State-of-the-Art of BVOC Research: What Do We Have and What Have We Missed? A Synthesis

  • Ülo Niinemets
  • Russell K. Monson
Part of the Tree Physiology book series (TREE, volume 5)


This book summarizes recent advancements in the resolution and quantification of the controls on tree BVOC emissions, including efforts toward synthetic projections using computer models. Major progress has been achieved in understanding the molecular mechanisms of volatile synthesis and emission, the role of emissions in plant stress tolerance and elicitation of emissions under biotic and abiotic stresses. Use of this rich source of insight not only allows for improvement of regional air quality estimations under current climate and atmospheric conditions, but it also allows for improvements to the models and observations needed to predict BVOC emissions under future climate and atmospheric conditions. As our understanding of physiological mechanisms, taxonomic distribution and multi-trophic interactions in forest ecosystems increases further, we will be able to tackle some of the large-scale feedback loops between BVOC emissions, plant stress, and climate that have eluded us for so long.


Secondary Organic Aerosol Isoprene Emission Monoterpene Emission BVOC Emission Terpene Emission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aaron JA, Christianson DW (2010) Trinuclear metal clusters in catalysis by terpenoid synthases. Pure Appl Chem 82:1585–1597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arneth A, Monson RK, Schurgers G, Niinemets Ü, Palmer PI (2008) Why are estimates of global isoprene emissions so similar (and why is this not so for monoterpenes)? Atmos Chem Phys 8:4605–4620Google Scholar
  3. Arneth A, Harrison SP, Zaehle S, Tsigaridis K, Menon S, Bartlein PJ, Feichter J, Korhola A, Kulmala M, O’Donnell D, Schurgers G, Sorvari S, Vesala T (2010) Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system. Nat Geosci 3:525–532Google Scholar
  4. Arneth A, Schurgers G, Lathière J, Duhl T, Beerling DJ, Hewitt CN, Martin M, Guenther A (2011) Global terrestrial isoprene emission models: sensitivity to variability in climate and vegetation. Atmos Chem Phys 11:8037–8052Google Scholar
  5. Ashworth K, Boissard C, Folberth G, Lathière J, Schurgers G (2013) Global modeling of volatile organic compound emissions. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin pp –Google Scholar
  6. Baldocchi D, Meyers T (1998) On using eco-physiological, micrometeorological and biogeochemical theory to evaluate carbon dioxide, water vapor and trace gas fluxes over vegetation: a perspective. Agric Forest Meteorol 90:1–25Google Scholar
  7. Baldwin IT, Halitschke R, Paschold A, von Dahl CC, Preston CA (2006) Volatile signaling in plant-plant interactions: “talking trees” in the genomics era. Science 311:812–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beauchamp J, Wisthaler A, Hansel A, Kleist E, Miebach M, Niinemets Ü, Schurr U, Wildt J (2005) Ozone induced emissions of biogenic VOC from tobacco: relations between ozone uptake and emission of LOX products. Plant Cell Environ 28:1334–1343Google Scholar
  9. Behnke K, Ehlting B, Teuber M, Bauerfeind M, Louis S, Hänsch R, Polle A, Bohlmann J, Schnitzler J-P (2007) Transgenic, non-isoprene emitting poplars don’t like it hot. Plant J 51:485–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Behnke K, Kaiser A, Zimmer I, Brüggemann N, Janz D, Polle A, Hampp R, Hänsch R, Popko J, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Ehlting B, Rennenberg H, Barta C, Loreto F, Schnitzler J-P (2010) RNAi-mediated suppression of isoprene emission in poplar transiently impacts phenolic metabolism under high temperature and high light intensities: a transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis. Plant Mol Biol 74:61–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowling DR, Turnipseed AA, Delany AC, Baldocchi DD, Greenberg JP, Monson RK (1998) The use of relaxed eddy accumulation to measure biosphere-atmosphere exchange of isoprene and other biological trace gases. Oecologia 116:306–315Google Scholar
