Advertisement

Language Use and Social Interaction

  • Douglas W. Maynard
  • Jason Turowetz
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Language is a primary medium of social behavior and, as such, deserves center stage in the panoply of social psychological topics. This chapter explores the social psychology of language by reviewing scholarship that highlights how people use language to perform social actions. This approach goes against a tradition that sees spoken language primarily in terms of the conduit metaphor or only as a vehicle for communication. The authors review speech act theory (in philosophy) and pose the “mapping problem” (Levinson, Pragmatics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983) or how actions are linked to particular utterances. They then review different perspectives including sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, Goffmanian sociology, discursive psychology, and ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. Discussion includes, for each of these perspectives, methodological procedures, including approaches to the relation between talk and social structure. Ever more realms of language use related to social psychology are coming under the microscope and set an agenda for further study.

Keywords

Discourse Analysis Adjacency Pair Conversation Analysis Significant Symbol Pair Part 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ainsworth-Vaughn, N. (1992). Topic transitions in physician-patient interviews: Power, gender, and discourse change. Language in Society, 21, 409–426.Google Scholar
  2. Antaki, C. (1994). Explaining and arguing: The social organization of accounts. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Antaki, C., & Widdicombe, S. (1998). Identity as an achievement and as a tool. In C. Antaki & S. Widdicombe (Eds.), Identities in talk. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Antaki, C., & Wilkinson, R. (2012). Conversation analysis and the study of atypical populations. In J. Sidnell &T. Stivers (Eds.), The handbook of conversation analysis (pp. 533–550). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  5. Aries, E. (1996). Men and women in interaction: Reconsidering the differences. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Armstrong, D. (1983). Political anatomy of the body. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Atkinson, J. M., & Drew, P. (1979). Order in court: The organisation of verbal interaction in judicial settings. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. Auer, P. (Ed.). (1999). Code-switching in conversation: Language, interaction and identity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Austin, J. L. (1961). Philosophical papers. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Baugh, J. (1999). Out of the mouths of slaves. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bereiter, C., & Engelmann, S. (1966). Teaching disadvantaged children in the preschool. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Bereiter, C., Engelman, S., Osborn, J., & Reidford, P. A. (1966). An academically oriented pre-school for culturally deprived children. In F. M. Hechinger (Ed.), Pre-school education today: New approaches to teaching three-, four-, and five-year olds (pp. 105–135). New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  14. Bernstein, B. (1961). Social structure, language and learning. Educational Research, 3, 163–176.Google Scholar
  15. Bernstein, B. (1972). A sociolinguistic approach to socialization: With some reference to educability. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication (pp. 465–511). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  16. Billig, M. (1987). Arguing and thinking. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and symbolic power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Breitborde, L. B. (1983). Levels of analysis in sociolinguistic explanation: Bilingual code switching, social relations, and domain theory. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 39, 5–43.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, R. (1958). Words and things. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  20. Buttny, R. (1993). Social accountability in communication. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Buttny, R. (1997). Reported speech in talking race on campus. Human Communication Research, 23(4), 477–506.Google Scholar
  22. Button, G. (1987). Answers as interactional products: Two sequential practices used in interviews. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50(2), 160–171.Google Scholar
  23. Chaiken, S. (1987). The heuristic model of persuasion. In M. P. Zanna, J. M. Olson, & C. P. Herman (Eds.), Social influence: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 5). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  24. Chambers, J. K. (2008). Sociolinguistic theory: Linguistic variation and its social significance. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  25. Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cicourel, A. V. (1981). Notes on the integration of micro- and macro-levels of analysis. In K. Knorr-Cetina & A. V. Cicourel (Eds.), Advances in social theory and methodology: Toward an integration of micro- and macro-sociologies. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  27. Clark, H. H. (1985). Language use and language users. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 179–231). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  28. Clayman, S. E. (1988). Displaying neutrality in television news interviews. Social Problems, 35(4), 474–492.Google Scholar
