Advertisement

Distribution of Cd, Pb, As and Hg in Oyster Tissue, Sediment and Water in Lingayen Gulf, Philippines

  • Reivin T. Vinarao
  • Gielenny M. Salem
  • Rosario J. Ragaza
Chapter

Abstract

Oyster, sediment and water samples were collected from 12 stations along Lingayen Gulf and its tributary waters. This study aims to establish baseline information on metal levels of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg) in oyster tissues as they relate to concentrations in the water column and sediment of Lingayen Gulf. The metal levels were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Significant levels (p < 0.05) of Cd (upper limit: 1.50 mg/kg) and Pb (one station: 0.55 mg/kg) were detected in oysters in both pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons exceeding the regulatory limit set by BFAR-Philippines (0.50 mg/kg) that is safe for human consumption. Higher levels of Pb (upper limit: 33.90 mg/kg), As (upper limit: 6.50 mg/kg) and Hg (upper limit: 0.30 mg/kg) were deposited mainly in the sediments and found to behave in the following trend: Pb > As > Hg. Although levels of As and Pb were detected in sediment, uptake of these metals varied depending on season and location. No Hg was detected in oyster tissues and water column. Possible factors of metal contaminations were temporal variations and physiological capability of oysters to bind with metal species. Anthropogenic activities by local and surrounding communities may also contribute to the heavy metal loads of Lingayen Gulf.

Keywords

Heavy Metal Monsoon Season American Public Health Association Heavy Metal Analysis Oyster Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors extend their sincerest gratitude to Dr. Demian Willette of the Old Dominion University ctPIRE Project for reviewing and giving invaluable comments to the paper. Our gratitude is also extended to Undersecretary Segfredo R. Serrano of the Policy, Planning, Research and Development and Regulation, Department of Agriculture (DA); Director Nicomedes P. Elleazar, DA-Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR); Hon. Leopoldo N. Bataoil, House of Representative, 2nd District of Pangasinan and FAO for the partial travel grants to the first author’s attendance to the 8th ICMSS held at Prince Edward Island, Canada. We also express our appreciation to Dr. Westly R. Rosario of the DA-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR), National Integrated Fisheries Technology Development Center (NIFTDC) for his initiatory efforts in conceptualizing this research; Ms. Adoracion V. Obinque and Ms. Virginia Delos Santos in assisting the researchers in sample collection and to Mr. Arvin Joseph M. Dimaano, DA-National Fisheries Research and Development Institute for doing some of the figures. This study was supported by the research fund of the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Philippines.

References

  1. Ahmad MK, Islam S, Rahman S, Haque MR, Islam MM (2010) Heavy metals in water, sediment and some fishes of Buriganga River. Bangladesh Int J Environ Res 4(2):321–332Google Scholar
  2. Al-Madfa H, Abdel-Moati MAR, Al-Gimaly FH (1998) Pinctadaradiata (Pearl oyster): a bioindicator for metal pollution monitoring in the Qatari Waters (Arabian Gulf). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 60:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Public Health Association (APHA) (1980) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 15th edn. American Public Health Association, American Waterworks Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC, p 1134Google Scholar
  4. Apeti DA, Robinson L, Johnson E (2005) Relationship between heavy metal concentrations in the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and metal levels in the water column and sediment in Apachicola Bay. Fla Am J Environ Sci 1(3):179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (2005) Method 977.15 for mercury analysis in fish using alternative flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. In: Official methods of analysis of the AOAC International, 18th edn. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, p 36Google Scholar
  6. Australian Aid for International Development (AUSAID) (2007) Fish and fish products. Asean guide. A guide to the identification of control of food safety hazards in the production of fish and fish products in ASEAN region. Australian Government, AUSAID, Asean Secretariat, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  7. Bewick V, Cheek L, Ball J (2004) Statistics review 9: one-way analysis of variance. Crit Care 8(2):130–136. doi: 10.1186/cc2836 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) (2009) Fisheries statistics of the Philippines 2004–2006. Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, Quezon CityGoogle Scholar
  9. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) (2001a) Guidelines on the production, harvesting, handling and transportation of shellfish for implementation of the local government. Fisheries Administrative Order No. 209. S. 2001. DA-BFAR, Quezon City, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  10. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) (2001b) Rules and regulations on the exportation of fresh, chilled and frozen fish and fishery/aquatic products. Fisheries Administrative Order No. 210. S. 2001. DA-BFAR, Quezon City, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  11. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) (2001c) Requirement for pre-processing and processing plants, the SSOP thereof and the processing and quality requirement for shellfishes. Fisheries Administrative Order No. 210. S. 2001. DA-BFAR, Quezon City, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  12. Calud A, Rodriguez G, Aruelo R, Aguilar G, Cinco E, Armada N, Silvestre G (1989) Preliminary results of a study of the municipal fisheries in Lingayen Gulf, pp 3–29. In: Silvestre G, Miclat E, Chua TE (eds) Toward sustainable development of the coastal resources of Lingayen Gulf, Philippines. ICLARM conference proceedings, Bauang, La Union, Philippines, 17, 200ppGoogle Scholar
  13. de Astudillo LR, Yen IC, Bekele I (2005) Heavy metals in sediments, mussels and oysters from Trinidad and Venezuela. Int J Trop Biol 53(1):41–53Google Scholar
  14. Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) (1990) Revised water usage and classification/water quality criteria amending section nos. 68 and 69, chapter III of the 1978 NPCC rules and regulations. DAO 34, S. 1990. DENR, Quezon City, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  15. Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu MOC, Egwurugwu JN (2007) Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. J Phys Sci 2(5):112–118Google Scholar
  16. Erdogrul O, Ates DA (2006) Determination of cadmium and copper in fish samples from Sir and Menzelet. Environ Monit Assess 117:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. European Union (2002) Heavy metals in wastes, European Commission on Environment. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/studies/pdf/heavy_metalsreport.pdf. 14 June 2012
  18. Ferreira AG, Machado AL, Zalmon IR (2005) Temporal and spatial variation on heavy metal concentrations in the oyster Ostreaequestris on the northern coast of Rio De Janeiro State, Brazil. Braz J Biol 65(1):67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frazier JM (1979) Bioaccumulation of cadmium in marine organisms. Environ Health Perspect 28:75–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gonzalez H, Pomares M, Ramirez M, Torres I (1999) Heavy metals in organisms and sediments from the discharge zone of the submarine sewage outfall of Havana City Cuba. Mar Pollut Bull 38:1048–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goyer RA (1996) Toxic effects of metals. In: Casarett & Doull’s toxicology the basic science of poisons, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 696–721Google Scholar
  22. Hamelink JL, Landrum PF, Bergman HL, Benson WH (1994) Bioavailability: physical, chemical and biological interactions. Lewis Publishers/CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  23. Hilomen VV, Jimenez LF (2001) Status of fisheries in Lingayen Gulf (Appendix 1). In: McGlone M, Villanoy C (eds) Resource and social assessment of Lingayen Gulf. Project report submitted to the Fisheries Resource Management Project, Department of Agriculture. Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines and the Marine Environment and Resources Foundation, Quezon City, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  24. Hilomen VV, Licuanan W, Alino P, Jimenez L (2002) Status of the fisheries resources in Lingayen Gulf: erasing the pressure and enhancing the resources. Paper presented at the National Conference on Fisheries Resource and Social Assessments, Development Academy of the Philippines, Tagaytay City. Fisheries resource management project, Department of Agriculture, Quezon City, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  25. Hsiung TM, Huang CW (2006) Quantitation of toxic arsenic species and arsenobetaine in Pacific oysters using an off-line process with hydride generation-atomic absorption spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 54(7):2470–2478, Study supported by the National Science Council of the Republic of ChinaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Institute of Environmental Conservation and Research (INECAR) (2000) Position paper against mining in Rapu-Rapu. Published by INECAR, Ateneo de Naga University, Philippines. www.adnu.edu.ph/Institutes/Inecar/pospaper1.asp. 14 June 2012
  27. Ke C, Wang W-X (2001) Bioaccumulation of Cd, Se and Zn in an estuarine oyster (Crassostrea rivularis) and coastal oyster (Saccostrea glomerata). Aquat Toxicol 56:33–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krissanakriangkai O, Supanpaiboon W, Juwa S, Chaiwong S, Swaddiwudhipong W, Anderson KA (2009) Bioavailable cadmium in water, sediment and fish in a highly contaminated area on the Thai-Myan May border. Thammasat Int J Sci Technol 14(4):60–68Google Scholar
  29. Langston WJ (1990) Toxic effects of metals and the incidence of marine ecosystem. In: Furness RW, Rainbow PS (eds) Heavy metals in the marine environment. CRC Press, New York, p 256Google Scholar
  30. Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, Yolton K, Baghurst P, Bellinger DC, Canfield RL, Dietrich KN, Bornschein R, Greene T, Rothenberg SJ, Needleman HL, Schnaas L, Wasserman G, Graziano J, Roberts R (2005) Low-level environment lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect 113(7):894–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lin S, Hsieh IJ (1999) Occurences of green oyster and heavy metals contaminant levels in the Sien-San area. Taiwan Mar Pollut Bull 38:960–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mackay NJ, Williams RJ, Kacprzac JL, Kazacos MN (1975) Heavy metals in cultivated oysters (Crassostrea commercialisSaccostrea cucullata) from the estuaries of New South Wales. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 26:31–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mance G (1987) Pollution threat of heavy metals in aquatic environment. Elsevier, London, 363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McCluggage D (1991) Heavy metal poisoning. NCS Magazine, published by The Bird Hospital, St Lakewood. www.cockatiels.org/articles/Diseases/metals.html. 14 June 2012
  35. McGlone MLSD, Jacinto G, Velasquez I, Padayao D (2004) Status of water quality in Philippine coastal and marine waters, p 96–108. In: DA-BFAR (Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources). In: Turbulent seas: the status of Philippine Marine Fisheries. Coastal Resources Management Project of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Cebu City, Philippines, 378ppGoogle Scholar
  36. McManus LT, Chua TE (eds) (1990) The coastal environmental profile of Lingayen Gulf, Philippines. ICLARM Tech Rep 22:69Google Scholar
  37. Millward GE, Rowley C, Sands TK, Howland RJM, Pantiulin A (1999) Metals in the sediments and mussels of the Chupa Estuary (White Sea) Russia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 48:13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mines A (1986) Assessment of the fisheries of Lingayen Gulf. Project report submitted to the Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development, National Science and Technology Authority. Institute of Fisheries Development and Research, College of Fisheries, University of the Philippines-Visayas, Quezon City, Philippines, 55ppGoogle Scholar
  39. National Statistics Office (NSO) (2007) Index of population projection statistics. NSO, Quezon CityGoogle Scholar
  40. Palma A (1989) Patterns and levels of aquaculture practices in eight coastal municipalities adjoining Lingayen Gulf, p 71–82. In: Silvestre G, Miclat E, Chua TE (eds) Towards sustainable development of the coastal resources of Lingayen Gulf, Philippines. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 17, 200 p. Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development, Los Banos, Laguna, and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Makati, Metro Manila, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  41. Phillips DJ (1977) Biological indicator organisms monitor metal pollution. Environ Pollut 13:281–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Phillips DJH, Rainbow PS (1994) Biomonitoring of trace aquatic contaminants, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, London, 371Google Scholar
  43. Rainbow PS (1995) Biomonitoring of heavy metals availability in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 31:183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ricklefts RE (2007) The economy of nature, 5th edn. W.H. Freeman and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Rico LG, Ruiz RE (2001) Determination of total metals in cultivated oysters (Crassostreagigas) from the northwest coast of Mexico by microwave digestion and atomic absorption spectrometry. J AOAC Int 84(6):1909–1913Google Scholar
  46. Riddell TJ, Solon O, Quimbo SA, Tan CMC, Butrick E, Peabody JW (2007) Elevated blood-lead levels among children in the rural Philippines. Bull World Health Organ 85:649–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ruelas-Inzunza J, Psez-Osuna F (1998) Barnacles as biomonitors of heavy metal pollution in the coastal waters of Mazatlan Harbor (Mexico). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 61:608–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sakai H, Kojima Y, Saito K (1986) Distribution of metals in water and sieved sediments in the Toyohira river. Water Res 20:559–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schumacher M, Domingo J (1996) Concentrations of selected elements in oysters (Crassostrea angulata) from the Spanish Coast. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 56:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shulkin VM, Presley BJ, Kavun VIA (2003) Metal concentrations in mussel Crenomytilus grayanus and oyster Crasostrea gigas in relation to contamination of ambient sediments. Environ Int 29:493–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Silva CAR, Rainbow PS, Smith BD, Santos ZL (2001) Biomonitoring of trace metal contamination in the Potengi Estuary, Natal (Brazil), using the oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorea, a local food source. Water Res 35(17):4072–4078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Silvestre GT, Hilomen VV (2004) Status of Lingayen Gulf Fisheries – a brief update, p 285–291. In: DA-BFAR (Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources). In turbulent seas: the status of Philippine Marine Fisheries. Coastal Resources Management Project of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Cebu City, Philippines, 378ppGoogle Scholar
  53. Silvestre GT, Miclat E, Chua TE (eds) (1989) Towards sustainable development of the coastal resources of Lingayen Gulf, Philippines. ICLARM Conf Proc 17:200Google Scholar
  54. Subramanian V, Grieken RV, Vant DL (1987) Heavy metal distribution in the sediments of Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Environ Geol Water Sci 9(2):93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tang CW, Ip CC, Zhang G, Shin PK, Qian PY, Li XD (2008) The spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. Mar Pollut Bull 57:816–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1994) Method 7471A: mercury in solid or semisolid waste (Manual cold-vapor technique). http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/test/pdfs/7471a.pdf. Accessed 20 Sept 2010
  57. United States-Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1992) National study of chemical residues in fish, vol 1. EPA 823-R-92-0089. Office of Science and Technology, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  58. United States-Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2000) Guide for assessing chemical contamination. Data for use in fish advisories. In: Fish sampling and analysis, 3rd edn, vol 1. EPA 826-B-00-007. Office of Science and Technology, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  59. World Health Organization (WHO) (1989) Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors. World Health Organization, Geneva (unpublished document WHO/VBC/89.967)Google Scholar
  60. World Health Organization (WHO) (1995) Inorganic lead. Environmental Health Criteria No. 165. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  61. Young RA (2005) Toxicity profiles: toxicity summary for cadmium. Risk Assessment Information System, RAIS, University of Tennessee. rais.ornl.gov/tox/profiles/cadmium.html. 14 June 2012
  62. Zaroogian GE, Cheer S (1976) Accumulation of cadmium by the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Nature 261:408CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reivin T. Vinarao
    • 1
  • Gielenny M. Salem
    • 1
  • Rosario J. Ragaza
    • 1
  1. 1.Post Harvest Research and Development DivisionNational Fisheries Research and Development InstituteQuezon CityPhilippines

Personalised recommendations