  12. Bracho Nunez A, Knothe N, Liberato MAR, Schebeske G, Ciccioli P, Piedade MTF, Kesselmeier J (2009) Flooding effects on plant physiology and VOC emissions from Amazonian tree species from two different flooding environments: Varzea and Igapo. Geophys Res Abstr 11:EGU2009-1497Google Scholar
  13. Bruce TJA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (2005) Insect host location: a volatile situation. Trends Plant Sci 10:269–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Calfapietra C, Pallozzi E, Lusini I, Velikova V (2013) Modification of BVOC emissions by changes in atmospheric [CO2] and air pollution. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  15. Ciccioli P, Brancaleoni E, Frattoni M, Marta S, Brachetti A, Vitullo M, Tirone G, Valentini R (2003) Relaxed eddy accumulation, a new technique for measuring emission and deposition fluxes of volatile organic compounds by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 985:283–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cinege G, Louis S, Hänsch R, Schnitzler J-P (2009) Regulation of isoprene synthase promoter by environmental and internal factors. Plant Mol Biol 69:593–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Copolovici L, Niinemets Ü (2010) Flooding induced emissions of volatile signaling compounds in three tree species with differing waterlogging tolerance. Plant Cell Environ 33:1582–1594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Copolovici LO, Filella I, Llusià J, Niinemets Ü, Peñuelas J (2005) The capacity for thermal protection of photosynthetic electron transport varies for different monoterpenes in Quercus ilex. Plant Physiol 139:485–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Copolovici L, Kännaste A, Remmel T, Vislap V, Niinemets Ü (2011) Volatile emissions from Alnus glutinosa induced by herbivory are quantitatively related to the extent of damage. J Chem Ecol 37:18–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Copolovici L, Kännaste A, Pazouki L, Niinemets Ü (2012) Emissions of green leaf volatiles and terpenoids from Solanum lycopersicum are quantitatively related to the severity of cold and heat shock treatments. J Plant Physiol 169:664–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Degenhardt J, Koellner TG, Gershenzon J (2009) Monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases and the origin of terpene skeletal diversity in plants. Phytochemistry 70:1621–1637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Delfine S, Csiky O, Seufert G, Loreto F (2000) Fumigation with exogenous monoterpenes of a non-isoprenoid-emitting oak (Quercus suber): monoterpene acquisition, translocation, and effect on the photosynthetic properties at high temperatures. New Phytol 146:27–36Google Scholar
  23. Delwiche CF, Sharkey TD (1993) Rapid appearance of 13C in biogenic isoprene when 13CO2 is fed to intact leaves. Plant Cell Environ 16:587–591Google Scholar
  24. Dicke M, Baldwin IT (2010) The evolutionary context for herbivore-induced plant volatiles: beyond the ‘cry for help’. Trends Plant Sci 15:167–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dicke M, Bruin J (2001) Chemical information transfer between plants: back to the future. Biochem Syst Ecol 29:981–994Google Scholar
  26. Dicke M, van Loon JJA, Soler R (2009) Chemical complexity of volatiles from plants induced by multiple attack. Nat Chem Biol 5:317–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Evans RC, Tingey DT, Gumpertz ML, Burns WF (1982) Estimates of isoprene and monoterpene emission rates in plants. Bot Gaz 143:304–310Google Scholar
  28. Fall R, Monson RK (1992) Isoprene emission rate and intercellular isoprene concentration as influenced by stomatal distribution and conductance. Plant Physiol 100:987–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fineschi S, Loreto F, Staudt M, Peñuelas J (2013) Diversification of volatile isoprenoid emissions from trees: evolutionary and ecological perspectives. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  30. Fisher AJ, Rosenstiel TN, Shirk MC, Fall R (2001) Nonradioactive assay for cellular dimethylallyldiphosphate. Anal Biochem 292:272–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Frost CJ, Mescher MC, Carlson JE, De Moraes CM (2008) Plant defense priming against herbivores: getting ready for a different battle. Plant Physiol 146:818–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fujita M, Fujita Y, Noutoshi Y, Takahashi F, Narusaka Y, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K (2006) Crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress responses: a current view from the points of convergence in the stress signaling networks. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:436–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Grabmer W, Graus M, Lindinger C, Wisthaler A, Rappenglück B, Steinbrecher R, Hansel A (2004) Disjunct eddy covariance measurements of monoterpene fluxes from a Norway spruce forest using PTR-MS. Int J Mass Spectrom 239:111–115Google Scholar
  34. Grote R, Monson RK, Niinemets Ü (2013) Leaf-level models of constitutive and stress-driven volatile organic compound emissions. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  35. Guenther A (2013) Upscaling biogenic volatile compound emissions from leaves to landscapes. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  36. Guenther AB, Hills AJ (1998) Eddy covariance measurement of isoprene fluxes. J Geophys Res Atmos 103:13145–13152Google Scholar
  37. Guenther A, Zimmerman PR, Wildermuth M (1994) Natural volatile organic compound emission rates for U.S. woodland landscapes. Atmos Environ 28:1197–1210Google Scholar
  38. Guenther A, Hewitt CN, Erickson D, Fall R, Geron C, Graedel T, Harley P, Klinger L, Lerdau M, McKay WA, Pierce T, Scholes B, Steinbrecher R, Tallamraju R, Taylor J, Zimmerman P (1995) A global model of natural volatile compound emissions. J Geophys Res 100:8873–8892Google Scholar
  39. Hanson DT, Sharkey TD (2001) Rate of acclimation of the capacity for isoprene emission in response to light and temperature. Plant Cell Environ 24:937–946Google Scholar
  40. Harley PC (2013) The roles of stomatal conductance and compound volatility in controlling the emission of volatile organic compounds from leaves. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  41. Harley P, Guenther A, Zimmerman P (1996) Effects of light, temperature and canopy position on net photosynthesis and isoprene emission from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves. Tree Physiol 16:25–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Harley P, Greenberg J, Niinemets Ü, Guenther A (2007) Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves. Biogeosciences 4:1083–1099Google Scholar
  43. Harrison SP, Morfopoulos C, Dani KGS, Prentice IC, Arneth A, Atwell BJ, Barkley MP, Leishman MR, Loreto F, Medlyn BE, Niinemets Ü, Possell M, Peñuelas J, Wright IJ (2013) Volatile isoprenoid emissions from plastid to planet. New Phytol 197:49–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hewitt CN (ed) (1999) Reactive hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  45. Hewitt CN, MacKenzie AR, Di Carlo P, Di Marco CF, Dorsey JR, Evans M, Fowler D, Gallagher MW, Hopkins JR, Jones CE, Langford B, Lee JD, Lewis AC, Lim SF, McQuaid J, Misztal P, Moller SJ, Monks PS, Nemitz E, Oram DE, Owen SM, Phillips GJ, Pugh TAM, Pylej JA, Reeves CE, Ryder J, Siong J, Skiba U, Stewart DJ (2009) Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:18447–18451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Himanen SJ, Blande JD, Klemola T, Pulkkinen J, Heijari J, Holopainen JK (2010) Birch (Betula spp.) leaves adsorb and re-release volatiles specific to neighbouring plants – a mechanism for associational herbivore resistance? New Phytol 186:722–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Holopainen JK, Gershenzon J (2010) Multiple stress factors and the emission of plant VOCs. Trends Plant Sci 15:176–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Holopainen JK, Nerg A-M, Blande JD (2013) Multitrophic signalling in polluted atmospheres. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  49. Hyatt DC, Youn B, Zhao Y, Santhamma B, Coates RM, Croteau RB, Kang C (2007) Structure of limonene synthase, a simple model for terpenoid cyclase catalysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:5360–5365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jardine KJ, Monson RK, Abrell L, Saleska SR, Arneth A, Jardine A, Ishida FY, Maria A, Serrano Y, Artaxo P, Karl T, Fares S, Goldstein A, Loreto F, Huxman T (2011) Within-plant isoprene oxidation confirmed by direct emissions of oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein. Glob Change Biol 18:973–984Google Scholar
  51. Kampranis SC, Ioannidis D, Purvis A, Mahrez W, Ninga E, Katerelos NA, Anssour S, Dunwell JM, Degenhardt J, Makris AM, Goodenough PW, Johnson CB (2007) Rational conversion of substrate and product specificity in a Salvia monoterpene synthase: structural insights into the evolution of terpene synthase function. Plant Cell 19:1994–2005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Karl TG, Spirig C, Rinne J, Stroud C, Prevost P, Greenberg J, Fall R, Guenther A (2002) Virtual disjunct eddy covariance measurements of organic compound fluxes from a subalpine forest using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Atmos Chem Phys 2:279–291Google Scholar
  53. Kessler A, Halitschke R, Diezel C, Baldwin IT (2006) Priming of plant defense responses in nature by airborne signaling between Artemisia tridentata and Nicotiana attenuata. Oecologia 148:280–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kiirats O, Cruz JA, Edwards GE, Kramer MD (2009) Feedback limitation of photosynthesis at high CO2 acts by modulating the activity of the chloroplast ATP synthase. Funct Plant Biol 36:893–901Google Scholar
  55. Köksal M, Zimmer I, Schnitzler J-P, Christianson DW (2010) Structure of isoprene synthase illuminates the chemical mechanism of teragram atmospheric carbon emission. J Mol Biol 402:363–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Köksal M, Jin Y, Coates RM, Croteau R, Christianson DW (2011) Taxadiene synthase structure and evolution of modular architecture in terpene biosynthesis. Nature 469:116–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kreuzwieser J, Rennenberg H (2013) Flooding-driven emissions from trees. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  58. Kreuzwieser J, Kühnemann F, Martis A, Rennenberg H, Urban W (2000) Diurnal pattern of acetaldehyde emission by flooded poplar trees. Physiol Plant 108:79–86Google Scholar
  59. Kreuzwieser J, Harren FJM, Laarhoven LJJ, Boamfa I, te Lintel HS, Scheerer U, Huglin C, Rennenberg H (2001) Acetaldehyde emission by the leaves of trees – correlation with physiological and environmental parameters. Physiol Plant 113:41–49Google Scholar
  60. Kreuzwieser J, Papadopoulou E, Rennenberg H (2004) Interaction of flooding with carbon metabolism of forest trees. Plant Biol 6:299–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kulmala M, Suni T, Lehtinen KEJ, Dal Maso M, Boy M, Reissell A, Rannik Ü, Aaalto P, Keronen P, Hakola H, Bäck J, Hoffmann T, Vesala T, Hari P (2004) A new feedback mechanism linking forests, aerosols, and climate. Atmos Chem Phys 4:557–562Google Scholar
  62. Kulmala M, Nieminen T, Chellapermal R, Makkonen R, Bäck J, Kerminen V-M (2013) Climate feedbacks linking the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, BVOC emissions, aerosols and clouds in forest ecosystems. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  63. Lathière J, Hewitt CN, Beerling DJ (2010) Sensitivity of isoprene emissions from the terrestrial biosphere to 20th century changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate, and land use. Glob Biogeochem Cycle 24:GB1004Google Scholar
  64. Lerdau M (2007) A positive feedback with negative consequences. Science 316:212–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Li Z, Sharkey TD (2013a) Metabolic profiling of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway reveals the source of post-illumination isoprene burst from leaves. Plant Cell Environ 36:429–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Li Z, Sharkey TD (2013b) Molecular and pathway controls on biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  67. Lichtenthaler HK (1999) The 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:47–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Llusià J, Peñuelas J, Asensio D, Munné-Bosch S (2005) Airborne limonene confers limited thermotolerance to Quercus ilex. Physiol Plant 123:40–48Google Scholar
  69. Loivamäki M, Louis S, Cinege G, Zimmer I, Fischbach RJ, Schnitzler J-P (2007) Circadian rhythms of isoprene biosynthesis in grey poplar leaves. Plant Physiol 143:540–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Loivamäki M, Mumm R, Dicke M, Schnitzler J-P (2008) Isoprene interferes with the attraction of bodyguards by herbaceous plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:17430–17435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Loreto F, Schnitzler J-P (2010) Abiotic stresses and induced BVOCs. Trends Plant Sci 15:154–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Loreto F, Sharkey TD (1993) On the relationship between isoprene emission and photosynthetic metabolites under different environmental conditions. Planta 189:420–424Google Scholar
  73. Loreto F, Ciccioli P, Cecinato A, Brancaleoni E, Frattoni M, Tricoli D (1996) Influence of environmental factors and air composition on the emission of α-pinene from Quercus ilex leaves. Plant Physiol 110:267–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Loreto F, Förster A, Dürr M, Csiky O, Seufert G (1998) On the monoterpene emission under heat stress and on the increased thermotolerance of leaves of Quercus ilex L. fumigated with selected monoterpenes. Plant Cell Environ 21:101–107Google Scholar
  75. Loreto F, Fischbach RJ, Schnitzler J-P, Ciccioli P, Brancaleoni E, Calfapietra C, Seufert G (2001a) Monoterpene emission and monoterpene synthase activities in the Mediterranean evergreen oak Quercus ilex L. grown at elevated CO2. Glob Change Biol 7:709–717Google Scholar
  76. Loreto F, Mannozzi M, Maris C, Nascetti P, Ferranti F, Pasqualini S (2001b) Ozone quenching properties of isoprene and its antioxidant role in leaves. Plant Physiol 126:993–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Loreto F, Pinelli P, Brancaleoni E, Ciccioli P (2004) 13C labelling reveals chloroplastic and extra-chloroplastic pools of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and their contribution to isoprene formation. Plant Physiol 135:1903–1907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Loreto F, Barta C, Brilli F, Nogues I (2006) On the induction of volatile organic compound emissions by plants as consequence of wounding or fluctuations of light and temperature. Plant Cell Environ 29:1820–1828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McAndrew RP, Peralta-Yahya PP, DeGiovanni A, Pereira JH, Hadi MZ, Keasling JD, Adams PD (2011) Structure of a three-domain sesquiterpene synthase: a prospective target for advanced biofuels production. Structure 19:1876–1884Google Scholar
  80. Mercado LM, Bellouin N, Sitch S, Boucher O, Huntingford C, Wild M, Cox PM (2009) Impact of changes in diffuse radiation on the global land carbon sink. Nature 458:1014–1017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Miller B, Oschinski C, Zimmer W (2001) First isolation of an isoprene synthase gene and successful expression of the gene from poplar in E. coli. Planta 213:483–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Monson RK (2013) Metabolic and gene expression controls on the production of biogenic volatile organic compounds. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  83. Monson RK, Fall R (1989) Isoprene emission from aspen leaves. Influence of environment and relation to photosynthesis and photorespiration. Plant Physiol 90:267–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Monson RK, Hills AJ, Zimmerman PR, Fall RR (1991) Studies of the relationship between isoprene emission rate and CO2 or photon-flux density using a real-time isoprene analyser. Plant Cell Environ 14:517–523Google Scholar
  85. Monson RK, Jones RT, Rosenstiel TN, Schnitzler J-P (2013) Why only some plants emit isoprene. Plant Cell Environ 36:503–516. doi: 10.1111/pce.12015 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Müller M, Graus M, Ruuskanen TM, Schnitzhofer R, Bamberger I, Kaser L, Titzmann T, Hörtnagl L, Wohlfahrt G, Karl T, Hansel A (2010) First eddy covariance flux measurements by PTR-TOF. Atmos Meas Tech 3:387–395Google Scholar