  29. Clayman, S. E., & Gill, V. T. (2012). Conversation analysis. In A. Bryman & M. Hardy (Eds.), Handbook of data analysis (pp. 119–134). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Clayman, S. E., & Heritage, J. (2002). The news interview: Journalists and public figures on the air. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Corsaro, W. A. (1979). Young children’s conception of status and role. Sociology of Education, 55, 160–177.Google Scholar
  32. Corsaro, W. A. (1992). Interpretive reproduction in children’s peer cultures. Social Psychological Quarterly, 55, 160–177.Google Scholar
  33. Corsaro, W. A. (1996). Transitions in early childhood: The promise of comparative, longitudinal ethnography. In R. Jessor, A. Colby, & R. A. Shweder (Eds.), Ethnography and human development: Context and meaning in social inquiry (pp. 419–456). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  34. Coulthard, M. (1977). An introduction to discourse analysis. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  35. Danet, B. (1980). Language in the legal process. Law and Society Review, 14, 445–564.Google Scholar
  36. de Saussure, F. (2011[1916]). Course in general linguistics. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Duneier, M., & Molotch, H. (1999). Talking city trouble: Interactional vandalism, social inequality, and the ‘urban interaction problem’. The American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1263–1295.Google Scholar
  38. Eder, D. (1995). School talk: Gender and adolescent culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Edwards, D. (1995). Two to tango: Script formulations, dispositions, and rhetorical symmetry in relationship troubles talk. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 28(4), 319–350.Google Scholar
  40. Edwards, D. (1997). Discourse and cognition. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Edwards, D., & Potter, J. (1992). Discursive psychology. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Edwards, J. (1979). Language and disadvantage. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  43. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1989). Human ethology. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  44. Emirbayer, M., & Maynard, D. W. (2011). Pragmatism and ethnomethodology. Qualitative Sociology, 34, 221–261.Google Scholar
  45. Ervin-Tripp, S. M. (1972). On sociolinguistic rules: Alternation and co-occurrence. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  46. Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  47. Firth, J. R. (1935). The techniques of semantics. Transactions of the Philological Society, 7, 36–72.Google Scholar
  48. Fisher, S. (1983). Doctor talk/patient talk: How treatment decisions are negotiated in doctor-patient communication. In S. Fisher & A. D. Todd (Eds.), The social organization of doctor-patient communication (pp. 135–157). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
  49. Ford, C. (2008). Women speaking up: Getting and using turns in workplace meetings. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  50. Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  51. Gardner, C. B. (1989). Analyzing gender in public places: Rethinking Goffman’s vision of everyday life. The American Sociologist, 20(1), 42–56.Google Scholar
  52. Gardner, C. B. (1995). Passing by: Gender and public harassment. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  53. Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  54. Garfinkel, H., & Sacks, H. (1970). On formal structures of practical actions. In J. D. McKinney & E. A. Tiryakian (Eds.), Theoretical sociology (pp. 337–366). New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.Google Scholar
  55. Gee, J. P. (2010). An introduction to discourse analysis: Theory and method. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Gibson, D. (2010). Marking the turn: Obligation, engagement, and alienation in group discussions. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73(2), 132–151.Google Scholar
  57. Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self identity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Giles, H., & Robinson, W. P. (1990). Prologue. In H. Giles & W. P. Robinson (Eds.), Handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 1–8). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  60. Gill, V. T. (1998). Doing attributions in medical interaction: Patients’ explanations for illness and doctors’ responses. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 342–360.Google Scholar
  61. Gill, V. T., & Roberts, F. (2012). Conversation analysis in medicine. In J. Sidnell & T. Stivers (Eds.), The handbook of conversation analysis (pp. 575–592). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  62. Goffman, E. (1971). Relations in public: Microstudies of the public order. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  63. Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  64. Goffman, E. (1979). Footing. Semiotica, 25, 1–29.Google Scholar
  65. Goffman, E. (1981). Forms of talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  66. Goffman, E. (1983). The interaction order. American Sociological Review, 48, 1–17.Google Scholar
  67. Goodwin, C. (1987). Forgetfulness as an interactive resource. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50(2), 115–130.Google Scholar
  68. Goodwin, C. (Ed.). (2003). Conversation and brain damage. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Goodwin, C. (2007a). Participation, stance, and affect in the organization of activities. Discourse and Society, 18(1), 57–73.Google Scholar
