Advertisement

The Altruism Spiral: An Integrated Model for a Harmonious Future

  • Lawrence Soosai NathanEmail author
  • Antonella Delle Fave
Chapter
Part of the Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology book series (CAPP, volume 6)

Abstract

This chapter provides an in-depth vision regarding altruism. It describes it as a collective vital strength, which is contemplated as a mental attitude by the authors – Lawrence Soosai Nathan and Antonella Delle Fave – it is considered to spiral in ways that have an impact upon society. The authors address current debates in what concerns definition clarification and bring forward visions from evolutionary biology and social psychology. To answer the debate, they propose that we move away from the customary worldview of a binary system – the one that includes the interaction process between two entities that are considered present in altruism, the ‘self’ and ‘the other’ – and adopt an interconnectedness perspective. This perspective views altruism as a mind-set and not just a behaviour, where other-oriented acts of concern for their welfare, even engaging to the point of sacrifice, also bring well-being to the agent while promoting connections. The centrifugal movement is linked with a plethora of benefits, although culturally diverse, the reason why the authors defend its promotion.

Keywords

Prosocial Behaviour Positive Psychology Autonomous Motivation Perspective Taking Empathic Concern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. AA. VV. Altruism. Garzanti Italian dictionary. Retrieved from http://garzantilinguistica.sapere.it
  2. AA. VV. Altruism. In Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com
  3. AA. VV. Altruism. In Tamil online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.tamilcube.com
  4. Alistair, R. (1988). Quantum physics: Illusion or reality. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Allison, P. (1992). The cultural evolution of beneficent norms. Social Forces, 71(2), 279–301.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Andreoni, J. (1990). Impure altruism and donations to public goods: A theory of warm-glow giving. The Economic Journal, 100, 464–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aristotle. (1985). Nicomachean ethics (T. Irwin, Trans.). Indianapolis: Hackett.Google Scholar
  9. Arnstein, P., Vidal, M., Well-Federman, C., Morgan, B., & Caudill, M. (2002). From chronic pain patient to peer: Benefits and risks of volunteering. Pain Management Nurses, 3(3), 94–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aronoff, J., & Wilson, J. P. (1984). Personality in the social process. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Bachner-Melman, R., Dina, C., Zohar, A. H., Constantini, N., Lerer, E., et al. (2005). AVPR1a and SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms are associated with creative dance performance. PLoS Genetics, 1(3), e42. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0010042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barash, D. P. (2007). Natural selection: Selfish altruists, honest liars and other realities of evolution. New York: Bellevue Literary Press.Google Scholar
  13. Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question. Toward a socio-psychological answer. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  14. Batson, C. D., Batson, J. G., Slingsby, J. K., Harrell, K. L., Peekna, H. M., & Todd, R. M. (1991). Empathic joy and the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 413–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Batson, C. D., Batson, J. G., Todd, R. M., Brummet, B. H., Shaw, L. L., & Aldeguer, C. M. R. (1995a). Empathy and collective good: Caring for one of the others in a social dilemma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 619–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Batson, C. D., Klein, T. R., Highberger, L., & Shaw, L. L. (1995b). Immorality from empathy-induced altruism: When compassion and justice conflict. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 1042–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Batson, C. D., Polycarpou, M. P., Harmon-Jones, E., Imhoff, H. J., Mitchener, E. M., Bednar, L. L., et al. (1997a). Empathy and attitudes: Can feeling for a member of stigmatized group involve feeling toward the group. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 105–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Batson, C. D., Sager, K., Garst, E., Kang, M., Rubchinsky, K., & Dawson, K. (1997b). Is empathy-induced helping due to self-other merging? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 495–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Batson, C. D., Lishner, D. A., Carpenter, A., Dulin, L., Harjusola-Webb, S., Stocks, E. L., et al. (2003). “… As you would have then do unto you”: Does imagining yourself in the other’s place stimulate moral action? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1190–1201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Batson, C. D., Ahmad, N., & Stocks, E. L. (2004). Benefits and liabilities of empathy-induced altruism. In A. G. Miller (Ed.), The social psychology of good and evil (pp. 359–385). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  21. Batson, C. D., Ahmad, N., Powell, A. A., & Stocks, E. L. (2008). Prosocial motivation. In J. Shah & W. Gardner (Eds.), Handbook of motivational science (pp. 135–149). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  22. Baumeister, R. F. (2005). The cultural animal. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Baumeister, R. F., & Exline, J. J. (1999). Virtue, personality, and social relations: Self-control as the moral muscle. Journal of Personality, 67, 1165–1194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychology Bulletin, 117, 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bernheim, B. D., & Stark, O. (1988). Altruism within the family reconsidered: Do nice guys finish last? The American Economic Review, 78(5), 1034–1045.Google Scholar
  26. Bertalanffy, L. V. (1950). An outline of general system theory. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 1(2), 134–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bible. (2007). NRSV international catholic edition. Washington, DC: Harper Collins Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of the child’s tie to his mother. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, XXXIX, 1–23.Google Scholar
  29. Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (1985). Culture and the evolutionary process. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Brown, R. (1988). Little flowers of St. Francis. New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  31. Brown, W. N. (1992). Some ethical concepts for the modern world from Hindu and Indian Buddhist tradition. In S. Radhakrishnan (Ed.), Rabindranath Tagore: A centenary volume, 1861–1961. Calcutta: Sahitya Akademi.Google Scholar
  32. Brown, S., Nesse, R. M., Vonokur, A. D., & Smith, D. M. (2003). Providing social support may be more beneficial than receiving it: Results from a prospective study of mortality. Psychological Science, 14, 320–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Burtt, E. A. (1952). The metaphysical foundations of modern science. New York: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  34. Butterfield, H. (1997). The origins of modern science. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  35. Campbell, W. K., & Foster, J. D. (2007). The Narcissistic self: Background and extended agency model and ongoing controversies. In C. Sedikides & S. Spencer (Eds.), Frontiers of social psychology: The self (pp. 115–138). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  36. Capra, F. (1999). The Tao of physics: An exploration of the parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism (4th ed.). New York: Shambhala Publication.Google Scholar
  37. Caprara, G. V., & Steca, P. (2005). Self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of prosocial behavior conducive to life satisfaction across ages. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 191–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chambers, J. H., & Ascione, F. R. (1987). The effects of prosocial and aggressive videogames on children’s donating and helping. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 148, 499–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Coate, S. (1995). Altruism, the samaritan’s dilemma and government transfer policy. The American Economic Review, 85(1), 46–57.Google Scholar
  40. Colman, A. E. (1982). Co-operation and competition in humans and animals. Wokingham: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  41. Comte, A. (1891). Catechism of positivism (R. Congreve, Trans.). London: Kegan Paul. (Original work published 1852)Google Scholar
  42. Cote, J. E., & Levine, C. (2002). Identity formation, agency, and culture. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  43. Cottingham, J., Stoothoff, R., Kenny, A., & Murdoch, D. (1988). The philosophical writings of Descartes in 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Culler, J. (1983). On deconstruction: Theory and criticism after structuralism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Darley, J. M., & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 377–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidences for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Davis, M. H., Soderlund, T., Cole, j., Gadol, E., Kute, M., Myers, M., et al. (2004). Cognitions associated with attempts to empathize: How do we imagine the perspective of another. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1625–1635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dawkins, R. (1989). The selfish gene (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. De Walls, F. B. M. (2008). Putting the altruism back into altruism: The evolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 279–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1980). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  51. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. New York: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  53. Deci, E. L., La Guardia, J. G., Moller, A. C., Scheiner, M. J., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). On the benefits of giving as well as receiving autonomy support: Mutuality in close friendships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 313–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Delle Fave, A. (2004). Positive psychology and the pursuit of complexity. Ricerche di Psicologia, Special Issue on Positive Psychology, 27, 7–12.Google Scholar
  55. Derrida, J. (1978). Writing and difference (A. Bass, Trans.). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Reviews, 54, 403–425.Google Scholar
  57. Dunn, E. W., Aknin, L. B., & Norton, M. I. (2008). Spending money on others promotes happiness. Science, 319(5870), 1687–1688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Eckstein, S. (2001). Community as gift-giving: Collectivistic roots of volunteerism. American Sociological Review, 66, 829–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Einstein, A. (1929). Interview, October 26. Reprinted in G. S. Viereck. (1930). Glimpses of the great (p. 452). New York: The Macaulay Company.Google Scholar
  60. Eisenberg, N. (1986). Altruistic emotion, cognition and behaviour. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Eliot, D. (1988). Advaita Vedanta: A philosophical reconstruction. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  62. Emerson. (2001). Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Publication.Google Scholar
  63. Epstein, S. (1994). Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. The American Psychologist, 49, 709–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Feyman, R. P., Leighton, R., & Sands, M. (1965). The Feyman lectures on physics. Reading: Addison- Wesley.Google Scholar
  65. Figley, C. R. (1995). Coping with secondary traumatic distress disorder in those who treat the traumatized. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  66. Finkelstein, M. A., Penner, L. A., & Brannick, M. T. (2005). An examination of role identity and motives among hospice volunteers. Social Behavior and Personality, 33, 403–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Frankl, V. E. (1967). Psychotherapy and existentialism: Selected papers on logotherapy. New York: Washington Square Press.Google Scholar
  68. Frankl, V. E. (1988). The will to meaning: Foundations and applications of logotherapy. New York: New American Library.Google Scholar
  69. Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Gratitude, like other positive emotions, broadens and builds. In R. A. Emmons & M. E. McCullough (Eds.), The psychology of gratitude (pp. 145–166). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Frey, B. S. (1997). Not just for the money: An economic theory of personal motivation. Cheltenham: Elgar.Google Scholar
  71. Frey, B. S., & Jegen, R. (2001). Motivation crowding theory. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15, 589–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Fromm, E. (1947). Man for himself. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Galinsky, A. D., & Moskowitz, G. B. (2000). Perspective-taking: Decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and in-group favouritism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 708–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gebauer, J. E., & Maio, G. R. (2012). The need to belong can motivate belief in God. Journal of Personality, 80(2), 465–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. The American Psychologist, 54, 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gollwitzer, P. M., & Brandstaetter, V. (1997). Implementation intentions and effective goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 186–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Goody, J. (1997). The domestication of the savage mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Gordon, M. (2007). Roots of empathy: Changing the world child by child. Toronto: Thomas Allen.Google Scholar
  79. Graham, A. C. (1986). Yin-Yang and the nature of correlative thinking. Singapore: The Institute of East Asian Philosophies.Google Scholar
  80. Guss, C. D. (2004). Decision making in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/orpc/vol4/iss1/3
  81. Haidt, J., Rosenberg, E., & Hom, H. (2003). Differentiating diversities: Moral diversity is not like other kinds. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Harbaugh, W. T., Mayr, U., & Burghart, D. R. (2007). Neural responses to taxation and voluntary giving reveal motives for charitable donations. Science, 316(5831), 1622–1625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hardin, R. (1982). Collective action. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Harris, A. H., & Thoresen, C. E. (2005). Volunteering is associated with delayed mortality in older people: Analysis of the longitudinal study of aging. Journal of Health Psychology, 10(6), 739–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1994). Attachment as an organisational framework for research on close relationships. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hoffman, M. L. (2008). Empathy and prosocial behaviour. In M. Lewis, J. Haviland-Jone, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 440–455). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  87. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: Inter-nations differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  88. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviours, institutions and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  89. Hui, C. H. (1988). Measurement of individualism and collectivism. Journal of Research in Personality, 22(1), 17–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hunter, K. I., & Linn, M. W. (1980). Psychosocial differences between elderly volunteers and non-volunteers. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 12(3), 205–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Isen, A. M., & Levin, P. F. (1972). The effect of feeling good on helping: Cookies and kindness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 384–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Iyengar, S. S., & Lepper, M. R. (1999). Rethinking the value of choice: A cultural perspective on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 349–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Jablonka, E., & Lamb, M. J. (2005). Evolution in four dimensions: Genetic, epigenetic, behavioural and symbolic variations in the history of life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  94. James, E. O. (1969). Creation and cosmology: A historical and comparative inquiry. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  95. Jones, R. H. (1986). Science and mysticism: A comparative study of western natural science, Theravada Buddhism and Advaita. London: Bucknell University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Jung, C. G. (1975). Psychology and religion: West and East. In H. Read, G. Adler, & R. F. C. Hull (Eds.), The collected works of C. G. Jung (Bollingen series, Vol. 11). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Kagitcibasi, C. (1996). The autonomous-relational self: A new synthesis. European Psychologist, 1, 180–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kagitcibasi, C. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in cultural context: Implications for self and family. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 403–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kalupaha, D. (1975). Causality: The central philosophy of Buddhism. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  100. Kemmelmeier, M., Jambor, E. E., & Lenter, J. (2006). Individualism and good works: Cultural variation in giving and volunteering across the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(3), 327–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kerr, B., Smith, G. P., & Feldman, M. W. (2004). What is altruism? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19(3), 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43(2), 207–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Keyes, C. L. M. (2009). The black-white paradox in health: Flourishing in the face of social inequality and discrimination. Journal of Personality, 77(6), 1677–1706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Keyes, C. L. M., & Annas, J. (2009). Feeling good and functioning well: Distinctive concepts in ancient philosophy and contemporary science. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(3), 197–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. King, S. (2003). Mosaic techniques and traditions. New York: Sterling Publishing.Google Scholar
  107. Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., Matsumoto, H., & Norasakkunkit, v. (1997). Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: Self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 925–937.Google Scholar
  108. Klen, K. J. K., & Hodges, S. D. (2001). Gender differences, motivation and empathic accuracy: When it pays to understand. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 720–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Knee, C. R., & Uysal, A. (2011). The role of autonomy in promoting healthy dyadic, familial, and parenting relationships across cultures. In V. I. Chrikov, R. M. Ryan, & K. M. Sheldon (Eds.), Human autonomy in cross-cultural context (pp. 95–110). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kohut, H. (1971). The analysis of the self. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  111. Krehbiel, L. E., & MacKay, K. (1988). Volunteer work by undergraduates. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED308801).Google Scholar
  112. Krishnan, L., & Manoj, V. R. (2008). “Giving” as a theme in the Indian psychology of values. In R. K. Rao, A. C. Paranjpe, & A. K. Dalal (Eds.), Handbook of Indian psychology (pp. 361–382). New Delhi: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Kunda, Z., & Schwartz, S. H. (1983). Undermining intrinsic moral motivation: External reward and self-presentation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 763–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kurman, J. (2003). Why is self-enhancement low in certain collectivist cultures? An investigation of two competing explanations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 496–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Laham, S. M. (2009). Expanding the moral circle: Inclusion and exclusion mindsets and the circle of moral regard. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(1), 250–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Latane, B., Nidas, S., & Wilson, D. (1981). The effect of group size on helping behaviour. In J. P. Rushton & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Altruism and helping behaviour (pp. 287–317). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  117. Lee, D. Y., Kang, C. H., Lee, J. Y., & Park, S. H. (2005). Characteristics of exemplary altruists. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 45(2), 146–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Leung, K., & Iwawaki, S. (1988). Cultural collectivism and distributive behaviour. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 19(1), 35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Levin, R. V., Norenzayan, A., & Philbrick, K. (2001). Cross-cultural differences in helping strangers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(5), 543–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lowen, A. (1997). Narcissism: Denial of the true self. New York: Touchstone Books.Google Scholar
  121. Luks, A. (1988). Helper’s high: Volunteering makes people feel good, physically and emotionally. And like “runner’s calm”, it’s probably good for your health. Psychology Today, 22(10), 34–42.Google Scholar
  122. Luks, A. (1991). The healing power of doing good: The health and spiritual benefits of helping others. New York: Columbine.Google Scholar
  123. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007). The how of happiness: A new approach to getting the life you want. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  124. Mahler, M. (1968). On human symbiosis and the vicissitudes of individuation. New York: International Universities.Google Scholar
  125. Mahony, W. K. (1998). The artful universe: An introduction to the Vedic religious imagination. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  126. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. McClelland, D., McClelland, D. C., & Kirchnit, C. (1988). The effect of motivational arousal through films on salivary immunoglobulin A. Psychology and Health, 2, 31–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. McCullough, M. E., Tsang, J., & Emmons, R. A. (2004). Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: Links of grateful moods to individual differences and daily emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 295–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. McLuhan, M., & Fiore, Q. (1968). War and peace in the global village. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  130. Miller, J. G. (1994). Cultural diversity in the morality of caring: Individually oriented versus duty-based interpersonal moral codes. Cross-Cultural Research, 28(1), 3–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Miller, P. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1988). The relation of empathy to aggressive and externalization/antisocial behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 324–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Miller, J. G., Bersoff, D. M., & Harwood, R. L. (1990). Perceptions of social responsibilities in India and in the United States: Moral imperatives or personal decisions? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 33–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Moll, J., Krueger, F., Zahn, R., Pardini, M., de Oliviera-Souza, R., & Grafman, J. (2006). Human front-mesolimbic networks guide decisions about charitable donation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 15623–15628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Monroe, K. R. (1996). The heart of altruism: Perceptions of a common humanity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Morgan, D. (2010). Buddha recognizes Buddha. Hexham: Throssel Hole Press.Google Scholar
  136. Moss, J. A., & Barbuto, J. E., Jr. (2010). Testing the relationship between interpersonal political skills, altruism, leadership success and effectiveness: A multilevel model. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 11(2), 155–174.Google Scholar
  137. Musick, M. A., & Wilson, J. (2003). Volunteering and depression: The role of psychological and social resources in different age groups. Social Sciences & Medicine, 56(2), 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Nedelcu, A. M., & Michod, R. E. (2006). The evolutionary origin of an altruistic gene. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23(8), 1460–1464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Neusner, J., & Chilton, B. D. (2005). Altruism in world religions. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  140. Newman, F., Milton, C., & Stroud, S. (1985). Community service and higher education: Obligations and opportunities. American Association of Higher Education Bulletin, 37, 9–13.Google Scholar
