Viruses and Sub-Viral Agents

  • K. Subramanya Sastry


Tropical crops which are propagated through embryonic seed and vegetative propagules are affected with a number of virus and virus-like pathogens that are responsible for heavy yield losses. Viruses and viroids are infectious obligate pathogens. Viruses are intracellular parasites diverting the host cellular machinery for their own replication and offspring particle production. Viroids are small, single stranded, circular RNA of 246-401 nucleotides without any apparent-protein coding capacity. In this chapter basic information of plant viruses and viroids is presented briefly to realize their significance as an important category of plant pathogens. Plant viruses are composed of small piece of nucleic acid either RNA or DNA inside the protein coat but not both. Viruses lack protein synthesizing and energy producing machinery. Viruses and viroid diseases are capable of infecting the majority of species of both cultivated and wild plants. However, host ranges of individual virus and viroid diseases can vary from very narrow to very broad. The symptoms induced by plant viruses and viroids lead to reduced crop quality and yield. Plant viruses are typically spread by two common mechanisms: horizontal transmission and vertical transmission. Horizontal transmission takes place through vectors and also by mechanically means. Vertical transmission on the other hand is through vegetative propagative material and also through seed. Classification and nomenclature is internationally and universally applied to all viruses and viroids for which the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is responsible. ICTV has been very active for the past 30 years, and playing a major role by which the number of taxa and virus names are increasing. As per the ninth ICTV report and updated online as of 2012, there are 6 orders, 87 families, 19 sub-families, 349 genera and 2284 species. The ICTV rules concerned for classification of viruses also applies to the classification of viroids. In the taxonomy of viroids, there are two families viz., Pospiviroidae and Avsunviroidae, with 5 genera and 3 genera, respectively. Some details on geographical distribution, host range, transmission, symptomatology, molecular biology, genome structure, and replication of some economically important viroids are provided. Among virus groups tospo-, cucumo, gemini- (begomo- and nonbegomo-), and potyvirus groups are discussed at length as they constitute the largest plant virus groups in tropical environments.


Tobacco Mosaic Virus Plant Virus Citrus Tristeza Virus Tomato Spot Wilt Virus Helper Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adolph Mayer (1882) Over de mozaikziekte van de tabak: voorloopige mededeeling. Tijdschr Landbouwkunde Groningen 2:359–364Google Scholar
  2. Adolph Mayer (1886) Ueber die Mosaikkrankheit des Tabaks. Landwirtsch Vers Sta 32:451–467 Google Scholar
  3. Agindotan B, Perry KL (2008) Macroarray detection of eleven potato-infecting viruses and Potato spindle tuber viroid. Plant Dis 92:730–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agrios GN (2005) Plant pathology, 5th edn. Elsevier-Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahlawat YS (2010) Diagnosis of Plant viruses and Allied pathogens. Studium Press (India) Pvt. Ltd., p 224Google Scholar
  6. Albouy J, Devergne J-C (1998) Maladies à virus des plantes ornementales. INRA Editions, p 473Google Scholar
  7. Anderson PK, Cunningham AA, Patel NG, Morales FJ, Epstein PR, Daszak P (2004) Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers, Trends Ecol. Evol 19:536–544Google Scholar
  8. Atabekov J, Dobrov E, Karpova O, Rodinova N (2007) Potato virus X: structure, disassembly and reconstitution. Mol Plant Pathol 8:667–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balaraman K (1981) Pre-immunization for control of Citrus tristeza virus on citron. Z Pfl Krankh Pfl Schtz 88:218–222Google Scholar
  10. Bagherian SAA, Amid–Motlagh MH, Izadapanah K (2009) A new sensitive method for detection of viroids. Iranian J Virol 3(1):7–11Google Scholar
  11. Bar-Joseph M, Roistacher CN, Garnsey SM, Gumpf DJ (1981) A review on tristeza, an ongoing threat to citriculture. Proc Int Soc Citric 1:419–423Google Scholar
  12. Bawden FC, Pirie NW (1938) A plant virus preparation in fully crystalline state. Nature 141:513–514Google Scholar
  13. Bernal JD, Fankuchen I (1941) X-ray and crystallographic studies of plant virus preparations. J Gen Physiol 25:147–165Google Scholar
  14. Bertaccini A, Duduk B (2009) Phytoplasma and phytoplasma diseases: a review of recent research. Phytopathol Mediterr 48:355–378Google Scholar
  15. Boonham N, Gonzalez-Perez L, Mendez MS, Lilia Peralta E, Blockley A, Walsh K, Barker I, Mumford RA (2004) Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Potato spindle tuber viroid. J Virol Methods 116:139–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bos L (1999) Serology and Electron Microscopy. In: Plant Viruses, unique and intriguing pathogens. A text book of plant virology, Backhuys Publisher, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  17. Bos L (2002) International naming of viruses—a digest of recent developments. Arch Virol 147:1471–1477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bos L, Hagedorn DJ, Quantz L (1960) Suggested procedures for international identification of legume viruses. Tijdschr Plantenziekten 66:328Google Scholar
  19. Boswell KF, Gibbs AJ (1983) Viruses of legumes 1983. Descriptions and keys from VIDE Canberra, Research school of biological sciences. The Australian National University, p 139Google Scholar
  20. Bowers JH, Bailey BA, Hebbar PK, Sanogo S, Lumsden RD (2001) The impact of plant diseases on world chocolate production. Online Plant Health Prog. doi: 10.1094/PHP-2001-0709-01-RV Google Scholar
  21. Canizares MC, Lomonossoff GP, Nicholson L (2005) Use of viral vectors for vaccine production in plants. Immunol Cell Biol 83:263–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Condit RC (2007) Principles of Virology. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM (ed) Fields Virology, vol 2. Walters Kluwer Publishers, London, pp 26–57Google Scholar
  23. Cousin MT, Boudon-Padieu E (2002) Phytoplasma and phytoplasma diseases: vectors, control and research topics. Cashiers Agric 11(2):115–126Google Scholar
  24. Cousin MT, Darpoux H, Faivre-amiot A, Staron T (1970) Sur la presence de microorganismes de type mycoplasme dans le parenchyme cortical de feveroles presentant des symptomes de virescence. CR Acad Sci Paris 271:1182–1184Google Scholar
  25. Davis RE, Worley JF (1973) Spiroplasma: motile, helical microorganism associated with corn stunt disease. Phytopathology 63:403–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Bokx JA, Pirone PG (1981) Transmission of potato spindle tuber viroid by aphids. Neth J Plant Pathol 87:31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Diener TO (1971) Potato spindle tuber “virus”. IV. A replicating, low molecular weight RNA. Virology 45:411–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Diener TO (1979) Viroids and viroid diseases. Wiley, New York, p 252Google Scholar
  29. Diener TO (1999) Viroids and the nature of viroid diseases. Arch Virol suppl 15:203–220Google Scholar
  30. Ding B, Kwon MO, Hammond R, Owens R (1997) Cell-to-cell movement of Potato spindle tuber viroid. Plant J 12(4):931–936Google Scholar
  31. Ding XS, Schneider WL, Chaluvadi SR, Mian MA, Nelson RS (2006) Characterization of a Brome mosaic virus strain and its use as a vector for gene silencing in monocotyledonous hosts. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:1229–1239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Doi Y, Teranaka M, Yora K, Asuyama H (1967) Mycoplasma or PLT group-like microorganisms found in the phloem elements of plants infected with Mulberry dwarf, Potato witches broom, Aster yellows or Paulownia witches broom. Ann Phytopath Soc Jpn 33:259–266Google Scholar
  33. Drebot MA, Henchal E, Hjelle B, LeDuc JW, Repik PM, Roehrig JT, Schmaljohn CS, Shope RE, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, Calisher CH (2002) Improved clarity of meaning from the use of both formal species names and common (vernacular) virus names in virological literature. Arch Virol 147:2465–2472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball IA (2005) Virus Taxonomy. Eighth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  35. Fenner F (1976) Classification and Nomenclature of viruses second report on the International Committee on Taxonomy of viruses. Intervirology 7:1–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Flores R (2001) A naked plant-specific RNA ten-fold smaller than the smallest known viral RNA: the viroid. CR Acad Sci III 324: 943–952Google Scholar
  37. Flores R, Owens RA (2008) Viroids. In: Mahy BWJ, Van Regenmortel MHV (ed) Desk Encyclopedia of Plant and Fungal Virology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 71–81Google Scholar
  38. Flores R, Randles JW, Bar-Joseph M, Diener TO (1998) A proposed scheme for viroid classification and nomenclature. Arch Virol 143:623–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Flores R, Hermandez C, Martinez de Alba AE, Daros JA, Di Serio F (2005) Viroids and viroid host interactions. Ann Rev Phytopathol 43:117–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Francki RIB (1981) Plant Virus Taxonomy. In: Kurstak E (ed) Handbook of plant virus infection and comparative Diagnosis. Elsevier, San Diego, p 3Google Scholar
  41. Francki RIB (1985) Plant virus satellites. Ann Rev Microbiol 39:151–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Francki RIB, Fauquet CM, Knudson DL, Brown F (1991) Classification and nomenclature of viruses. 5th Rep Inst Comm Taxon Viruses Arch Virol Suppl 2:450Google Scholar
  43. Fraser RSS (1998) Biochemistry of resistance to plant viruses. Breeding for resistance to plant viruses. In: A Hadidi, RK Khetarpal and H Koganezawa (eds.) Plant virus disease control, AP Press, St. Paul, MN, pp 56–64Google Scholar
  44. Fritschmuth T, Stanley J (1993) Strategies for the control of geminivirus diseases. Semin Virol 4:329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gergerich RC, Dolja VV (2006) Introduction to plant viruses, the invisible foe. Plant Health Instr. doi: 10.1094/PHI-I-2006-0414-01 Google Scholar
  46. Gewin V (2003) Bioterrorism: agricultural shock. Nature 421:106–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gibbs AJ (1969) Plant virus classification. Adv Virus Res 14:263–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gibbs AJ (2000) Virus nomenclature descending into chaos. Arch Virol 145:1505–1507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gierer A, Schramm G (1956) Infectivity of ribonucleic acid from tobacco mosaic virus. Nature 177:702–703Google Scholar
  50. Goldberg KB, Brakke MK (1987) Concentration of Maize chlorotic mosaic virus increased in mixed infections with Maize dwarf mosaic virus strain B. Phytopathology 77:162–167Google Scholar
  51. Grasso S, Santi Luca (2010) Viral nanoparticles as macromolecular devices for new therapeutic and pharmaceutical approaches. Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 2(2):161–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hadidi A, Hansen AJ, Parish CL, Yang X (1991) Scar skin and dapple apple viroids are seed borne and persistent in infected apple trees. Res Virol 142:289–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hadidi A, Shamloul AM, Poggi-Pollini C, Amer MA (1997) Occurrence of peach latent mosaic viroid in stone fruits and its transmission with contaminated blades. Plant Dis 81:154–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hadidi A, Flores R, Randles JW, Semancik JS (2003) Viroids: properties, detection, diseases and their control. CSIRO Publishing, Australia 392Google Scholar
  55. Hammond RW, Owens RA (2006) Viroids: new and continuing risks for horticultural and agricultural crops. Online AP net features. doi: 10.1094/apnetfeatures-2006-1106 Google Scholar
  56. Harrison BD (2009) A brief outline of the development of plant virology in the 20th century. J Plant Pathol 91(3):509–520Google Scholar
  57. Hirumi H, Maramorosch K (1969) Further evidence for a mycoplasma etiology of aster yellows. Phytopathology 59:1030–1031Google Scholar
  58. Hollings M, Stone OM (1973) Some properties of chrysanthemum stunt, a virus with the characteristic of an uncoated ribonucleic acid. Ann Appl Biol 74:333–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Huang AS (1973) Defective interfering viruses. Annu Rev Microbiol 27:101–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hull R (2002) Matthews’ Plant Virology, 4th edn. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  61. Hull R (2008) History of Virology. Plant Viruses. Encyclopedia of Virology, vol 2. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  62. Hurtt SS, Podleckis EV (1995) Apple scar skin viroid is not seed transmitted or transmitted at a low rate in oriental pear. Acta Hortic 386:544–550Google Scholar
  63. Ishiie T, Doi Y, Yora K, Asuyama H (1967) Suppressive effects of antibiotics of tetracycline group on symptom development of mulberry dwarf disease. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 33 267–275Google Scholar
  64. Iwanowski D (1892) Ueber die Mosaikkrankheiten der Tabakspflanze. Bull Acad Imp Sci St Petersburg (Izv Imp Akad Nauk SSSR), NS III 35:65–70Google Scholar
  65. Johnson J (1927) The classification of plant viruses. Wis Agric Exp Stn Res Bull 76:1–16Google Scholar
  66. Kassanis B (1962) Properties and behaviour of a virus depending for its multiplication on another. Journal of General Microbiology, 27:477–488Google Scholar
  67. Kausche GA, Pfankuch E, Ruska H (1939) Die Sichtbarmachung vom pflanzlichem Viren im Ubermikroskop. Naturwissenschaften 27:292–299Google Scholar
  68. Keese P, Symons RH (1985) Domains in viroids: Evidence of intermolecular RNA rearrangements and their contribution to viroid evolution. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 82:4582–4586Google Scholar
  69. Khan JA, Dijkstra J (ed.) (2002) Plant viruses and molecular pathogens. Haworth Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (2012) Virus Taxonomy: Nineth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  71. Kuhn CW, Dawson Wm.O (1973) Multiplication and Pathogenesis of Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and Southern bean mosaic virus in Single and Double Infections in Cowpea. Phytopathology 63:1380–1385Google Scholar
  72. Laliberte JF, Sanfacon H (2010) Cellular remodeling during plant virus infection. Annu Rev Phytopathol 48:69–91Google Scholar
  73. Lee IM, Davis RE, Rindal DEG (2000) Phytoplasma: Phytopathogenic mollicutes. Ann Rev Microbiol 54:221–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lwoff A, Horne R, Tournier P (1962) A system of viruses. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 27:51–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Madden L, Wheelis M (2003) The threat of plant pathogens as weapons against U.S. crops. Annu Rev Phytopathol 41:155–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mahy BWJ, Van Regenmortel MHV (eds) (2008) Desk Encyclopedia of Plant and Fungal Virology, Oxford: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0123751485Google Scholar
  77. Mandahar CL (1989) Multi component viruses. In: Mandahar CL (ed) Plant viruses. Structure and replication, vol 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 75–124Google Scholar
  78. Mandahar CL (2006) Multiplication of RNA plant viruses. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. p 339 ISBN: 978-1-4020-4724-4Google Scholar
  79. Mansoor S, Khan SH, Bashir A, Saeed M, Zafar Y, Malik KA, Briddon R, Stanley J, Markham PG (1999) Identification of a novel circular single stranded DNA associated with Cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan. Virology 259:190–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Markham R, Smith KM (1949) Studies on the virus of turnip yellow mosaic. Parasitology 39:330–342Google Scholar
  81. Martelli GP (1992) Classification and nomenclature of plant viruses: state of the art. Plant Dis 76:436–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Martelli GP (1997) Plant virus taxa: properties and epidemiological characteristics. J Plant Pathol 79:151–171Google Scholar
  83. Martinus Beijerinck (1898) Over een contagium vivum fluidum als oorzaak van de vlekziekte der tabaksbladeren. Versl. Gewone Vergad. Wis. Natuurk. Afd. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam 7:229–235Google Scholar
  84. Matthews REF (1979) Classification and nomenclature of viruses. 3rd report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Intervirology 12:131–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Matthews REF (1982) Classification and nomenclature of viruses. 4th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Intervirology 15:64–179Google Scholar
  86. Matthews REF (1983) Future Prospects for Viral Taxonomy. In: Matthews REF (ed) A critical appraisal of Viral Taxonomy. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 219–245Google Scholar
  87. Matthews REF (1993) Overview. In: Diagnosis of plant virus diseases. (REF Matthews, ed.) pp. 1–14. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  88. Mayo MA (2002) The principles and current practice of plant virus taxonomy. In: Khan JA, Dijkstra J (eds) Plant viruses as molecular pathogens. CBS Publishers, New Delhi, p 537, pp 3–24Google Scholar
  89. Mayo MA, Brunt AA (2007) Plant Virus Taxonomy. In: Khan JA, Dijkstra J (ed) Hand Book of Plant Virology. The Haworth Press, New York, pp 11–20Google Scholar
  90. Mayo MA, Fauquet CM (2000) The current composition of ICTV. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Arch Virol 145:1497–1504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mayo MA, Horzinek M (1998) A revised version of the international code of virus classification and nomenclature. Activities Virol 143:1645–1654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mayo MA, Pringle CR (1998) Virus Taxonomy—1997. J Gen Virol 79:649–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Monsion M, Bachelier J-C, Dunez J (1973) Quelques proprietes d’un viroide: le rabougrissement du chrysantheme. Ann Phytopathol 5:467–469Google Scholar
  94. Muller HO (1942) Die Ausmessung der Tiefe ubermikroskopischer Objekte. Kolloid-Z 99(1):6–28Google Scholar
  95. Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL (eds) (1995) Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Springer-Verlag, Wien, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. Nasu S, Jensen DD, Richardson J (1970) Electron microscopy of mycoplasma-like bodies associated bodies associated with insect and plant hosts of peach western X-disease. Virology 41:583–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nayudu MV (2008) Plant viruses. Tata Mc Graw—Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, p 1249Google Scholar
  98. Nome CF, Nome SF, Guzman F, Conci LR, Laguna IG (2007) Localization of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) in synergic infection with potyviruses in sweet potato. Biocell: official journal of the Sociedades Latinoamericanas de Microscopia Electronica 31(1):23–31Google Scholar
  99. Otim-Nape GW, Bua A, Baguma Y, Thresh JM (1997) Epidemic of severe cassava mosaic disease in Uganda and efforts to control it. Afr J Root Tuber Crops 2:42–43Google Scholar
  100. Otim-Nape GW, Bua A, Thresh JM, Baguma Y, Ogwal S, Ssemakula GN, Acola G, Byabakama B, Colvin J, Cooter RJ, Martin A (2000) The current pandemic of cassava mosaic virus disease in East Africa and its control. Natural Resources Institute, NARO, NRI, DFID, Chatham, p 100Google Scholar
  101. Pirone TP, Blanc S (1996) Helper-dependent vector transmission of plant viruses. Annu Rev Phytopathol 34:227–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Podleckis EV, Hammond RW, Hurtt SS, Hadidi A (1993) Chemiluminescent detection of potato and pome fruit viroids by digoxigenin-labeled dot blot and tissue blot hybridization. J Virol Methods 43:147–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pogue GP, Lindbo JA, Garger SJ, Fitzmaurice WP (2002) Making an ally from an enemy: Plant Virology and the New Agriculture. Annu Rev Phytopathol 40:45–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pringle CR (1998) The Universal System of Virus Taxonomy of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), including new proposals ratified since publication of the sixth report in 1995. Arch Virol 143:203–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Randles JW, Ogle HJ (1997) Viruses and viroids as agents of plant disease. In: Brown JF, Ogle HJ (eds) Plant Pathogens and Plant Diseases. Rockvale Publications, Armidale, NSW-Australia, pp 104–126Google Scholar
  106. Rao AL (2006) Genome packaging by Spherical Plant RNA Viruses. Annu Rev Phytopathol 44:61–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rao GP, Mall S, Raj SK, Snehi SK (2011) Phytoplasma diseases affecting various plant species in India. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 46:59–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Riesner D, Steger G, Schumacher J, Gross HJ, Randles JW, Sanger HL (1983) Structure and function of viroids. Biophys Struct Mech 9:145–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rosalind Franklin (1955) Structure of tobacco mosaic virus. Nature 175:379–381Google Scholar
  110. Roossinck MJ, Sleat D, Palukaitis P (1992) Satellite RNAs of plant viruses: structures and biological effects. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 56:265–279Google Scholar
  111. Rybicki EP (2012) Vibroblogy.
  112. Salazar LF, Querci M, Bartolini I, Lazarte V (1995) Aphid transmission of potato spindle tuber viroid assisted by potato leafroll virus. Fitopathologia 30:50–58Google Scholar
  113. Scholthof K-BG (2001) 1898—the beginning of virology…time marches on. Plant Health Instr. doi: 10.1094/PHI-I-2001-0129-01 Google Scholar
  114. Scholthof KBG (2004) Tobacco mosaic virus: a model system for Plant Biology. Annual Rev Phytopath 42:13–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Scholthof KB, Adkins S, Czosnek H, Palukaitis P, Jacquot E, Hohn T, Hohn B, Saunders K, Candresse T, Ahlquist P, Hemenway C, Foster GD (2011) Top 10 plant viruses in Molecular Plant Pathology. Mol Plant Pathol 12(9):938–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schultz ES, Folsom D (1923) Transmission, variation and control of certain degeneration diseases of Irish potatoes. J Agric Res 25:43–117Google Scholar
  117. Schumacher J, Meyer N, Riesner D, Weideman HL (1986) Diagnostic procedure for detection of viroids and viruses with circular RNAs by ‘return’-gel electrophoresis. J Phytopathol 115:332–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Seemuller E, Garnier M, Sehneider B (2002) Mycoplasmas of plants and insects. In: Razin R, Herrmann R (eds) Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 91–115Google Scholar
  119. Shamloul AM, Minafra A, Hadidi A, Giunchedi L, Waterworth HE, Allam EK (1995) Peach latent mosaic viroid: nucleotide sequence of an Italian isolate, sensitive detection using RT-PCR and geographic distribution. Acta Horticulturae no 386:522–530Google Scholar
  120. Sherwood JL, German TL, Moyer JW, Ullman DE (2003) Tomato spotted wilt. Plant Health Instr. doi: 10.1094/PHI-1-2003-0613-02 Google Scholar
  121. Skripal IG (1974) On improvement of taxonomy of the class Mollicutes and establishment in the order Mycoplasmatales of the new family Spiroplasmataceae fain. nova Mikrobiol Zh Akad Nauk UkrSSR 36:462–467Google Scholar
  122. Stanley WM (1935) Isolation of a crystalline protein possessing the properties of tobacco mosaic virus. Science 81:644–645Google Scholar
  123. Tabler M, Tsagris M (2004) Viroids: petite RNA pathogens with distinguished talents. Trends Pl Sci 9:339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Thresh JM (1989) Insect—borne viruses of rice and the green revolution. Trop Pest Manag 35:264–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Thresh JM (2003) Control of plant virus diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: the possibility and feasibility of an integrated approach. Afr Crop Sci J 11(3):199–223Google Scholar
  126. Tripathi L, Jaindra Nath Tripathi, Wilberforce Kateera Tushemereirwe (2008) Rapid and efficient production of transgenic East African Highland Banana (Musa spp.) using intercalary meristematic tissues. Afr J Biotechnol 7(10):1438–1445Google Scholar
  127. Uyemoto JK (1983) Biology and control of maize chlorotic mottle virus. Plant Disease, 67:7–10Google Scholar
  128. van Regenmortal MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens E, Estes M, Lemon S, Maniloff J, Mayo M, Mc Geoch D, Pringle C, Wickner R (2000) Virus Taxonomy: seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, New York, San Diego, 1162Google Scholar
  129. van Regenmortel MHV (1989) Applying the species concept to plant viruses. Arch Virol 104:1–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. van Regenmortel MHV (1990) Virus species, a much over looked but essential concept in virus classification. Intervirology 31:241–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. van Regenmortel MHV (2000) On the relative merits of italics, Latin and Binomial Nomenclature in Virus Taxonomy. Arch Virol 145:433–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. van Regenmortel MHV (2001) Perspectives on Binomial names of virus species. Arch Virol 146:1637–1640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM (2002a) Only italicised species names of viruses have a taxonomic meaning. Arch Virol 147:2247–2250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM (2002b) Utilisation d’un systeme binomial pour les noms d’especes virales. Qu’en pense la communaute des virologues? Virologie 6:70–73Google Scholar
  135. van Regenmortel MHV, Maniloff J, Calisher C (1991) The concept of virus species. Arch Virol 120:313–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Van der Want JPH, Dijkstra J (2006) History of plant virology: Brief Review. Arch Virol 151:1467–1598Google Scholar
  137. Varma A, Ahlawat YS (1994) Plant mollicutes and bacteria like organisms. In: Joshi BM (ed) Botany in India: History and Progress. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi, pp 63–80Google Scholar
  138. Walmsley AM, Arntzen CJ (2000) Plants for delivery of edible vaccines. Curr Opin Biotechnol 11:126–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wassenegger M, Pelissier T (1998) A model for RNA-mediated gene silencing in higher plants. Plant Mol Biol 37:349–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Webster CG, Wylie SJ, Jones MGK (2004) Diagnosis of plant viral pathogens. Curr Sci 86:1604–1607Google Scholar
  141. Wildy P (1971) Classification and nomenclature of viruses. First report of the International Committee on Nomenclature of Viruses. Monogr Virol 5:1Google Scholar
  142. Williams RC, Wycoff RWG (1944) The thickness of electron microscopic objects. J Appl Physics 15:712–716Google Scholar
  143. Worley JF (1970) Possible replicative forms of a mycoplasmalike organism andtheirlocation in asteryellows diseasedNicotianaand aster. Phytopathology 60:284–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zaitlin M (1998) The discovery of the causal agent of tobacco mosaic disease. In: Kung SD, Yang SF (eds) Discoveries in Plant Biology. World Publishing Co. Ltd, pp 105–110. Hong Kong./education/feature/TMV/pdfs/zaitlin.pdfGoogle Scholar
  145. Zechmann B, Zelling G (2009) Rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases by transmission electron microscopy. J Virol Methods 162:163–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Zhou C, Zhou Y (2012) Strategies for viral cross protection in plants. Methods Mol. Biol., 894: 69–81Google Scholar
  147. Zhou X, Liu Y, Calvert L, Munoz C, Otim-Nape GW, Robinson D, Harrison BD (1997) Evidence that DNA-A of geminivirus associated with severe cassava mosaic disease in Uganda has arisen by inter specific recombination. Jour. Gen. Virol., 78: 2101–2111Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of VirologySV UniversityTirupathiIndia

Personalised recommendations