  70. Goodwin, M. H. (1990). He-said-she-said: Talk as social organization among black children. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Goodwin, M. H. (2006). Participation, affect, and trajectory in family directive-response sequences. Talk and Text, 26(4/5), 513–541.Google Scholar
  72. Goodwin, M. H. (2007b). Participation and embodied action in preadolescent girls’ assessment activity. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 40(4), 353–375.Google Scholar
  73. Grice, H. P. (1957). Meaning. Philosophical Review, 67, 53–59.Google Scholar
  74. Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In P. Cole & N. L. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and semantics (Speech acts, Vol. 3, pp. 41–58). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  75. Grimshaw, A. (1989). Collegial discourse: Professional conversation among peers. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  76. Grimshaw, A. D. (1974). Sociolinguistics. In I. d. S. Pool & W. Schramm (Eds.), Handbook of communication (pp. 49–92). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  77. Gumperz, J. J. (1972). Introduction. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication (pp. 1–25). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  78. Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Gumperz, J. J., & Hymes, D. (1972). Directions in sociolinguistics: The ethnography of communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  80. Habermas, J. (1979). Communication and the evolution of society. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  81. Harré, R. (1986). An outline of the social constructionist viewpoint. In R. Harré (Ed.), The social construction of emotions (pp. 2–14). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  82. Hayashi, M., Raymond, G., & Sidnell, J. (Eds.). (2013). Conversational repair and human understanding. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Heath, C. (1989). Pain talk: The expression of suffering in the medical consultation. Social Psychology Quarterly, 52(2), 113–125.Google Scholar
  84. Hepburn, A., & Potter, J. (2011). Designing the recipient: Managing advice resistance in institutional settings. Social Psychology Quarterly, 74, 216–241.Google Scholar
  85. Heritage, J. (1984). Garfinkel and ethnomethodology. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  86. Heritage, J. (2012a). Epistemics in action: Action formation and territories of knowledge. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 45, 1–29.Google Scholar
  87. Heritage, J. (2012b). The epistemic engine: Sequence organization and territories of knowledge. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 45, 30–52.Google Scholar
  88. Heritage, J., & Clayman, S. E. (2010). Talk in action: Interactions, identities, and institutions. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  89. Heritage, J., & Maynard, D. (Eds.). (2006). Communication in medical care: Interactions between primary care physicians and patients. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Heritage, J., & Raymond, G. (2005). The terms of agreement: Indexing epistemic authority and subordination in talk-in-interaction. Social Psychology Quarterly, 68, 15–38.Google Scholar
  91. Heritage, J., Robinson, J., Elliott, M., Beckett, M., & Wilkes, M. (2007). Reducing patients’ unmet concerns in primary care: The difference one word can make. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(10), 1429–1433.Google Scholar
  92. Hertzler, J. O. (1965). A sociology of language. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  93. Hewitt, J. P., & Shulman, D. (2011). Self and society: A symbolic interactionist social psychology. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  94. Holtgraves, T. (1991). Interpreting questions and replies: Effects of face-threat, question form, and gender. Social Psychology Quarterly, 54, 15–24.Google Scholar
  95. House, J. S. (1977). The three faces of social psychology. Sociometry, 40, 161–177.Google Scholar
  96. Hovland, C. I., Harvey, O. J., & Sherif, M. (1953). Persuasion and communication. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Hymes, D. (1974). Foundations in sociolinguistics: An ethnographic approach. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  98. Jefferson, G. (1983). Issues in the transcription of naturally occurring talk: Caricature versus capturing pronunciational particulars. Tilburg Papers in Language and Literature, 34, 1–12.Google Scholar
  99. Jefferson, G. (2004). Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. In G. Lerner (Ed.), Conversation analysis: Studies from the first generation (pp. 13–31). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  100. Key, M. R. (1972). Linguistic behavior of male and female. Linguistics, 88, 15–31.Google Scholar
  101. Kitzinger, C. (2005). Heteronormativity in action: Reproducing the heterosexual nuclear family in after-hours medical calls. Social Problems, 52(4), 477–498.Google Scholar
  102. Kitzinger, C. (2008). Conversation analysis: Technical matters for gender research. In K. Harrington, L. Litosseliti, H. Saunston, & J. Sunderland (Eds.), Gender and language research methodologies (pp. 119–138). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  103. Kitzinger, C. (2012). Repair. In J. Sidnell & T. Stivers (Eds.), The handbook of conversation analysis (pp. 229–256). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  104. Kollock, P., Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P. (1985). Sex and power in interaction: Conversational privileges and duties. American Sociological Review, 50, 34–46.Google Scholar
  105. Labov, W. (1972a). Language in the inner city: Studies in the Black English vernacular. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  106. Labov, W. (1972b). Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  107. Labov, W., & Fanshel, D. (1977). Therapeutic discourse: Psychotherapy as conversation. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  108. Lakoff, R. (1975). Language and woman’s place. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  109. Land, V., & Kitzinger, C. (2011). Categories in talk-in-interaction: Gendering speaker and recipient. In S. A. Speer & E. Stokoe (Eds.), Conversation and gender. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Lennenberg, E. H. (1953). Cognition and ethnolinguistics. Language, 29, 463–471.Google Scholar
  111. Lerner, G. (1989). Notes on overlap management in conversation: The case of delayed completion. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 53, 167–177.Google Scholar
  112. Lerner, G. H. (1996). Finding ‘face’ in the preference structures of talk-in-interaction. Social Psychology Quarterly, 59, 303–321.Google Scholar
  113. Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Lutfey, K., & Maynard, D. W. (1998). Bad news in oncology: How physician and patient talk about death and dying without using those words. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 321–341.Google Scholar
  115. Malinowski, B. (1923). The problem of meaning in primitive societies. In C. K. Ogden & J. A. Richards (Eds.), The meaning of meaning (pp. 451–510). London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  116. Manning, P., & Ray, G. (1993). Shyness, self-confidence, and social interaction. Social Psychology Quarterly, 56, 178–192.Google Scholar
  117. Manzo, J. (1996). Taking turns and taking sides: Opening scenes from two jury deliverations. Social Psychology Quarterly, 59, 107–125.Google Scholar
  118. Marlaire, C. L., & Maynard, D. W. (1990). Standardized testing as an interactional phenomenon. Sociology of Education, 63, 83–101.Google Scholar
  119. Maynard, D. W. (1984). Inside plea bargaining: The language of negotiation. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  120. Maynard, D. W. (1987). Language and social interaction. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50(2), v–vi.Google Scholar
  121. Maynard, D. W. (2003). Bad news, good news: Conversational order in everyday talk and clinical settings. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  122. Maynard, D. W. (2005). Social actions, gestalt coherence, and designations of disability: Lessons from and about autism. Social Problems, 52, 499–524.Google Scholar
  123. Maynard, D. W., & Clayman, S. E. (1991). The diversity of ethnomethodology. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 385–418.Google Scholar
  124. Maynard, D. W., Freese, J., & Schaeffer, N. C. (2010). Calling for participation: Requests, blocking moves, and rational (inter)action. American Sociological Review, 75(5), 791–814.Google Scholar
  125. Maynard, D. W., Houtkoop-Steenstra, H., Schaeffer, N. C., & Zouwen, H. v. d. (Eds.). (2002). Standardization and tacit knowledge: Interaction and practice in the survey interview. New York: Wiley Interscience.Google Scholar
  126. Maynard, D. W., & Marlaire, C. L. (1992). Good reasons for bad testing performance: The interactional substrate of educational testing. Qualitative Sociology, 15, 177–202.Google Scholar
  127. Maynard, D. W., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1984). Topical talk, ritual and the social organization of relationships. Social Psychology Quarterly, 47, 301–316.Google Scholar
  128. McDermott, R. P., Gospodinoff, K., & Aron, J. (1978). Criteria for an ethnographically adequate description of concerted activities and their contexts. Semiotica, 24, 245–275.Google Scholar
  129. McHoul, A. (1978). The organization of turns at formal talk in the classroom. Language in Society, 7, 183–213.Google Scholar
  130. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  131. Mehan, H. (1979). Learning lessons. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  132. Mehan, H. (1991). The school’s work of sorting students. In D. B. a. D. H. Zimmerman (Ed.), Talk and social structure (pp. 71–90). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  133. Moerman, M. (1988). Talking culture: Ethnography and conversation analysis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  134. Molotch, H. L., & Boden, D. (1985). Talking social structure: Discourse, domination and the Watergate hearings. American Sociological Review, 50, 273–288.Google Scholar
  135. Mondada, L. (2012). Garden lessons: Embodied action and joint attention in extended sequences. In H. Nasu & F. C. Waksler (Eds.), Interaction and everyday life: Phenomenological and ethnomethodological essays in honor of George Psathas. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  136. Okamoto, D. G., & Smith-Lovin, L. (2001). Changing the subject: Gender, status, and the dynamics of topic change. American Sociological Review, 66, 852–873.Google Scholar
  137. Peräkylä, A. (1995). Aids counselling: Institutional interaction and clinical practice. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  138. Peräkylä, A. (1998). Authority and accountability: The delivery of diagnosis in primary health care. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 301–320.Google Scholar
  139. Peräkylä, A. (Ed.). (2008). Conversation analysis and psychotherapy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  140. Peräkylä, A., & Sorjonen, M.-L. (Eds.). (2012). Emotion in interaction. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). Communication and persuasion. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  142. Phillips, S. (1982). The invisible culture: Communication in classroom and community on the Warm Springs Indian reservation. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  143. Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct: How the mind creates language. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  144. Pitkin, H. F. (1972). Wittgenstein and justice: On the significance of Ludwig Wittgenstein for social and political thought. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  145. Potter, J. (1996). Representing reality: Discourse, rhetoric, and social construction. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  146. Potter, J. (2012). Discourse analysis and discursive psychology. In H. Cooper (Ed.), APA Handbook of research methods in psychology (Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological, Vol. 2). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  147. Potter, J., & Hepburn, A. (2011). Recipients designed: Tag-questions and gender. In S. A. Speer & E. Stokoe (Eds.), Conversation and gender (pp. 135–152). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  148. Potter, J., & Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behavior. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  149. Rawls, A. W. (1987). The interaction order sui generis: Goffman’s contribution to social theory. Sociological Theory, 5, 136–149.Google Scholar
  150. Rawls, A. W. (2010). Social order as moral order. In S. Hitlin & S. Vaisey (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of morality (pp. 95–122). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  151. Reddy, M. J. (1979). The conduit metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (pp. 284–324). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  152. Ruusuvuori, J. (2012). Emotion, affect and conversation. In J. Sidnell & T. Stivers (Eds.), The handbook of conversation analysis (pp. 330–349). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  153. Sacks, H. (1984). Notes on methodology. In J. M. Atkinson & J. Heritage (Eds.), Structures of social action (pp. 21–27). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  154. Sacks, H. (1992). Lectures on conversation (Fall 1964-spring 1968, Vol. 1). Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  155. Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language, 50, 696–735.Google Scholar
  156. Schegloff, E. A. (1972). Notes on a conversational practice: Formulating place. In D. Sudnow (Ed.), Studies in social interaction (pp. 75–119). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  157. Schegloff, E. A. (1986). The routine as achievement. Human Studies, 9, 111–151.Google Scholar
  158. Schegloff, E. A. (1987). Analyzing single episodes of interaction: An exercise in conversation analysis. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50(2), 101–114.Google Scholar
  159. Schegloff, E. A. (1989). Reflections on language, development and the interactional character of talk-in-interaction. In M. Bornstein & J. S. Bruner (Eds.), Interaction in human development (pp. 139–153). New York: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  160. Schegloff, E. A. (1991). Reflections on talk and social structure. In D. Boden & D. H. Zimmerman (Eds.), Talk and social structure (pp. 44–70). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  161. Schegloff, E. A. (1992). Repair after next turn: The last structurally provided for place for the defence of intersubjectivity in conversation. The American Journal of Sociology, 95(5), 1295–1345.Google Scholar
  162. Schegloff, E. A. (2000). Overlapping talk and the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language in Society, 29, 1–63.Google Scholar
  163. Schegloff, E. A. (2007). Sequence organization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  164. Schegloff, E. A., & Sacks, H. (1973). Opening up closings. Semiotica, 8, 289–327.Google Scholar
  165. Searle, J. R. (1969). Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  166. Searle, J. R. (1975). Indirect speech acts. In P. Cole & J. L. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and semantics (Vol. 3, pp. 59–82). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  167. Sidnell, J., & Stivers, T. (Eds.). (2012). The handbook of conversation analysis. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  168. Silverman, D. (1987). Communication and medical practice. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  169. Sorjonen, M.-L. (2001). Responding in conversation: A study of response particles in Finnish. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  170. Speer, S. A. (2011). On the role of reported, third party compliments in passing as a ‘real woman’. In S. A. Speer & E. Stokoe (Eds.), Conversation and gender (pp. 155–182). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  171. Speer, S. A. (2012). The interactional organization of self-praise: Epistemics, preference organization, and implications for identity research. Social Psychology Quarterly, 75, 52–79.Google Scholar
  172. Speer, S. A., & Parsons, C. (2006). Gatekeeping gender: Some features of the use of hypothetical questions in the psychiatric assessment of transsexual patients. Discourse and Society, 17(6), 785–812.Google Scholar
  173. Speer, S. A., & Stokoe, E. (2011a). An introduction to conversation and gender. In S. A. Speer & E. Stokoe (Eds.), Conversation and gender. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  174. Speer, S. A., & Stokoe, E. (Eds.). (2011b). Conversation and gender. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  175. Stivers, T. (2007). Prescribing under pressure: Parent-physician conversations and antibiotics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  176. Stivers, T., & Majid, A. (2007). Questioning children: Interactional evidence of implicit bias in medical interviews. Social Psychology Quarterly, 70, 424–441.Google Scholar
  177. Stivers, T., Mondada, L., & Steensig, J. (Eds.). (2011). The morality of knowledge in conversation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  178. Stokoe, E. (2008). Categories and sequences: Formulating gender in talk-in-interaction. In K. Harrington, L. Litosseliti, H. Saunston, & J. Sunderland (Eds.), Gender and language research methodologies (pp. 139–157). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  179. Stokoe, E. (2010). ‘I’m not gonna hit a lady’: Conversation analysis, membership categorization, and men’s denials of violence toward women. Discourse and Society, 21(1), 59–82.Google Scholar
  180. Stokoe, E. (2011). ‘Girl–woman–sorry!’: On the repair and non-repair of consecutive gender categories. In S. A. Speer & E. Stokoe (Eds.), Conversation and gender. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  181. Stokoe, E., & Edwards, D. (2007). ‘Black this, black that’: Racial insults and reported speech in neighbour complaints and police interrogations. Discourse and Society, 18(3), 337–372.Google Scholar
  182. Strawson, P. F. (1964). Intention and convention in speech acts. Philosophical Review, 73, 439–460.Google Scholar
  183. Strong, P. (1979). The ceremonial order of the clinic. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  184. Stubbs, M. (1983). Discourse analysis. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  185. Tannen, D. (1990). You just don’t understand: Women and men in conversation. New York: William Morrow and Co.Google Scholar
  186. Thorne, B., & Henley, N. (1975). Language and sex: Difference and dominance. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  187. Turner, J., & Stets, J. E. (2006). Sociological theories of human emotions. Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 25–52.Google Scholar
  188. Turowetz, J. J., & Maynard, D. W. (2010). Morality in the social interactional and discursive world of everyday life. In S. Hitlin & S. Vaisey (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of morality. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  189. van Dijk, T. (Ed.). (1985). Handbook of discourse analysis (Vol. 1–4). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  190. van Dijk, T. (1997a). Discourse as interaction in society. In T. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as social interaction. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  191. van Dijk, T. (1997b). The study of discourse. In T. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as structure and process (pp. 1–34). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  192. Waitzkin, H. (1991). The politics of medical encounters: How patients and doctors deal with social problems. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  193. Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  194. West, C., & Garcia, A. (1988). Conversational shift work. Social Problems, 35, 550–575.Google Scholar
  195. West, C., & Zimmerman, D. (1983). Small insults: A study of interruptions in cross-sex conversations with unacquainted persons. In B. Thorne, C. Kramarae, & N. Henley (Eds.), Language, gender and society (pp. 102–117). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  196. West, C., & Zimmerman, D. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and Society, 1(2), 125–151.Google Scholar
  197. West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1985). Gender, language and discourse. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Handbook of discourse analysis (Vol. 4, pp. 103–124). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  198. Whalen, J., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1998). Observations on the display and management of emotion in naturally occurring activities: The case of ‘hysteria’ in calls to 9-1-1. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 141–159.Google Scholar
  199. Whalen, M., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1987). Sequential and institutional contexts in calls for help. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, 172–185.Google Scholar
  200. Whitehead, K. (2009). Categorizing the categorizer: The management of racial common sense in interaction. Social Psychology Quarterly, 72(4), 325–342.Google Scholar
  201. Whitehead, K., & Lerner, G. (2009). When are persons ‘white’? On some practical asymmetries of racial reference in talk-in-interaction. Discourse and Society, 20(5), 613–641.Google Scholar
  202. Wieder, D. L. (1974). Language and social reality. The Hague, The Netherlands: Mouton.Google Scholar
  203. Wilkinson, S., & Kitzinger, C. (2006). Surprise as an interactional achievement: Reaction tokens in conversation. Social Psychology Quarterly, 69, 150–182.Google Scholar
  204. Williams, G. (1992). Sociolinguistics: A sociological critique. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  205. Wittgenstein, L. (1958). Philosophical investigations (G. E. M. Anscombe, Trans.). New York: Macmillian.Google Scholar
  206. Wood, L., & Kroger, R. O. (2000). Doing discourse analysis: Methods for studying action in talk and text. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  207. Zimmerman, D. H. (1970). The practicalities of rule use. In J. Douglas (Ed.), Understanding everyday life (pp. 221–238). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  208. Zimmerman, D. H., & Boden, D. (1991). Structure-in-action: An introduction. In D. Boden & D. H. Zimmerman (Eds.), Talk and social structure (pp. 3–21). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations