Neurobiology of Respiration pp 117-124

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 788)

Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Tract Diseases Among Soldiers Deployed for Military Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan

  • K. Korzeniewski
  • Aneta Nitsch-Osuch
  • M. Konarski
  • A. Guzek
  • E. Prokop
  • K. Bieniuk
Chapter

Abstract

Respiratory diseases are one of the most common health problems among service personnel assigned to contemporary military operations which are conducted in areas characterized by adverse environmental conditions. This article reviews the results of the studies into the prevalence of acute respiratory tract diseases among soldiers of the Polish Military Contingent deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The article also discusses a number of factors which increase the prevalence of diseases diagnosed in the population of soldiers on a military mission in different climatic and sanitary conditions. Retrospective analysis was based on medical records of Polish troops treated on an outpatient basis in Iraq in 2003–2004 (n = 871) and in Afghanistan in 2003–2005 (n = 400), 2009 (n = 2,300), and 2010 (n = 2,500). The intensity rates were calculated and were then used to calculate the prevalence of diseases per 100 persons in a given population of the military personnel. We found that acute respiratory tract diseases were one of the most common health problems treated in outpatient medical facilities in all four study populations. The incidence rate was 45.6 cases in Iraq in 2003–2004, and in Afghanistan it amounted to 61.8 in 2003–2005, 45.3 in 2009, and 54.8–100 persons in 2010. In conclusion, the prevalence of respiratory diseases was closely related to the environmental factors, such as sand and dust storms, extreme temperature changes, unsatisfactory sanitary conditions, and common disregard of basic principles concerning disease prevention.

Keywords

Disease prevention Military medical service Prevalence Respiratory tract diseases Soldiers 

References

  1. Aronson, N. E., Sanders, J. W., & Moran, K. A. (2006). In harm’s way: Infections in deployed American military forces. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 43(11), 1945–1951.Google Scholar
  2. Crum, N. F., Wallace, M. R., Lamb, C. R., Conlin, A. M., Amundson, D. E., Olson, P. E., Ryan, M. A., Robinson, T. J., Gray, G. C., & Earhart, K. C. (2003). Halting a pneumococcal pneumonia outbreak among United States Marine Corps trainees. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25(2), 107–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dyer, O. (2004). Infectious diseases increase in Iraq as public health service deteriorates. BMJ, 329, 940.Google Scholar
  4. Earhart, K. C., Beadle, C., Miller, L. K., Pruss, M. W., Gray, G. C., Ledbetter, E. K., & Wallace, M. R. (2001). Outbreak of influenza in highly vaccinated crew of U.S. navy ship. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7, 463–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gottlieb, S. (2003). US army investigates unrelated pneumonia cases in troops in Iraq. BMJ, 327, 358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gray, G. C., Callahan, J. D., Hawksworth, A. W., Fisher, C. A., & Gaydos, J. C. (1999). Respiratory diseases among U.S. military personnel: Countering emerging threats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5, 379–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gray, G. C., Feighner, B., Trump, D. H., Berg, S. W., Zajdowicz, M. J., & Zajdowicz, T. R. (2005). Diseases spread by close personal contact. In P. W. Kelley (Ed.), Military preventive medicine. Mobilization and deployment (Vol. 2, pp. 1117–1211). Washington, D.C.: Office of The Surgeon General Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  8. Harman, D. R., Hooper, T., & Gackstetter, G. (2005). Aeromedical evacuations from Operation Iraqi Freedom: A descriptive study. Military Medicine, 170, 521–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hyams, K. C., Hanson, K., Wignall, F. S., Escamilla, J., & Oldfield, E. C. (1995). The impact of infectious diseases on the health of U.S. troops deployed to the Persian Gulf during operations desert shield and desert storm. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 20, 1497–1504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. James, J., Frelin, A., & Jeffery, R. (1982). Disease and non-battle injury rates and military medicine. Medical Bulletin of the U. S. Army, Europe, 39, 17–27.Google Scholar
  11. Korzeniewski, K. (2006). The epidemiological situation in Iraq. Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny, 60, 845–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Korzeniewski, K. (2009). Health hazards in Central Asia on Afghanistan example. International Journal of Health Sciences, 2(1), 154–157.Google Scholar
  13. Morris, M. J., Zacher, L. L., & Jackson, D. A. (2011). Investigating the respiratory health to deployed military personnel. Military Medicine, 10, 1157–1161.Google Scholar
  14. Novozhenov, V. G., & Gembitski, E. V. (1998). Pneumonia in young males in extreme conditions. Klinicheskaia Meditsina (Moskva), 76, 18–20.Google Scholar
  15. Oransky, I. (2003). US army looking into Iraq pneumonia cases. Lancet, 362(9383), 543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Peoples, G., Jezior, J., & Shriver, C. (2004). Caring for the wounded in Iraq – a photo essay. The New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 2476–2480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Prasad, A. N. (2006). Disease profile of children in Kabul: The unmet need for health care. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(1), 20–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sanders, J., Putnam, S., Frankhart, C., Frenck, R. W., Monteville, M. R., Riddle, M. S., Rockabrand, D. M., Sharp, T. W., & Tribble, D. R. (2005). Impact of illness and non-combat injury during operations Iraqi freedom and enduring freedom (Afghanistan). The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 73, 713–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Shorr, A. F., Scoville, S. L., Cersovsky, S. B., Shanks, G. D., Ockenhouse, C. F., Smoak, B. L., Carr, W. W., & Petruccelli, B. P. (2004). Acute eosinophilic pneumonia among U.S. military personnel deployed in or near Iraq. JAMA, 292, 2997–3005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith, B., Wong, C. A., Smith, T. C., Boyko, E. J., Gacksetter, G. S., & Ryan, M. A. K. (2009). Newly reported respiratory symptoms and conditions among military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: A prospective population-based study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 170, 1433–1442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Soltis, B. W., Sanders, J. W., Putnam, S. D., Tribble, D. R., & Riddle, M. S. (2009). Self reported incidence and morbidity of acute respiratory illness among deployed U.S. military in Iraq and Afghanistan. PLoS One, 4(7), e6177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Korzeniewski
    • 1
  • Aneta Nitsch-Osuch
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. Konarski
    • 4
  • A. Guzek
    • 5
  • E. Prokop
    • 6
  • K. Bieniuk
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Tropical MedicineMilitary Institute of MedicineGdyniaPoland
  2. 2.Department of Family MedicineWarsaw Medical UniversityWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Hospital InfectionsSt Family Maternity HospitalWarsawPoland
  4. 4.Department of Maritime and Hyperbaric MedicineMilitary Institute of MedicineGdyniaPoland
  5. 5.Department of Medical DiagnosticsMilitary Institute of MedicineWarsawPoland
  6. 6.Department of ObstetricsSt Family Maternity HospitalWarsawPoland
  7. 7.Department of PathomorphologyMilitary Institute of MedicineWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations