) (1990) Managed grasslands (Ecosystems of the world 17A). Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  20. Brochmann C, Rustan OH, Lobin W, Kilian N (1997) The endemic vascular plants of the Cape Verde Islands, W. Africa. Sommerfeltia 24. Botanical Garden and Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, 356ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Bruchmann I (2011) Plant endemism in Europe: spatial distribution and habitat affinities of endemic vascular plants. Dissertation, University of Flensburg, Flensburg.
  22. Bruchmann I, Hobohm C (2010) Halting the loss of biodiversity: endemic vascular plants in grassland of Europe. Grassland Sci Eur 15:776–778Google Scholar
  23. Buckley RC (1985) Distinguishing the effects of area and habitat type on island species richness by separating floristic elements and substrate types and controlling for island isolation. J Biogeogr 12:527–535Google Scholar
  24. Burga CA, Zanola S (2007) Madagaskar – Hot Spot der Biodiversität. Exkursionsbericht und Landeskunde. Schriftenreihe Physische Geographie Bodenkunde und Biogeographie 55:1–201Google Scholar
  25. Burga CA, Klötzli F, Grabherr G (eds) (2004) Gebirge der Erde. Ulmer, Stuttgart, p 504 SGoogle Scholar
  26. Burgess ND, Clarke GP, Rodgers WA (1998) Coastal forests of eastern Africa: status, endemism patterns and their potential causes. Biol J Linn Soc 64:337–367Google Scholar
  27. Burgess N, Doggart N, Doody K, Negussie G, Sumbi P, Perkin A (2003) New information on the lowland coastal forests of Eastern Africa. Oryx 37:280–281Google Scholar
  28. Burgess N, D’Amico Hales J, Underwood E, Dinerstein E, Olson D, Itoua I, Schipper J, Ricketts T, Newmann K (2004) Terrestrial ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  29. Cable S, Cheek M (eds) (1998) Plants of mount Cameroon: a conservation checklist. Kew Publishing, CumbriaGoogle Scholar
  30. Callmander MW, Phillipson PB, Schatz GE, Andriambololonera S, Rabarimanarivo M, Rakotonirina N, Raharimampionona J, Chatelain C, Gautier L, Lowry II, Porter P (2011) The endemic and non-endemic vascular flora of Madagascar updated. Plant Ecol Evol 144:121–125Google Scholar
  31. Carbonao E, Lozano-Contreras G (1997) Endemismos y otras singularidades de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Posibles causas de origen y necesidad de conservarlos. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de ciencias exactas, fisicas y naturales 21:409–419Google Scholar
  32. Carbutt C, Edwards TJ (2006) The endemic and near-endemic angiosperms of the Drakensberg Alpine Centre. S Afr J Bot 72:105–132Google Scholar
  33. Casazza C, Barberis G, Minuto L (2005) Ecological characteristics and rarity of endemic plants of the Italian Maritime Alps. Biol Conserv 123:361–371Google Scholar
  34. Casazza G, Zappa E, Mariotti MG, Medail F, Minuto L (2008) Ecological and historical factors affecting distribution pattern and richness of endemic plant species: the case of the maritime and Ligurian Alps hotspot. Divers Distrib 14:47–58Google Scholar
  35. Caujape-Castells J, Tye A, Crawford DJ, Santos-Guerra A, Sakai A, Beaver K, Lobin W, Vincent Florens FB, Moura M, Jardim R, Gomes I, Kueffer C (2010) Conservation of oceanic island floras: present and future global challenges. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 12:107–129Google Scholar
  36. Chiarucci A, Baker AJM (2007) Advances in the ecology of serpentine soils. Plant Soil 293:1–2Google Scholar
  37. Chown SL, Gaston KJ (2000) Reply from S.L. Chown and K.J. Gaston. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. Trends Ecol Evol 15(12):514. URL:
  38. Clark VR, Barker NP, Mucina L (2008) The Sneeuberg: a new centre of floristic endemism on the Great Escarpment, South Africa. S Afr J Bot 75:196–238Google Scholar
  39. Clough LD (2008) Peninsula Valdés, Argentina. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL: Valds, Argentina
  40. Connor HE (2002) Regional endemism in New Zealand grasses. New Zeal J Bot 40(1):189–200Google Scholar
  41. Conservation International, Duffy JE (eds) (2008) Biological diversity in Japan. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL: Downloaded 20.10.2012
  42. Cooper J, Ryan PG (1994) Management plan for the Gough Island Wildlife Reserve. Government of Tristan da Cunha, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  43. Cowling RM (ed) (1992) The ecology of Fynbos. Nutrients, fire and diversity. Oxford University Press, Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  44. Cowling RM, Hilton-Taylor CI (1999) Plant geography, endemism and diversity. In: Richard W, Dean J, Milton SJ (eds) The Karoo: ecological patterns and processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 42–56Google Scholar
  45. Cowling RM, Lombard AT (2002) Heterogeneity, speciation/extinction history and climate: explaining regional plant diversity patterns in the Cape Floristic Region. Divers Distrib 8:163–179Google Scholar
  46. Cowling RM, Holmes PM, Rebelo AM (1992) Plant diversity and endemism. In: Cowling RM (ed) The ecology of Fynbos. Nutrients, fire and diversity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 62–112Google Scholar
  47. Cowling RM, Witkowski ETF, Milewski AV, Newbey KR (1994) Taxonomic, edaphic and biological aspects of narrow plant endemism on matched sites in Mediterranean South-Africa and Australia. J Biogeogr 21:651–664Google Scholar
  48. Cowling RM, Rundel PW, Lamont BB, Arroyo MK, Arianoutsou M (1996) Plant diversity in Mediterranean-climate regions. Trends Ecol Evol 11:362–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cremene C, Groza G, Rakosy L, Schileyko A, Baur A, Erhardt A, Baur B (2005) Alterations of steppe-like grasslands in Eastern Europe: a threat to regional biodiversity hotspots. Conserv Biol 19:1606–1618Google Scholar
  50. Cribb P, Hermans J (2009) Field guide to the orchids of Madagascar. Kew Publishing, KewGoogle Scholar
  51. Crisp MD, Laffan S, Linder HP, Monro A (2001) Endemism in the Australian flora. J Biogeogr 28:183–198Google Scholar
  52. Daniels FJA, Elvebakk A, Talbot SS, Walker DA (eds) (2005) Classification and mapping of arctic vegetation. Phytocoenologia 35(4):715–1079Google Scholar
  53. Davies CE, Moss D, Hill MO (2004) EUNIS habitat classification, revised 2004. Report to European Environment Agency. European Topic Centre on Nature Protection and Biodiversity. ParisGoogle Scholar
  54. Davis SD, Heywood VH, Hamilton AC (eds) (1994) Centres of plant diversity, vol 1, Europe, Africa, South West Asia and the Middle East. IUCN Publications, Unit, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  55. Davis SD, Heywood VH, Hamilton AC (eds) (1995) Centres of plant diversity, vol 2, Asia, Australasia and the Pacific. IUCN Publications, Unit, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  56. Davis SD, Heywood VH, Herrera-MacBryde O, Villa-Lobos J, Hamilton AC (eds) (1997) Centres of plant diversity, vol 3, The Americas. IUCN Publications, Unit, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  57. De Lange PJ, Sawyer JWD, Jensen CA (2006) New Zealand indigenous vascular plant checklist. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, Wellington, 94ppGoogle Scholar
  58. De Lange PJ, Norton DA, Courtney SP, Heenan PB, Barkla JW, Cameron EK, Hitchmough RA, Townsend AJ (2009) Threatened and uncommon plants of New Zealand. New Zeal J Bot 47(1):61–96Google Scholar
  59. Dengler J (2009) Which function describes the species-area relationship best? A review and empirical evaluation. J Biogeogr 36:728–744Google Scholar
  60. Desmet PG (2007) Namaqualand – a brief overview of the physical and floristic environment. J Arid Environ 70:570–587Google Scholar
  61. Dhar U (2002) Conservation implications of plant endemism in high-altitude Himalaya. Curr Sci 82:141–148Google Scholar
  62. Dömpke S, Succow M (1998) Cultural landscapes and nature conservation in Northern Eurasia. NABU, BonnGoogle Scholar
  63. Duarte MC, Rego F, Romeiras MM, Moreira I (2008) Plant species richness in the Cape Verde islands – eco-geographical determinants. Biodivers Conserv 17:453–466Google Scholar
  64. Dullinger S, Dirnböck T, Grabherr G (2000) Reconsidering endemism in the North-eastern Limestone Alps. Acta Botanica Croatica 59:55–82Google Scholar
  65. EDGG (ed) (2010) Smolenice grassland declaration. Bull Eur Dry Grassland Group 7:7Google Scholar
  66. Euro+Med (2006–2011) Euro+Med PlantBase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. URL: Downloaded 2/2012
  67. Ewald J (2003) The calcareous riddle: why are there so many calciphilous species in the central European flora? Folia Geobot 38:357–366Google Scholar
  68. Fajmonová Z, Zelený D, Syrovátka V, Vončina G, Hájek M (2012) Distribution of habitat specialists in semi-natural grasslands. J Veg Sci. doi: 10.1111/jvs.12005 Google Scholar
  69. Ferry L, Robinson L, Ranarijaona H, Gasse F (1999) Les Lacs de Madagascar: présentation et typologie. Rapport Laboratoire Hydrologie, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  70. Fleischmann K (1997) Invasion of alien woody plants on the islands of Mahe and Silhouette, Seychelles. J Veg Sci 8:5–12Google Scholar
  71. Fleischmann K, Héritier P, Meuwly C, Küffer C, Edwards PJ (2003) Virtual gallery of the vegetation and flora of the Seychelles. Bull Geobot Inst ETH 69:57–64Google Scholar
  72. Florence J, Lorence DH (1997) Introduction to the flora and vegetation of the Marquesas Islands. Allertonia 7:226–237Google Scholar
  73. Fontaine B, Bouchet P, Van Achterberg K, Alonso-Zarazaga MA, Araujo R, Asche M, Aspock U, Audisio P, Aukema B, Bailly N, Balsamo M, Bank RA, Barnard P, Belfiore C, Bogdanowicz W, Bongers T, Boxshall G, Burckhardt D, Camicas JL, Chylarecki P, Crucitti P, Davarveng L, Dubois A, Enghoff H, Faubel A, Fochetti R, Gargominy O, Gibson D, Gibson R, Gomez Lopez MS, Goujet D, Harvey MS, Heller K-G, Van Helsdingen P, Hoch H, De Jong H, De Jong Y, Karsholt O, Los W, Lundqvist L, Magowski W, Manconi R, Martens J, Massard JA, Massard-Geimer G, Mcinnes SJ, Mendes LF, Mey E, Michelsen V, Minelli A, Nielsen C, Nieto Nafria JM, Van Nieukerken EJ, Noyes J, Papa T, Ohl H, De Prins W, Ramos M, Ricci C, Roselaar C, Rota E, Schmidt-Rhaesa A, Segers H, Zur Strassen R, Szeptycki A, Thibaud J-M, Thomas A, Timm T, Van Tol J, Vervoort W, Willmann R (2007) The European Union’s 2010 target: putting rare species in focus. Biol Conserv 139:167–185Google Scholar
  74. Foster MN, Brooks TM, Cuttelod A, De Silva N, Fishpool LDC, Radford EA, Woodley S (2012) The identification of sites of biodiversity conservation significance: progress with the application of a global standard. J Threatened Taxa 4(8):2733–2744Google Scholar
  75. Francisco-Ortega J, Wang Z-S, Wang F-G, Xing F-W, Liu H, Xu H, Xu W-X, Luo Y-B, Song X-Q, Gale S, Boufford DE, Maunder M, An S-Q (2010) Seed plant endemism on Hainan Island: a framework for conservation actions. Bot Rev 76(3):346–376Google Scholar
  76. Fuwu X, Telin W, Zexian L, Huagu Y, Binghui C (1995) Endemic plants of Hainan Island. J Trop Subtrop Bot 3:1–12Google Scholar
  77. Gamisans J, Marzocchi J-F (1996) La flore endémique de la Corse. Edisud, Aix-en-ProvenceGoogle Scholar
  78. Gams H (1938) Die nacheiszeitliche Geschichte der Alpenflora. Jahrbuch der Vereinigung zum Schutze der Alpenpflanzen und -tiere 10:9–34Google Scholar
  79. Gaston KJ (ed) (1996) Biodiversity: a biology of numbers and difference. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  80. Gautier L, Goodman SM (2003) Introduction to the flora of Madagascar. In: Goodman SM, Benstedad JP (eds) The natural history of Madagascar. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London, pp 229–250Google Scholar
  81. Gentry AH (1986) Endemism in tropical versus temperate plant communities. In: Soulé ME (ed) Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates, Inc.-Publisher, Sunderland, pp 153–182Google Scholar
  82. Ghazanfar SA (2004) Biology of the central desert of Oman. Turk J Bot 28:65–71Google Scholar
  83. Gibson DJ (2009) Grasses and grassland ecology. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  84. Gillespie RG, Clague DA (eds) (2009) Encyclopedia of islands. University Press of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  85. Goodman SM, Benstead JP (eds) (2003) The natural history of Madagascar. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/LondonGoogle Scholar
  86. Grainger J (2003) ‘People are living in the park’. Linking biodiversity conservation to community development in the middle east region: a case study from the Saint Katherine Protectorate, Southern Sinai. J Arid Environ 54:29–38Google Scholar
  87. Green JW (1985) Census of vascular plants of western Australia, vol 2. W.A. Herbarium, Department of Agriculture, PerthGoogle Scholar
  88. Green JL, Ostling A (2003) Endemics-area relationships: the influence of species dominance and spatial aggregation. Ecology 84(11):3090–3097Google Scholar
  89. Greuter W, von Raab-Straube E (2012) Euro+Med Notulae, 6. Willdenowia 42:283–285Google Scholar
  90. Groombridge B, Jenkins MD (2002) World atlas of biodiversity: earth’s living resources in the 21st century. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  91. Hájek M, Horsák M, Tichý L, Hájková P, Dítě D, Jamrichová E (2011) Testing a relict distributional pattern of fen plant and terrestrial snail species at the Holocene scale: a null model approach. J Biogeogr 38:742–755Google Scholar
  92. He F, Hubbell S (2011) Species-area relationships always overestimate extinction rates from habitat loss. Nature 473:368–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hendrych R (1982) Material and notes about the geography of the highly stenochoric to monotopic endemic species of the European flora. Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Biologica 335–372Google Scholar
  94. Hobbs RJ, Richardson DM, Davis GW (1995) Mediterranean-type ecosystems: Opportunities and constraints for studying the function of biodiversity. In: Davis, GW, Richardson DM (eds) Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Ecol Stud 109:1–42. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  95. Hobohm C (2000a) Biodiversität. Quelle & Meyer, WiebelsheimGoogle Scholar
  96. Hobohm C (2000b) Plant species diversity and endemism on islands and archipelagos, with special reference to the Macaronesian Islands. Flora 195:9–24Google Scholar
  97. Hobohm C (2004) Ökologische Aspekte der Vielfalt endemischer Pflanzenarten in Europa unter besonderer Berücksichtigung großflächiger Beweidungsmaßnahmen als Instrumentarium für den Arten- und Biotopschutz. Schriftenreihe für Landschaftspflege und Naturschutz 78:281–292Google Scholar
  98. Hobohm C (2008a) Ökologie und Verbreitung endemischer Gefäßpflanzen in Europa. Tuexenia 28:7–22Google Scholar
  99. Hobohm C (2008b) Gibt es endemische Gefäßpflanzen in Mooren Europas? Mitt AG Geobot in Schl-Holst und Hambg 65:143–150Google Scholar
  100. Hobohm C, Bruchmann I (2009) Endemische Gefäßpflanzen und ihre Habitate in Europa - Plädoyer für den Schutz der Grasland-Ökosysteme. Berichte der Reinh-Tüxen-Gesellschaft 21:142–161Google Scholar
  101. Hobohm C, Bruchmann I (2011) Are there endemic vascular plants in wet habitats of Europe? Transylvanian Rev Syst Ecol Res 12:1–14Google Scholar
  102. Holland RF, Jain SK (1988) Vernal pools. In: Barbour MJ, Major J (eds) Terrestrial vegetation of California, Special Publication 9. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, pp 515–531Google Scholar
  103. Holmgren M, Poorter L (2007) Does a ruderal strategy dominate the endemic flora of the West African forests? J Biogeogr 34:1100–1111Google Scholar
  104. Honeycutt RL, McGinley M (2007) Rapa Nui and Sala-y-Gomez subtropical broadleaf forests. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  105. Honeycutt RL, McGinley M (2008) Samoan tropical moist forests. In: Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  106. Hopper SD, Gioia P (2004) The southwest Australian floristic region: evolution and conservation of a global hot spot of biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 35:623–650Google Scholar
  107. Horsák M, Hájek M, Dítě D, Tichý L (2007) Modern distribution patterns of snails and plants in the Western Carpathian spring fens: is it a result of historical development? J Molluscan Stud 73:53–60Google Scholar
  108. Hsieh CF (2002) Composition, endemisms and phytogeographical affinities of the Taiwan flora. Taiwania 47(4):298–310Google Scholar
  109. Huang T-C (ed) (1993–2003) Flora of Taiwan, vols 1–6. National Taiwan University, Department of Botany, TaipaiGoogle Scholar
  110. Huang J-H, Chen B, Ying J-S, Ma K (2011a) Features and distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species. J Syst Evol 49(2):81–94Google Scholar
  111. Huang J-H, Chen B, Liu C, Lai J, Zhang J, Ma K (2011b) Identifying hotspots of endemic woody seed plant diversity in China. Divers Distrib:1–16Google Scholar
  112. Huber O (1995) Vegetation. In: Berry PE, Holst BK, Yatskievych K (eds) Flora of the Venzuelan Guayana. Missouri Botanical Garden and Timber Press, St. Louis, pp 97–160Google Scholar
  113. Hultén E (1971) Atlas över växternas utbredning i Norden. Generalstabens Litografiska Anstalts Förlag, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  114. Huston MA (1994) Biological diversity. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  115. Ito M (1998) Origin and evolution of endemic plants of the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands. Res Popul Ecol 40:205–212Google Scholar
  116. Izquierdo I, Martin JL, Zurita N & Arechavaleta M (eds) (2004) Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres) 2004. Consejeria de Medio Ambiente y Ordenacion Territorial, Gobierno de CanariasGoogle Scholar
  117. Jansson R (2003) Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change. Proc R Soc Lond 270:583–590Google Scholar
  118. Jonsell B, Karlsson T (2004) Endemic vascular plants in Norden. In: Jonsell B (ed) Flora Nordica. General volume. Bergius Foundation, Stockholm, pp 139–159Google Scholar
  119. Juste JB, Fa JE (1994) Biodiversity conservation in the Gulf of Guinea islands: taking stock and preparing action. Biodivers Conserv 3:759–771Google Scholar
  120. Kalla J (2003) Submission for nomination of Tropical Rainforsést Heritage of Sumatra. URL:
  121. Keeler-Wolf T, Elam DR, Lewis K, Flint SA (1998) California vernal pool assessment: preliminary report, 161ppGoogle Scholar
  122. Khan TI (1997) Biodiversity conservation in the Thar Desert, with emphasis on endemic and medicinal plants. Environmentalist 17:283–287Google Scholar
  123. Kier G, Mutke J, Dinerstein E, Ricketts TH, Kuper W, Kreft H, Barthlott W (2005) Global patterns of plant diversity and floristic knowledge. J Biogeogr 32:1107–1116Google Scholar
  124. Kim KOK, Hong SH, Lee YH, Na CS, Kang BH, Son Y (2009) Taxonomic status of endemic plants in Korea. J Ecol Field Biol 32(4):277–293Google Scholar
  125. Kliment J (1999) Komentovaný prehlád vyšších rastlín flóry Slovenska, uvádzaných v literatúre ako endemické taxóny. Bull Slov Bot Spoločn Bratislava 21(suppl 4):1–434Google Scholar
  126. Körner C (2000) Why are there global gradients in species richness? Mountains might hold the answer. Trends Ecol Evol 15(12):513Google Scholar
  127. Krebs P, Conedera M, Pradella M, Torriani D, Felber M, Tinner W (2004) Quaternary refugia of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.): an extended palynological approach. Veg Hist Archaeobot 13:145–160Google Scholar
  128. Kreft H, Köster N, Küper W, Nieder J, Barthlott W (2004) Diversity and biogeography of vascular epiphytes in Western Amazonia, Yasuni, Ecuador. J Biogeogr 31:1463–1476Google Scholar
  129. Kruckeberg AR (1992) Plant life of western North America ultramafics. In: Roberts BA, Proctor J (eds) The ecology of areas with serpentinized rocks: a world view. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 31–74Google Scholar
  130. Lawesson JE, Hamann O, Rogers G, Reck G, Ochoa H (eds) (1990) Botanical research and management in Galapagos, vol 32, Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, 301ppGoogle Scholar
  131. Lazar KA (2004) Characterization of rare plant species in the vernal pools of California. Master thesis, University of California, 344pp.
  132. Lee WG (1992) New Zealand ultramafics. In: Roberts BA, Proctor J (eds) The ecology of areas with serpentinized rocks: a world view. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 375–417Google Scholar
  133. Lepping O, Daniels FJA (2006) Phytosociology of beach and saltmarsh vegetation in northern West Greenland. Polarforschung 76(3):95–108Google Scholar
  134. Leuzinger S, Luo Y, Beier C, Dieleman W, Vicca S, Körner C (2011) Do global change experiments overestimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems? TREE 26:236–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Lowry Il PP (1998) Diversity, endemism, and extinction in the flora of New Caledonia: a review. In: Peng CI, Lowry Il PP (eds) Rare, threatened, and endangered floras of Asia and the Pacific Rim, Academia Sinica Monograph Series No. 16. pp 181–206Google Scholar
  136. MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princetown University Press, PrincetownGoogle Scholar
  137. Mackay R (2002) The atlas of endangered species: threatened plants and animals of the world. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  138. Major J (1988) Endemism: a botanical perspective. In: Myers AA, Giller PS (eds) Analytical biogeography. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 117–146Google Scholar
  139. McGinley M (2007a) Bermuda subtropical conifer forests. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  140. McGinley M (2007b) Caatinga. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  141. McGinley M (2007c) Florida sand pine scrub. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  142. McGinley M (2007d) Galapagos Islands xeric scrub. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL: Islands xeric scrub
  143. McGinley M (2007e) Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  144. McGinley M (2007f) San Félix-San Ambrosio Islands temperate forests. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL: Flix-San Ambrosio Islands temperate forests
  145. McGinley M (2007g) Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  146. McGinley M (2008a) Badkhiz-Karabil semi-desert. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  147. McGinley M (2008b) Garamba National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:,_Democratic_Republic_of_Congo
  148. McGinley M (2008c) Gough Island Wildlife Reserve, United Kingdom. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:,_United_Kingdom
  149. McGinley M (2008d) Granitic Seychelles forests. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  150. McGinley M (2008e) Mount Emei and Leshan Giant Buddha, China. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:,_China
  151. McGinley M (2008f) Nile Delta flooded savanna. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  152. McGinley M (2008g) Tepuis. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  153. McGinley M (2008h) Venezuelan Andes montane forests. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  154. McGinley M (2008i) Moja desert. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:
  155. McGinley M (2009) Dong Phayayan Khao-Yai Forest Complex, Thailand. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL:,_Thailand
  156. McGlone MS, Duncan RP, Heenan PB (2001) Endemism, species selection and the origin and distribution of the vascular plant flora of New Zealand. J Biogeogr 28:199–216Google Scholar
  157. Médail F, Diadema K (2009) Glacial refugia influence plant diversity patterns in the Mediterranean basin. J Biogeogr 36:1333–1345Google Scholar
  158. Médail F, Verlaque R (1997) Ecological characteristics and rarity of endemic vascular plants from Southeastern France and Corsica: implications for biodiversity conservation. Biol Conserv 80:269–281Google Scholar
  159. Meikle RD (1977/1985) Flora of Cyprus. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  160. Meusel H, Jäger EJ (1992) Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Text u. Karten. Bd. 3. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  161. Meusel H, Jäger EJ, Weinert E (1965) Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Text u. Karten. Bd. 1. VEB Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  162. Meusel H, Jäger EJ, Rauschert SW, Weinert E (1978) Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Text u. Karten. Bd. 2. VEB Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  163. Miller AG, Morris M (2004) Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago. Royal Botanic Garden, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  164. Ministry for Natural Resources and the Environment (ed) (2007) National report on the status of biodiversity in S. Tomé and Principe. URL:, 109pp
  165. Mittermeier RA, Gil PR, Hoffman M, Pilgrim J, Brooks T, Mittermeier CG, Lamoreux J, da Fonseconda GAB (2005) Hotspots revisited: earth’s biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. Cemex, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  166. Moat J, Smith P (eds) (2007) Atlas of the vegetation of Madagascar. Kew Publishing, KewGoogle Scholar
  167. Morat P (1993) Our knowledge of the flora of New Caledonia: endemism and diversity in relation to vegetation types and substrates. Biodivers Lett 1:72–81Google Scholar
  168. Moustafa A, Zaghloul MS (1996) Environment and vegetation in the montane Saint Catherine area, south Sinai, Egypt. J Arid Environ 34:331–349Google Scholar
  169. Mucina L, Rutherford MC (2006) The vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. South African National Biodiversity Institute, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  170. Mueller-Dombois D, Fosberg FR (1998) Vegetation of the tropical Pacific Islands. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  171. Myers N (1988) Threatened biotas: hotspots in tropical forests. Environmentalist 8:1–20Google Scholar
  172. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Natori Y, Kohri M, Hayama S, De Silva N (2012) Key biodiversity areas identification in Japan Hotspot. J Threatened Taxa 4(8):2797–2805Google Scholar
  174. Nau C (2003) Das Insel-Lexikon. Heel Verlag, Barcelona, 360SGoogle Scholar
  175. Noroozi J, Akhani H, Breckle SW (2008) Biodiversity and phytogeography of alpine flora of Iran. Biodivers Conserv 17:493–521Google Scholar
  176. Nowak A, Nobis M (2010) Tentative list of endemic vascular plants of the Zeravshan Mts in Tajikistan: distribution, habitat preferences and conservation status of species. Biodivers Res Conserv 19:65–80Google Scholar
  177. Ojeda F, Simmons M, Arroyo J, Marañón T, Cowling RM (2001) Biodiversity in South African fynbos and Mediterranean heathland. J Veg Sci 12:867–874Google Scholar
  178. Owiunji I, Nkuutu D, Kujirakwinja D, Liengola I, Plumptre AJ, Nsanzurwimo A, Fawcett K, Gray M, McNeilage A (2005) The biodiversity of the Virunga Volcanoes. URL: Downloaded 3/1/2012
  179. Parks and Wildlife Service (2006) Macquarie island nature reserve and world heritage area management plan. Parks and Wildlife Service, HobartGoogle Scholar
  180. Parmentier I, Malhi Y, Senterre B, Whittaker RJ, Alonso A, Balinga MPB, Bakayoko A, Bongers FJJM, Chatelein C, Comiskey J et al (2007) The odd man out? Might climate explain the lower tree α-diversity of African rain forests relative to Amazonian rain forests? J Ecol 95:1058–1071Google Scholar
  181. Parolly G (2004) The high mountain vegetation of Turkey – a state of the art report, including a first annotated conspectus of the major syntaxa. Turk J Bot 28:39–63Google Scholar
  182. Pawar SS, Birand AC, Ahmed MF, Sengupta S, Shankar Raman TR (2007) Conservation biogeography in North-East India: hierarchical analysis of cross-taxon distributional congruence. Divers Distrib 13(1):53–65Google Scholar
  183. Pawlowski B (1969) Der Endemismus in der Flora der Alpen, der Karpaten und der Balkanischen Gebirge im Verhältnis zu den Pflanzengesellschaften. Mitteilungen der ostalpin-dinarischen pflanzensoziologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft 9:167–178Google Scholar
  184. Pennington RT, Lewis GP, Ratter JA (eds) (2006) Neotropical savannas and seasonally dry forests. Plant diversity, biogeography, and conservation. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  185. Pianka ER (1966) Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: a review of concepts. Am Nat 100:33–46Google Scholar
  186. Pignatti S (1978) Evolutionary trends in Mediterranean flora and vegetation. Vegetatio 37:175–185Google Scholar
  187. Pignatti S (1979) Plant geographical and morphological evidences in the evolution of the Mediterranean flora (with particular reference to the Italian representatives). Webbia 34:243–255Google Scholar
  188. Plumptre AJ, Davenport TRB, Behangana M, Kityo R, Eilu G, Ssegawa P, Ewango C, Meirte D, Kahindo C, Herremans M et al (2007) The biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Biol Conserv 134:178–194Google Scholar
  189. Pott R (2010) Klimawandel im System Erde. Berichte der RTG 22:7–33Google Scholar
  190. Pott R, Hüppe J, Wildpret de la Torre W (2003) Die Kanarischen Inseln. Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  191. Press JR, Short MJ (eds) (1994) Flora of Madeira. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  192. Pryce M, Mitchell S, Burke A, McKenzie C, Stirling S, Ryan J, Simpson W, McGlashan D (2008) Jamaica: country report to the FAO international technical conference on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. URL: Kingston, 59pp
  193. Pyak AI, Shaw SC, Ebel AL, Zverev AA, Hodgson JG, Wheeler BD, Gaston KJ, Morenke MO, Revushkin AS, Kotukhov YA, Oyunchimeg D (2008) Endemic plants of the Altai mountain country. Wild Guides, HampshireGoogle Scholar
  194. Rabitsch W, Essl F (eds) (2009) Endemiten – Kostbarkeiten in Österreichs Pflanzen- und Tierwelt. Umweltbundesamt, Klagenfurt, WienGoogle Scholar
  195. Rapoport EH (1982) Areography: geographical strategies of species. Bergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  196. Rauer G, Ibisch PL, von den Driesch M, Lobin W, Barthlott W (2000) The convention on biodiversity and botanic gardens. In: Bundesamt für Naturschutz (ed) Botanic gardens and biodiversity. Landwirtschaftsverlag, Münster, pp 25–64Google Scholar
  197. Raven PH, Axelrod DI (1978) Origin and relationships of the California flora. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  198. Republica de Cuba (ed) (2009) IV informe nacional al convenio sobre la diversidad biologica. URL:, 162pp
  199. Revenga C, Brunner J, Henninger N, Kassem K, Payne R (eds) (2000) Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: freshwater systems. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  200. Ricklefs RE, Lovette IJ (1999) The roles of island area per se and habitat diversity in the species-area relationships of four Lesser Antiellean faunal groups. J Anim Ecol 68:1142–1160Google Scholar
  201. Riemann H, Ezcurra E (2005) Plant endemism and natural protected areas in the Peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. Biol Conserv 122:141–150Google Scholar
  202. Riemann H, Ezcurra E (2007) Endemic regions of the vascular flora of the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. J Veg Sci 18:327–336Google Scholar
  203. Roberts BA, Proctor J (eds) (1992) The ecology of areas with serpentinized rocks: a world view. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  204. Robertson SA (1989) Flowering plants of the Seychelles. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  205. Rohde K (1992) Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: the search for the primary cause. Oikos 65:514–527Google Scholar
  206. Rosenzweig ML (1995a) Species diversity gradients: we know more and less than we thought. J Mammol 73:715–730Google Scholar
  207. Rosenzweig ML (1995b) Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  208. Rull V (2004) Biogeography of the ‘Lost World’: a palaeoecological perspective. Earth Sci Rev 67:125–137Google Scholar
  209. Schaefer H, Carine MA, Rumsey FJ (2011) From European priority species to invasive weed: Marsilea azorica (Marsileaceae) is a misidentified alien. Syst Bot 36(4):845–853Google Scholar
  210. Schäfer H (2005a) Endemic vascular plants of the Azores: an updated list. Hoppea 66:275–283Google Scholar
  211. Schäfer H (2005b) Flora of the Azores. Markgraf Publishers, WeikersheimGoogle Scholar
  212. Schatz GE (2001) Generic tree flora of Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens/Missouri Botanical Garden, Kew/St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  213. Scherrer D, Körner C (2011) Topographically controlled thermal-habitat differentiation buffers alpine plant diversity against climate warming. J Biogeogr 38:406–416Google Scholar
  214. Schneckenburger S (1991) Neukaledonien. Palmengarten, Sonderheft 16: 78ppGoogle Scholar
  215. Schroeder F-G (1998) Lehrbuch der Pflanzengeographie. Quelle & Meyer, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  216. Şekercioğlu ÇH, Anderson S, Akçay E, Bilgin R, Can ÖE, Semiz G, Tavşanoğlu Ç, Yokeş MB, Soyumert A, İpekdal K, Sağlam İK, Yücel M, Nüzhet Dalfes H (2011) Turkey’s globally important biodiversity in crisis. Biol Conserv 144:2752–2769Google Scholar
  217. Shou-qing Z (1988) The vulnerable and endangered plants of Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. Arnoldiana 48(2):2–7Google Scholar
  218. Song Y-C, Xu G-S (2003) A scheme of vegetation classification of Taiwan, China. Acta Botanica Sinica 45(8):883–895Google Scholar
  219. Stebbins GL, Major J (1965) Endemism and speciation in the California flora. Ecol Monogr 35:2–35Google Scholar
  220. Sterrer W (1998) How many species are there in Bermuda? Bull Mar Sci 62:809–840Google Scholar
  221. Stevanović V, Tan K, Iatrou G (2003) Distribution of the endemic Balkan flora on serpentine I: obligate serpentine endemics. Plant Syst Evol 242(1):149–170Google Scholar
  222. Stevens GC (1992) The elevation gradient in altitudinal range: an extension of Rapoport’s latitudinal rule to altitude. Am Nat 140:893–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Steyermark JA (1986) Speciation and endemism in the flora of the Venezuelan Tepuis. In: Vuilleumier F, Monasterio M (eds) High altitude tropical biogeography. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 317–373Google Scholar
  224. Storch D (2000) Rapoport effect and speciation/extinction rates in the tropics. Trends Ecol Evol 15(12):514Google Scholar
  225. Suttie JM, Reynolds SG, Batello C (2005) Grasslands of the world. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  226. Talbot SS, Yurtsev BA, Murray DF, Argus GW, Bay C, Elvebakk A (1999) Atlas of rare endemic vascular plants of the arctic. In: Conservation of Arctic flora and fauna (CAFF). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, p. 73Google Scholar
  227. Tokumaru H (2003) Nature conservation on Yakushima Island: Kagishima Prefecture’s efforts. Global Environ Res 7(1):103–111Google Scholar
  228. Tordorff AW, Baltzer MC, Fellowes JR, Pilgrim JD, Langhammer PF (2012) Key biodiversity areas in the Indo-Burma Hotspot: process, progress and future directions. J Threatened Taxa 4(8):2779–2787Google Scholar
  229. Trinder-Smith TH, Cowling RM, Linder HP (1996) Profiling a besieged flora: endemic and threatened plants of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. Biodivers Conserv 5:575–589Google Scholar
