Hairy Root Culture: An Efficient System for Secondary Metabolite Production

Chapter

Abstract

Plants are a potential source for the discovery of new products of medicinal value and served as lead compounds for drug development. Tremendous efforts have been made to commercialize production of plant metabolites employing plant cell culture in bioreactors, but very few have achieved commercial success. Hairy root culture is an unsurpassed choice for bio-processing system for various root associated pharmaceuticals due to fast growth rate, easy culture, genetic manipulations and most important biochemical stability of neoplastic roots. It serves as a model system for plant metabolism and physiology and utilized as a technical alternative to plant cell suspension culture. Moreover, hairy root culture plays a significant role in design the principle for plant metabolic engineering, germplasm conservation, expression of foreign protein and phytoremedaition. However, its global utilization requires attempts on the establishment of effective and economical scaled up culture that can reduce the consumption, but obtain the biggest benefits.

Keywords

Hairy Root Hairy Root Culture Rosmarinic Acid Secondary Metabolite Production Tropane Alkaloid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgment 

Dr. Anwar Shahzad gratefully acknowledges the financial support provided by the Council of Science and Technology, Uttar Pradesh (Project No. CST/D3836) and UGC (Project No. 39-369/2010). Dr. Shiwali Sharma is thankful to UGC, for the award of BSR Fellowship in Science (1st April 2010) for providing research assistance.

Glossary

Agrobacterium

Agrobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria established by H. J. Conn that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants. Agrobacterium is well known for its ability to transfer DNA between itself and plants, and for this reason it has become an important tool for genetic engineering.

Plasmid

An extra-chromosomal, autonomous circular DNA molecule found in certain bacteria, capable of autonomous replication. Plasmids can transfer genes between bacteria and are important tools of transformation.

T-DNA

Transferred DNA of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. It derives its name from the fact that the bacterium transfers this DNA fragment into the host plant’s nuclear DNA genome.

Hairy root

A phase of crown gall (especially in apples) during which there is abnormal development of fine fibrous roots.

Secondary metabolite

Organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Secondary metabolites often play an important role in plant defense against herbivory and other interspecies defenses. Humans use secondary metabolites as medicines, flavorings, and recreational drugs.

Phytoremediation

The treatment of environmental problems (bioremediation) through the use of plants that mitigate the environmental problem without the need to excavate the contaminant material and dispose of it elsewhere.

Opines

Low molecular weight compounds found in plant crown gall tumors or hairy root tumors produced by parasitic bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium. Opine biosynthesis is catalyzed by specific enzymes encoded by genes contained in a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for ‘transfer DNA’), which is part of the Ti plasmid, inserted by the bacterium into the plant genome. The opines are used by the bacterium as an important source of nitrogen and energy. Each strain of Agrobacterium induces and catabolizes a specific set of opines.

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Biotechnology Section, Department of BotanyAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

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