  87. Nemecek-Marshall M, MacDonald RC, Franzen JJ, Wojciechowski CL, Fall R (1995) Methanol emission from leaves. Enzymatic detection of gas-phase methanol and relation of methanol fluxes to stomatal conductance and leaf development. Plant Physiol 108:1359–1368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Niinemets Ü (2010) Mild versus severe stress and BVOCs: thresholds, priming and consequences. Trends Plant Sci 15:145–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Niinemets Ü, Reichstein M (2003) Controls on the emission of plant volatiles through stomata: sensitivity or insensitivity of the emission rates to stomatal closure explained. J Geophys Res Atmos 108:4208. doi: 4210.1029/2002JD002620Google Scholar
  90. Niinemets Ü, Reichstein M, Staudt M, Seufert G, Tenhunen JD (2002) Stomatal constraints may affect emission of oxygenated monoterpenoids from the foliage of Pinus pinea. Plant Physiol 130:1371–1385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Niinemets Ü, Loreto F, Reichstein M (2004) Physiological and physicochemical controls on foliar volatile organic compound emissions. Trends Plant Sci 9:180–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Niinemets Ü, Copolovici L, Hüve K (2010a) High within-canopy variation in isoprene emission potentials in temperate trees: implications for predicting canopy-scale isoprene fluxes. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 115:G04029Google Scholar
  93. Niinemets Ü, Monson RK, Arneth A, Ciccioli P, Kesselmeier J, Kuhn U, Noe SM, Peñuelas J, Staudt M (2010b) The leaf-level emission factor of volatile isoprenoids: caveats, model algorithms, response shapes and scaling. Biogeosciences 7:1809–1832Google Scholar
  94. Niinemets Ü, Ciccioli P, Noe SM, Reichstein M (2013) Scaling BVOC emissions from leaf to canopy and landscape: how different are predictions based on contrasting emission algorithms? In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  95. Noe SM, Ciccioli P, Brancaleoni E, Loreto F, Niinemets Ü (2006) Emissions of monoterpenes linalool and ocimene respond differently to environmental changes due to differences in physico-chemical characteristics. Atmos Environ 40:4649–4662Google Scholar
  96. Noe SM, Copolovici L, Niinemets Ü, Vaino E (2008) Foliar limonene uptake scales positively with leaf lipid content: “non-emitting” species absorb and release monoterpenes. Plant Biol 10:129–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Owen SM, Hewitt CN, Rowland CS (2013) Scaling emissions from agroforestry plantations and urban habitats. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  98. Palmer PI, Jacob DJ, Fiore AM, Martin RV, Chance K, Kurosu TP (2003) Mapping isoprene emissions over North America using formaldehyde column observations from space. J Geophys Res Atmos 108:4180Google Scholar
  99. Palmer PI, Abbot DS, Fu T-M, Jacob DJ, Chance K, Kurosu TP, Guenther A, Wiedinmyer C, Stanton JC, Pilling MJ, Pressley SN, Lamb B, Sumner AL (2006) Quantifying the seasonal and interannual variability of North American isoprene emissions using satellite observations of the formaldehyde column. J Geophys Res Atmos 111:D12315Google Scholar
  100. Pegoraro E, Rey A, Greenberg J, Harley P, Grace J, Malhi Y, Guenther A (2004) Effect of drought on isoprene emission rates from leaves of Quercus virginiana Mill. Atmos Environ 38:6149–6156Google Scholar
  101. Pichersky E, Gershenzon J (2002) The formation and function of plant volatiles: perfumes for pollinator attraction and defense. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:237–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Possell M, Loreto F (2013) The role of volatile organic compounds in plant resistance to abiotic stresses: responses and mechanisms. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  103. Rajabi Memari H, Pazouki L, Niinemets Ü (2013) The biochemistry and molecular biology of volatile messengers in trees. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  104. Rasulov B, Copolovici L, Laisk A, Niinemets Ü (2009a) Postillumination isoprene emission: in vivo measurements of dimethylallyldiphosphate pool size and isoprene synthase kinetics in aspen leaves. Plant Physiol 149:1609–1618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rasulov B, Hüve K, Välbe M, Laisk A, Niinemets Ü (2009b) Evidence that light, carbon dioxide and oxygen dependencies of leaf isoprene emission are driven by energy status in hybrid aspen. Plant Physiol 151:448–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rasulov B, Hüve K, Laisk A, Niinemets Ü (2011) Induction of a longer-term component of isoprene release in darkened aspen leaves: origin and regulation under different environmental conditions. Plant Physiol 156:816–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rosenkranz M, Schnitzler J-P (2013) Genetic engineering of BVOC emissions from trees. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  108. Rosenstiel TN, Fisher AJ, Fall R, Monson RK (2002) Differential accumulation of dimethylallyldiphosphate in leaves and needles of isoprene- and methylbutenol-emitting and nonemitting species. Plant Physiol 129:1276–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rosenstiel TN, Potosnak MJ, Griffin KL, Fall R, Monson RK (2003) Increased CO2 uncouples growth from isoprene emission in an agroforest ecosystem. Nature 421:256–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Rosenstiel TN, Ebbets AL, Khatri WC, Fall R, Monson RK (2004) Induction of poplar leaf nitrate reductase: a test of extrachloroplastic control of isoprene emission rate. Plant Biol 6:12–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sanadze GA (1969) Light-dependent excretion of molecular isoprene. Prog Photosynth Res 2:701–707Google Scholar
  112. Sanadze GN, Kalandadze AN (1966) Light and temperature curves of the evolution of C5H8. Russ J Plant Physiol 13:458–461Google Scholar
  113. Sanadze GA, Dzhaiani GI, Tevzadze IM (1972) Incorporation into the isoprene molecule of carbon from 13CO2 assimilated during photosynthesis. Sov Plant Physiol 19:17–20Google Scholar
  114. Sasaki K, Saito T, Lämsä M, Oksman-Caldentey K-M, Suzuki M, Ohyama K, Muranaka T, Ohara K, Yazaki K (2007) Plants utilize isoprene emission as a thermotolerance mechanism. Plant Cell Physiol 48:1254–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Schnitzler J-P, Zimmer I, Bachl A, Arend M, Fromm J, Fischbach R (2005) Biochemical properties of isoprene synthase in poplar (Populus x canescens). Planta 222:777–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sharkey TD (1991) Stomatal control of trace gas emissions. In: Sharkey TD, Holland EA, Mooney HA (eds) Trace gas emissions by plants, Physiological ecology. A series of monographs, texts, and treatises. Academic, San Diego/New York/Boston/London/Sydney/Tokyo/Toronto, pp 335–339Google Scholar
  117. Sharkey TD, Loreto F (1993) Water stress, temperature, and light effects on the capacity for isoprene emission and photosynthesis of kudzu leaves. Oecologia 95:328–333Google Scholar
  118. Sharkey TD, Singsaas EL (1995) Why plants emit isoprene. Nature 374:769Google Scholar
  119. Sharkey TD, Singsaas EL, Lerdau MT, Geron CD (1999) Weather effects on isoprene emission capacity and applications in emissions algorithms. Ecol Appl 9:1132–1137Google Scholar
  120. Sharkey TD, Yeh S, Wiberley AE, Falbel TG, Gong D, Fernandez DE (2005) Evolution of the isoprene biosynthetic pathway in kudzu. Plant Physiol 137:700–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sharkey TD, Gray DW, Pell HK, Breneman SR, Topper L (2013) Isoprene synthase genes form a monophyletic clade of acyclic terpene synthases in the Tps-b terpene synthase family. Evolution 67:1026–1040. doi: 10.1111/evo.12013 Google Scholar
  122. Silver GM, Fall R (1991) Enzymatic synthesis of isoprene from dimethylallyldiphosphate in aspen leaf extracts. Plant Physiol 97:1588–1591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Singsaas EL, Lerdau M, Winter K, Sharkey TD (1997) Isoprene increases thermotolerance of isoprene-emitting species. Plant Physiol 115:1413–1420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sitch S, Cox PM, Collins WJ, Huntingford C (2007) Indirect radiative forcing of climate change through ozone effects on the land-carbon sink. Nature 448:791–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Staudt M, Bertin N (1998) Light and temperature dependence of the emission of cyclic and acyclic monoterpenes from holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) leaves. Plant Cell Environ 21:385–395Google Scholar
  126. Steindel F, Beauchamp J, Hansel A, Kesselmeier J, Kleist E, Kuhn U, Wisthaler A, Wildt J (2005) Stress induced VOC emissions from mildew infested oak. Geophys Res Abstr 7:EGU05-A-03010Google Scholar
  127. Tingey DT, Evans R, Gumpertz M (1981) Effects of environmental conditions on isoprene emission from live oak. Planta 152:565–570Google Scholar
  128. Tingey DT, Evans RC, Bates EH, Gumpertz ML (1987) Isoprene emissions and photosynthesis in three ferns – the influence of light and temperature. Physiol Plant 69:609–616Google Scholar
  129. Toome M, Randjärv P, Copolovici L, Niinemets Ü, Heinsoo K, Luik A, Noe SM (2010) Leaf rust induced volatile organic compounds signaling in willow during the infection. Planta 232:235–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Trowbridge AM, Stoy PC (2013) BVOC-mediated plant-herbivore interactions. In: Niinemets Ü, Monson RK (eds) Biology, controls and models of tree volatile organic compound emissions, vol 5, Tree physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp –Google Scholar
  131. Tunved P, Hansson H-C, Kerminen V-M, Ström J, Dal Maso M, Lihavainen H, Viisanen Y, Aalto PP, Komppula M, Kulmala M (2006) High natural aerosol loading over boreal forests. Science 312:261–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Unsicker SB, Kunert G, Gershenzon J (2009) Protective perfumes: the role of vegetative volatiles in plant defense against herbivores. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:479–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Velikova V, Tsonev T, Pinelli P, Alessio GA, Loreto F (2005) Localized ozone fumigation system for studying ozone effects on photosynthesis, respiration, electron transport rate and isoprene emission in field-grown Mediterranean oak species. Tree Physiol 25:1523–1532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Velikova V, Várkonyi Z, Szabó M, Maslenkova L, Nogues I, Kovács L, Peeva V, Busheva M, Garab G, Sharkey TD, Loreto F (2011) Increased thermostability of thylakoid membranes in isoprene-emitting leaves probed with three biophysical techniques. Plant Physiol 157:905–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Vickers CE, Possell M, Cojocariu CI, Velikova VB, Laothawornkitkul J, Ryan A, Mullineaux PM, Hewitt CN (2009) Isoprene synthesis protects transgenic tobacco plants from oxidative stress. Plant Cell Environ 32:520–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. von Dahl C, Hävecker M, Schlögl R, Baldwin IT (2006) Caterpillar-elicited methanol emission: a new signal in plant-herbivore interaction? Plant J 46:948–960Google Scholar
  137. Wiberley AE, Linskey AR, Falbel TG, Sharkey TD (2005) Development of the capacity for isoprene emission in kudzu. Plant Cell Environ 28:898–905Google Scholar
  138. Wiberley AE, Donohue AR, Meier ME, Westphal MM, Sharkey TD (2008) Regulation of isoprene emission in Populus trichocarpa leaves subjected to changing growth temperature. Plant Cell Environ 31:258–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Wu S, Schalk M, Clark A, Miles RB, Coates R, Chappell J (2006) Redirection of cytosolic or plastidic isoprenoid precursors elevates terpene production in plants. Nat Biotechnol 24:1441–1447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Zeidler J, Lichtenthaler HK (2001) Biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol emitted from needles of Pinus ponderosa via the non-mevalonate DOXP/MEP pathway of isoprenoid formation. Planta 213:323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Zhou K, Gao Y, Hoy JA, Mann FM, Honzatko RB, Peters RJ (2012) Insights into diterpene cyclization from structure of bifunctional abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis. J Biol Chem 287:6840–6850PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesEstonian University of Life SciencesTartuEstonia
  2. 2.School of Natural Resources and the Environment and the Laboratory for Tree Ring ResearchUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations