Global Introduction of a Low-Cost Contraceptive Implant

  • Kate H. Rademacher
  • Heather L. Vahdat
  • Laneta Dorflinger
  • Derek H. Owen
  • Markus J. Steiner
Part of the The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis book series (PSDE, volume 33)


Hormone-releasing subdermal implants are a safe, highly effective, and reversible form of contraception that provides continuous pregnancy protection for 3–5 years depending on the type of implant. Implants are among the most effective forms of contraception available; efficacy is comparable to other long-acting and permanent methods including the intrauterine device (IUD) and sterilization, with annual pregnancy rates less than 1 % for women using these methods (Mansour et al. 2010). However, unlike the IUD or female sterilization which requires a gynecological procedure, implants are inserted under the skin of a woman’s upper arm. Because no regular action is required by the user and no routine resupply or clinical follow-up is needed, implants are widely seen as an ideal method for women with limited access to health services, particularly women in developing countries (Frost and Reich 2008). However, despite the advantages of this method, worldwide use of implants is low: whereas 56 % of married women between the ages of 15 and 49 around the globe use a modern method of contraception, less than 1 % use implants (United Nations 2011).


Good Manufacture Practice Melinda Gate Foundation Contraceptive Implant Good Manufacture Practice Guideline Common Technical Document 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors appreciate the contribution of John Bratt and Katherine Tumlinson to the analysis of direct service delivery costs for contraceptive methods. The authors also want to thank Timothy Mastro, Charles Morrison, Diane Luo, David Asante and David Hubacher for their review of the chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kate H. Rademacher
    • 1
  • Heather L. Vahdat
    • 2
  • Laneta Dorflinger
    • 3
  • Derek H. Owen
    • 4
  • Markus J. Steiner
    • 4
  1. 1.Program SciencesFHI 360DurhamUSA
  2. 2.Social and Behavioral Health SciencesFHI 360DurhamUSA
  3. 3.Global Health, Population and NutritionFHI 360DurhamUSA
  4. 4.Clinical SciencesFHI 360DurhamUSA

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