  141. Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84(3), 231–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Oakley, B., Knafo, A., Madhavan, G., & Wilson, D. S. (2011). Pathological altruism. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Okasha, S. (2005). Altruism, group selection and correlated interaction. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 56, 703–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Oliner, S. P., & Oliner, P. M. (1988). The altruistic personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  145. Oman, D. (2007). Does volunteering foster physical health and longevity? In S. G. Post (Ed.), Altruism and health: Perspectives from empirical research (pp. 15–32). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Oman, D., Thoresen, C. E., & McMahon, K. (1999). Volunteerism and mortality among the community-dwelling elderly. Journal of Health Psychology, 4, 301–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Pande, N., & Naidu, R. K. (1992). Anasakti and health: A study of non-attachment. Psychology and Developing Societies, 4, 89–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Panikkar, R. (2001). The Vedic experience: Mantramañjari. Bangalore: Motilal Banarsidass.Google Scholar
  149. Pearson, C. (1998). The hero within: Six archetypes we live by (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Harper.Google Scholar
  150. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  151. Piliavin, J. A., & Charng, H. (1990). Altruism: A review of recent theory and research. Annual Review of Sociology, 16, 27–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Piliavin, J. A., & Siegl, E. (2007). Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48(4), 450–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Post, S. G. (2005). Altruism, happiness, and health: It is good to be good. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 12(2), 66–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pucca, R. M., & Schmalt, H. D. (2001). The influence of the achievement motive on spontaneous thought in pre and post decisional action phase. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 302–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rizzolatti, G., & Craighero, L. (2004). The mirror-neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Robb, C., & Swearer, H. (1985). Community service and higher education: A national agenda. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 37, 3–8.Google Scholar
  157. Rodin, J., & Langer, E. (1976). The effect of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged: A field experiment in an institutional setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34(2), 191–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  159. Rozemond, M. (1998). Descartes’s dualism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  160. Rushton, J. P. (1980). Altruism, socialization, and society. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  161. Rushton, J. P., Chrisjohn, R. D., & Fekken, G. C. (1981). The altruistic personality and the self-report altruism scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1192–1198.Google Scholar
  162. Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 749–761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000a). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000b). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. The American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentialities: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 13–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Ryff, C. D., Shmotkin, D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 1007–1022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Salzberg, S., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2008). Lovingkindness: The revolutionary art of happiness. Boston: Shambhala Publications.Google Scholar
  169. Saussure, F. (1916). Nature of the linguistics sign. In C. Bally & A. Sechehaye (Eds.), Cours de linguistique générale. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
  170. Schore, A. N. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of emotional development. Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  171. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in twenty countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  172. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism: New dimensions of values. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. C. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory application and methods. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  173. Schwartz, S. H. (2010). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Sciences, 50(4), 19–45.Google Scholar
  174. Schwartz, C. E., Meisenhelder, J. B., Ma, Y., & Reed, G. (2003). Altruistic social interest behaviors are associated with better mental health. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 778–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sedikides, C., Skowronski, J. J., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2006). When and why did the human self evolve? In M. Schaller, J. A. Simpson, & D. T. Kenrick (Eds.), Evolution and social psychology: Frontiers in social psychology (pp. 55–80). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  176. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. The American Psychologist, 1, 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sen, A. (1987). On ethics and economics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  178. Shaw, L. L., Batson, C. D., & Todd, R. M. (1994). Empathy avoidance: Forestalling feeling for another in order to escape the motivational consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 879–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sheldon, K. M., Elliot, A. J., Kim, Y., & Kasser, T. (2001). What’s satisfying about satisfying events? Comparing ten candidate psychological needs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 325–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Shelton, M. L., & Rogers, R. W. (1981). Fear-arousing and empathy-arousing appeals to help: The pathos of persuasion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 11, 366–378.Google Scholar
  181. Sherman, P. W. (1985). Alarm calls of Belding’s ground squirrels to aerial predators: Nepotism or self preservation? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 17, 313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Shotland, R. L., & Stebbins, C. A. (1983). Emergency and cost as determinants of helping behaviour and the slow accumulation of social psychological knowledge. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46, 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sibicky, M., Schroeder, D., & Dovidio, J. F. (1995). Empathy and helping: Considering the consequences of intervention. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16, 435–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Simon, H. A. (1993). Altruism and economics. The American Economic Review, 83(2), 156–161.Google Scholar
  185. Smith, G. (1996). Binary opposition and sexual power in paradise lost. Midwest Quarterly, 27(4), 383–390.Google Scholar
  186. Smith, T. (2007). Most satisfying jobs. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center/General Social Survey 2006.Google Scholar
  187. Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2007). Positive psychology: The scientific and practical explorations of human strengths. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  188. Sobus, M. S. (1995). Mandating community service: Psychological implications of requiring prosocial behavior. Law and Psychological Review, 19, 153–182.Google Scholar
  189. Sorokin, P. A. (1941). Crisis of our age. New York: Dutton.Google Scholar
  190. Sorokin, P. A. (1948). The reconstruction of humanity. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  191. Sorokin, P. A. (1950). Altruistic love: A study of American “good neighbors” and Christian saints. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  192. Spielman, D., & Staub, E. (2000). Reducing boys’ aggression. Learning to fulfill basic needs constructively. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21, 165–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Staub, E. (2003). The psychology of good and evil: Why children, adults and groups help and harm others. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Steger, M. F., Kashdan, T. B., & Oishi, S. (2008). Being good by doing good: Daily eudaimonic activity and well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 22–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Swidler, A. (1986). Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American Sociological Review, 52(2), 273–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Talbot, M. (1993). Mysticism and the new physics (2nd ed.). London: Arkana (Penguin Books).Google Scholar
  197. Tankersley, D., Stowe, C. J., & Huettel, S. A. (2007). Altruism is associated with an increased neural response to the perception of agency. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 150–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Taylor, S. E., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1995). Effects on mindset on positive illusions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 213–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Thoits, P. A., & Hewitt, L. N. (2001). Volunteer work and well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 42(2), 115–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Triandis, H. C. (1994). Culture and social behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  201. Triandis, H. C., Chan, D. K. S., Bhawuk, D., Iwao, S., & Sinha, J. B. P. (1995). Multimethod probes of allocentrism and idiocentrism. International Journal of Psychology, 30, 461–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Upton, W. E., III. (1974). Altruism, attribution and intrinsic motivation in the recruitment of blood donors. In Selected readings in donor recruitment (Vol. 2, pp. 7–38). Washington, DC: American National Red Cross.Google Scholar
  203. Uyenoyama, M. K., & Feldman, M. W. (1992). Altruism: Some theoretical ambiguities. In E. F. Keller & E. A. Lloyd (Eds.), Keywords in evolutionary biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  204. Waite, R. G. L. (1977). The psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  205. Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Watkins, D., Mortazavi, S., & Trofimova, I. (2000). Independent and interdependent conceptions of self: An investigation of age, gender, and culture differences in importance and satisfaction ratings. Cross-Cultural Research, 34(2), 113–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Weinstein, J. (2004). Creative altruism: The prospects for a common humanity in the age of globalization. Journal of Future Studies, 9(1), 45–58.Google Scholar
  208. Weinstein, J. (2008). Giving altruism its due: A possible world or possibly no world at all. Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 2(2), 39–53.Google Scholar
  209. Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for prosocial behaviour and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(2), 222–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Weintraub, S. (2011). The absolute, the relative and the colonel. Inquiring Mind, 28(1). http://www.inquiringmind.com/Articles/AbsoluteRelative.html
  211. Wilson, D. S. (1992). On the relationship between evolutionary and psychological definitions of altruism and selfishness. Biology and Philosophy, 7, 61–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Wojciech, G., & Ryan, L. V. (1996). Human action in business: Praxiological and ethical dimensions. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  213. Wuthnow, R. (1991). Acts of compassion: Caring for others and helping ourselves. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  214. Zahn-waxler, C., Cummings, E. M., & Lannotti, R. (1991). Altruism and aggression: Biological and social origin. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  215. Zuckerman, M., Porac, J., Lathin, D., Smith, R., & Deci, E. L. (1978). On the importance of self-determination for intrinsically motivated behaviour. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, 443–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence Soosai Nathan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonella Delle Fave
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Anugraha Institute of Social Sciences (M.K University)University of MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Pathophysiology and TransplantationUniversity of MilanoMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations