The Importance of Friendship in the Construction of Positive Nations

  • Graciela TononEmail author
  • Lía Rodriguez de la Vega
Part of the Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology book series (CAPP, volume 6)


This chapter is written by two Argentineans, Graciela Tonon and Lía Rodriguez de la Vega, and brings interesting data from their own studies regarding friendship as relational glue for a positive nation. Departing from the results gathered, where friendship emerged as the variable ranked with the highest value for the people interviewed, they define the concept and its typologies and connect it with the idea of a positive nation, with Martin Seligman’s flourishing model, and, finally, with Aristotle’s idea of friendship as community. Alongside the chapter, we can understand, through the testimonies and words of the interviewed, the dynamic perspectives regarding friendship as an instrument for self-construction, where mechanisms of proximity and similarity intervene and evoke a founding for participation and collective construction.


Social Bond Common Ethic Positive Nation Pleasant Life Collective Construction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adams, R. G., & Allan, G. (1998). Contextualizing friendship. In Placing friendship in context (pp. 1–17). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Allan, G. (1989). Friendship: Developing a sociological perspective. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester-Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  3. Argyle, M., & Henderson, M. (1984). The rules of friendship. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 1(2), 211–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aristóteles. (2008). Etica Nicomaquea. Barcelona: Gredos.Google Scholar
  5. Bauman, Z. (2003). Modernidad líquida. México: Editorial Fondo de Cultura Económica.Google Scholar
  6. Bauman, Z. (2006). En busca de la política. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  8. Beer, B. (2001). Anthropology of friendship. In International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (pp. 5805–5808). Kidlington: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berg, J. H., & Archer, R. L. (1980). Disclosure or concern: A second look at liking for the norm breaker. Journal of Personality, 48, 245–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berscheid, E., & Walster, E. (1991). Self-esteem and attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17, 84–91.Google Scholar
  11. Bidart, C., & Degenne, A. (2005). Introduction: The dynamics of personal networks. Social Networks, 27(4), 283–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brandt, A., & Hauser, E. A. (2011). Friendship and socio-cultural context. Experiences from New Zealand and Indonesia. In B. Descharmes et al. (Eds.), Varieties of friendship. Interdisciplinary perspectives on social relationships (pp. 145–174). Göttingen: V&R Unipress.Google Scholar
  13. Castel, R. (2004). La inseguridad social ¿Qué es estar protegido? Buenos Aires: Manantial.Google Scholar
  14. Chen, L. (2002). Communication in intercultural relationships. In W. Gudykunst & B. Mody (Eds.), Handbook of international and intercultural communication (pp. 241–258). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Crow, G., & Allan, G. (1994). Community life: An introduction to local social relationships. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester-Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  16. Cummins, R. (1997). Comprehensive quality of life scale- Adult manual (5th ed.). Melbourne: School of Psychology, Deakin University.Google Scholar
  17. Cummins, R., McCabe, M., Romeo, Y., & Gullone, E. (1994). The comprehensive quality of life scale: Instrument development and psychometric evaluation on tertiary staff and students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 372–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Doyle, M. E., & Smith, M. K. (2002). Friendship: Theory and experience. The encyclopaedia of informal education, Last update: December 01, 2011.
  19. Gareis, E. (1995). Intercultural friendship: A qualitative study. Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  20. Gudykunst, W. B. (1985). An exploratory comparison of close intracultural and intercultural friendships. Communication Quarterly, 33(4), 270–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hendrickson, B., Rosen, D., & Aune, K. (2010). An analysis of friendship networks, social connectedness, homesickness, and satisfaction levels of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 281–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaplan, D., & Keys, C. (1997). Sex and relationship variables as predictors of sexual attraction in cross-sex platonic friendships between young heterosexual adults. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 14, 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keller, M. (2004). A cross-cultural perspective on friendship research. ISBBD Newsletter, 46(2), 10–14.Google Scholar
  24. Kochin, M. S. (2005). Friendship beyond reason.
  25. Krappmann, L. (1996). Amicitia, drujba, shin-yu, philia, Freundschaft, friendship: On the cultural diversity of human relationship. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 19–40). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Kurth, S. B. (1970). Friendships and friendly relations. In G. McCall, M. McCall, N. Denzin, G. Suttles, & S. B. Kurth (Eds.), Social relationships (pp. 136–170). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  27. Lechner, N. (2002). Las sombras del mañana. La dimensión subjetiva de la política. Santiago de Chile: LOM Editorial.Google Scholar
  28. Li, Z. F. (2010). Bridging the gap: Intercultural friendship between Chinese and Americans. Master Thesis. School of Communication, Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA.Google Scholar
  29. Liebler, C. A., & Sandefur, G. D. (2001). Gender differences in the exchange of social support with friends, neighbors, and coworkers at midlife (CDE Working Paper No. 2001-12). Center for Demography and Ecology University of Wisconsin-Madison. at.Midlife_CDE_2001-12.pdf
  30. Litwak, E. (1989). Forms of friendship among older people in industrial society. In R. G. Adams & R. Blieszner (Eds.), Older adult friendships: Structure and process (pp. 65–88). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Lopata, H. Z. (1991). Friendship: Historical and theoretical introduction. In H. Lopata & D. Maines (Eds.), Friendship in context (pp. 1–19). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  32. Milardo, R. M., & Allan, G. (1997). Social networks and marital relationships. In S. Duck et al. (Eds.), Handbook of personal relationships (pp. 502–522). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  33. Oliker, S. (1989). Best friends and marriage: Exchange among women. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  34. Osbeck, L. M., & Moghaddam, F. M. (1997). Similarity and attraction among majority and minority groups in a multicultural context. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21, 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Osborne, C. (2009). Selves and other selves in Aristotle’s Eudemian ethics vii 12. Ancient Philosophy, 29(2), 349–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pahl, R. (2003). Sobre la Amistad. Madrid: Siglo XXl.Google Scholar
  37. Peng, F. (2011). Intercultural friendship development between Finnish and international students. Master Thesis. Department of Communications, Humanities Faculty, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä.Google Scholar
  38. Peterson, C. (2006). A primer in positive psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Rawlins, W. (1992). Friendship matters: Communication, dialectics and the life course. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  40. Renan, E. (1947). ¿Qué es una nación? Cristianismo y judaísmo. Contemporáneos ilustres. Consejos del sabio. Buenos Aires: Editorial Elevación.Google Scholar
  41. Roseneil, S., & Seymour, J. (1999). Practicing identities. Power and resistance. Basingstoke Hampshire/London/New York: MacMillan press LTD./St. Martin’s Press Inc.Google Scholar
  42. Seligman, M. (2002). La auténtica felicidad. Barcelona: Vergara.Google Scholar
  43. Seligman, M. (2009, June). Special lecture. First world congress on positive psychology. Philadelphia: International Positive Psychology Association.Google Scholar
  44. Stack, C. (1974). All our kin. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  45. Tampubolon, G. (2005). Fluxes and constants in the dynamics of friendships. ESRC Research Methods Program (Working Paper No 25). Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change. University of Manchester. Accessed 12 Jan 2012.
  46. The International Well-Being Group (2001) WBI. Manual Australian Centre on Quality of Life. Deakin University Australia.
  47. The International Well-Being Group. Personal well-being-adult (PWI-A) Manual 2006.Google Scholar
  48. Tonon, G. (2011). Quality of life in Argentina. In K. C. Land et al. (Eds.), Handbook of social indicators and quality of life research (pp. 547–554). Dordrecht: Springer Science + Business Media.Google Scholar
  49. Ying, Y. W. (2002). Formation of cross-cultural relationships of Taiwanese international students in the United States. Journal of Community Psychology, 30(1), 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zurco, M. (2011). Friendship during adolescence: The necessity for qualitative research of close relationships. Polish Journal of Applied Psychology, 9(1), 21–38.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Social SciencesUniversidad de PalermoCiudad Autónoma de Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.UNI-COM, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversidad Nacional de Lomas de ZamoraLomas de ZamoraArgentina

Personalised recommendations