  230. Tutin TG, Burges NA, Chater AO, Edmondson JR, Heywood VH, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1993 [1996a]). Flora Europaea, 2nd edn, vol 1, Psilotaceae-Platanaceae. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  231. Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1968 [1996b]) Flora Europaea, vol 2, Rosaceae-Umbelliferae. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  232. Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1968 [1996c]) Flora Europaea, vol 3, Diapensiaceae-Myoporaceae. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  233. Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1976 [1996d]) Flora Europaea, vol 4, Plantaginaceae-Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  234. Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1980[1996e]) Flora Europaea, vol 5, Alismataceae-Orchidaceae. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  235. United Nations Environment Programme, Clough LD (eds) (2008) Yakushima (Yaku Island), Japan. In: Cleveland CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of earth. URL: Downloaded 20.10.2012
  236. Valencia R, Pitman N, León-Yánez S, Jørgensen PM (eds) (2000) Libro Rojo de las Plantas Endémicas del Ecuador 2000. Publicaciones del Herbario QCA, Ponticicia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, QuitoGoogle Scholar
  237. Van der Maarel E, Van der Maarel-Versluys M (1996) Distribution and conservation status of littoral vascular plant species along the European coasts. J Coast Conserv 2:73–92Google Scholar
  238. Van der Werff H, Consiglio T (2004) Distribution and conservation significance of endemic species of flowering plants in Peru. Biodivers Conserv 13:1699–1713Google Scholar
  239. Van Wyk AE, Smith GF (2001) Regions of floristic endemism in southern Africa: a review with emphasis on succulents. Umdaus Press, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  240. Vetaas OR, Grytnes J-A (2002) Distribution of vascular species richness and endemic richness along the Himalayan elevation gradient in Nepal. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 11:291–301Google Scholar
  241. Villarreal-Quintanilla JA, Encina-Dominguez JA (2005) Endemic vascular plants of Coahuila and adjacent areas, Mexico. Acta Botanica Mexicana 70:1–46Google Scholar
  242. Vogiatsakis I (ed) (2012) Mediterranean mountain environments. Wiley-Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  243. Wagner WL, Lorence DH (1997) Studies of Marquesan vascular plants: introduction. Allertonia 7:221–225Google Scholar
  244. Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH (2005) Flora of the Hawaiian Islands – online. Smithsonia National Museum of History:
  245. Walter H (1954) Klimax und zonale Vegetation. Angewandte Pflanzensoziologie, Festschrift Aichinger 1:144–150Google Scholar
  246. Werner U, Buszko J (2005) Detecting biodiversity hotspots using species-area and endemics-area relationships: the case of butterflies. Biodivers Conserv 14:1977–1988Google Scholar
  247. Whistler A (2011) Rare plants of Samoa. Conservation International, ApiaGoogle Scholar
  248. White F (1983) The vegetation of Africa: a descriptive memoir to accompany the UNSECO/AEFTAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, ParisGoogle Scholar
  249. Wikramanayake E, Dinerstein E, Loucks CJ, Olson DM, Morrison J, Lamoreux J, McKnight M, Hedao P (2002) Terrestrial ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific. A conservation assessment. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  250. Wisheu IC, Rosenzweig ML, Olsvig-Whittaker L, Shmida A (2000) What makes nutrient-poor mediterranean heathlands so rich in plant diversity? Evol Ecol Res 2:935–955Google Scholar
  251. Woinarski JCZ, Hempel C, Cowie I, Brennan K, Kerrigan R, Leach G, Russell-Smith J (2006) Distributional pattern of plant species endemic to the Northern Territory, Australia. Aust J Bot 54:627–640Google Scholar
  252. World Wildlife Fund (ed) (2011) Tongan tropical moist forests. The Encyclopedia of Earth. URL: Downloaded 15 July 2012
  253. WRI (World Resources Institute) (2003) Earth Trends. Country Profiles. URL: (downloaded for many regions; May-October 2012)
  254. Yena AV (2007) Floristic endemism in the Crimea. Fritschiana 55:1–8Google Scholar
  255. Zedler PH (1990) Life histories of vernal pool vascular plants. In: Ikeda DH, Schlising RA (eds) Vernal pool plants: their habitat and biology, Studies from the herbarium no. 8. California State University, Chico, pp 123–146Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carsten Hobohm
    • 1
  • Monika Janišová
    • 2
  • Jan Jansen
    • 3
  • Ines Bruchmann
    • 1
  • Uwe Deppe
    • 1
  1. 1.Ecology and Environmental Education Working Group, Interdisciplinary Institute of Environmental, Social and Human StudiesUniversity of FlensburgFlensburgGermany
  2. 2.Institute of BotanySlovak Academy of SciencesBanská BystricaSlovakia
  3. 3.Institute for Water and Wetland ResearchRadboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations