Advertisement

Encounters in Motion: Considerations of Time and Social Justice in Urban Mobility Research

  • Konrad MiciukiewiczEmail author
  • Geoff Vigar
Chapter
Part of the Urban and Landscape Perspectives book series (URBANLAND, volume 15)

Abstract

This chapter investigates the qualities of urban travel time by looking at daily mobilities as time-spaces of social encounter. Following the ‘new mobilities paradigm’, we regard everyday urban mobility not only as a ‘means to an end’ but also as an ‘end in itself’. This implies a move from instrumental, utilitarian and deterministic understandings of travel time towards a holistic conceptualisation of urban mobility that calls for the embedding of social qualities of travel in urban planning and design. We argue that urban public transport networks are political sites of the everyday wherein emancipatory and discriminatory practices are not only enacted but also reshaped through different events, encounters and processes. Hence, we challenge traditional time-saving strategies in transport appraisal and call for a more complex and politicised approach to time in policy-making that would highlight a socially just consideration of speed, efficiency and qualitative aspects of urban travel.

Keywords

Everyday mobility New mobilities paradigm Space-time use Social encounter Social qualities Urban design Urban planning 

References

  1. Adey P, Bissel D (2010) Mobilities, meetings, and futures: an interview with John Urry. Environ Plann D Soc Space 28(1):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amin A (2004) Regions unbound: towards a new politics of place. Geogr Ann 86B:33–44Google Scholar
  3. Amin A (2007) Re-thinking the urban social. City 11(1):100–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avineri E, Prashker J (2005) Sensitivity to travel time variability: travelers’ learning perspective. Transp Res Part C 13(2):157–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beckmann KJ, Bracher T, Hesse M (2007) Mobility and deprived urban neighbourhoods in the focus of integrated urban development policy. Dtsch Z Kommunalwiss 46(2):9–22Google Scholar
  6. Bergmann S, Sager T (eds) (2008) The ethics of mobilities: rethinking place, exclusion, freedom and environment. Ashgate, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Bissel D (2010) Passenger mobilities: affective atmospheres and the sociality of public transport. Environ Plann D 28(2):270–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Camerer C, Loewenstein G (2004) Behavioural economics: past, present and future. In: Camerer C, Loewenstein G, Rabin M (eds) Advances in behavioural economics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 3–52Google Scholar
  9. Church A, Frost M, Sullivan K (2000) Transport and social exclusion in London. Transp Policy 7(3):195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crang M (2001) Rhythms of the city: temporalised space and motion. In: May J, Thrift N (eds) Timespace: geographies of temporality. Routledge, London, pp 187–207Google Scholar
  11. Cresswell T (2010) Towards a politics of mobility. Environ Plann D Soc Space D 28(1):17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cresswell T (2011) Mobilities I: catching up. Prog Hum Geogr 35(4):550–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cresswell T, Merriman P (2010) Introduction: geographies of mobilities – practices, spaces, subjects. In: Cresswell T, Merriman P (eds) Geographies of mobilities – practices, spaces, subjects. Ashgate, FarnhamGoogle Scholar
  14. de Certeau M (1984) The practice of everyday life (trans: Rendall S). University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  15. DfT (2011) Values of time and operating costs. Department of Transport, Transport Analysis Guidance (TAG) Unit 3.5.6. LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Durieux D (2003) ICT and social inclusion in the everyday life of less abled people. University of Liege/ASCoR, Liege/AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  17. Galves T, Jara-Diaz S (1998) On the social valuation of travel time savings. Int J Transp Econ 25(2):205–219Google Scholar
  18. Götz A, Vowles T, Tierney S (2009) Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide in transport geography. Prof Geogr 61(3):323–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Graham S (2000) Constructing premium network spaces: reflections on infrastructure networks and contemporary urban development. Int J Urban Reg Res 24(1):183–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Graham S, Healey P (1999) Relational concepts of space and place: issues for planning theory and practice. Eur Plann Stud 7(5):623–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Graham S, Marvin S (2001) Splintering urbanism. Networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the urban condition. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hajer M, Reijndorp A (2001) In search of new public domain. Nai Publishers, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  23. Hannam K, Sheller M, Urry J (2006) Editorial: mobilities, immobilities and moorings. Mobilities 1(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hawking S (1988) A brief history of time. Bantam Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Healey P (2004) The treatment of space and place in the new strategic spatial planning in Europe. Int J Urban Reg Res 28(1):45–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Healey P (2007) Urban complexity and spatial strategies. Towards a relational planning for our times. Routledge, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Hine J, Grieco M (2003) Scatters and clusters in time and space: implications for delivering integrated and inclusive transport. Transp Policy 10(4):299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hine J, Mitchell F (2001) Better for everyone? Travel experiences and transport exclusion. Urban Stud 38(2):319–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hine J, Mitchell F (2003) Transport disadvantage and social exclusion. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  30. Hultkrantz L, Mortazavi R (2001) Anomalies in the value of travel-time changes. J Transp Econ Policy 35(2):285–300Google Scholar
  31. Jain J, Lyons G (2008) The gift of travel time. J Transp Geogr 16(2):81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jara-Diaz S (1990) Consumer’s surplus and the value of travel time savings. Transp Res B 24(1):73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jensen OB (2008) Networked mobilities and performative urban environments. Keynote paper for the conference ‘Space, Interaction, Discourse’, Alborg, 12–14 Nov 2008Google Scholar
  34. Jensen OB (2009) Flows of meaning, cultures of movements – urban mobility as meaningful everyday life practice. Mobilities 4(1):139–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jensen OB (2010) Negotiation in motion: unpacking a geography of mobility. Space Cult 13(4):389–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jirón P (2010) Mobile borders in urban daily mobility practices in Santiago de Chile. Int Polit Sociol 4(1):66–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jones P (2005) Performing the city: a body and a bicycle take on Birmingham, UK. Soc Cultur Geogr 6(6):813–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones M (2009) Phase space: geography, relational thinking, and beyond. Prog Hum Geogr 33(4):487–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Karlstrom A, Eliasson J, Levander A (2007) On the theoretical valuation of marginal business travel time savings. Paper presented at European transport conference 2007, Leeuwenhorst Conference Centre, The Netherlands, 17–19 Oct 2007Google Scholar
  40. Kemming H, Brinkmann W (2007) Verkehrsverhalten sozialer Gruppen: Soziale Aspekte der Mobilität. Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung und Bauwesen des Landes NRW, DortmundGoogle Scholar
  41. Latour B (2005) Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Lefebvre H (1996) Elements of rhythmanalysis. In: Kofman E, Lebas E (eds) Writings on cities. Henri Lefebvre. Blackwell, Oxford/CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Lévy J (1999) Le tournant géographique. Armand Colin, ParisGoogle Scholar
  44. Lucas K, Stanley J (eds) (2003) International perspectives on transport and social exclusion. Transp Policy 10(3):89–142Google Scholar
  45. Lyons G (2009) The reshaping of activities and mobility through new technologies. J Transp Geogr 17:81–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lyons G, Urry J (2005) Travel time use in the information age. Transp Res A 39:257–276Google Scholar
  47. Lyons G, Jain J, Holley D (2007) The use of travel time by rail passengers in Great Britain. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract 41(1):107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. MacCann E, Ward K (2010) Relationality/territoriality: toward a conceptualization of cities in the world. Geoforum 41(2):175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mackie PJ, Wardman M, Fowkes AS, Whelan G, Nellthorp J, Bates J (2003) Values of travel time savings UK. Institute of Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, Working Paper 567Google Scholar
  50. MacRury I (2008) The airport next door; London City airport – regeneration, communities and networks. In: Cohen P, Rustin MJ (eds) London’s turning: the making of Thames gateway. Ashgate, London, pp 239–260Google Scholar
  51. Madanipour A (2010) Connectivity and contingency in planning. Plann Theory 9(4):351–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Massey D (2005) For space. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. Massey D, Denton N (1993) American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  54. Metz D (2008) The myth of travel time saving. Transp Rev 28(3):321–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miciukiewicz K, Vigar G (2012) Mobility and social cohesion in the splintered city: challenging technocentric transport research and policy-making practices. Urban Stud 49(9):1941–1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Middleton J (2009) ‘Stepping in time’: walking, time, and space in the city. Environ Plann A 41(8):1943–1961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mokhtarian PL, Salomon I (2001) How derived is the demand for travel? Some conceptual and measurement considerations. Transp Res A 35(8):695–719Google Scholar
  58. Mokhtarian P, Salomon I, Redmond LS (2001) Understanding the demand for travel: it’s not purely derived. Innovation 14(4):355–380Google Scholar
  59. Park RE, Burgess E, McKenzie R (1925) The city. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  60. Rajé F (2004) Transport, demand management and social inclusion, the need for ethnic perspectives. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  61. Richardson T, Jensen OB (2008) How mobility systems produce inequality: making mobile subject types on the Bangkok Sky Train. Built Environ 34(2):218–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Runge D, Becker H-J (2007) Mobility and social cohesion. TU Berlin, Schriften des Fachgebietes Integrierte Verkehrsplanung des Institutes für Land- und Seeverkehr an der Technischen Universität Berlin 17, Berlin, pp 1–53Google Scholar
  63. Rutherford J (2008) Unbundling Stockholm: the networks, planning and social welfare nexus beyond the unitary city. Geoforum 39(6):1871–1883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shaw J, Hesse M (2010) Transport, geography and mobilities. Trans Inst Br Geogr 35(3):305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shaw J, Knowles R, Doherty I (2008) Introducing transport geographies. In: Knowles R, Doherty I, Shaw J (eds) Transport geographies: mobilities, flows and spaces. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  66. Sheller M, Urry J (2006) The new mobilities paradigm. Environ Plann A 38(2):207–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Small K (1982) Scheduling of consumer activities: work trips. Am Econ Rev 72(3):467–479Google Scholar
  68. Social Exclusion Unit (2003) Making the connections. SEU, LondonGoogle Scholar
  69. Soja E (2010) Seeking spatial justice. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis/LondonGoogle Scholar
  70. Thrift N (2004) Driving in the city. Theory Cult Soc 21(4–5):41–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tripp JJ (2007) What makes a city? Planning for “quality of place”: the case of high-speed train station area redevelopment. Delft University Press, Amsterdam/DelftGoogle Scholar
  72. Urry J (2000) Sociology beyond societies: mobilities for the twenty-first century. Routledge, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Urry J (2007) Mobilities. Polity Press, Cambridge/MaldenGoogle Scholar
  74. Uteng TP (2008) Gendered mobility: a case study of non-Western immigrant women of Norway. In: Bergmann S, Sager T (eds) The ethics of mobilities: rethinking place, exclusion, freedom and environment. Ashgate, LondonGoogle Scholar
  75. Vannini P (2010) Mobile cultures: from the sociology of transportation to the study of mobilities. Sociol Compass 4(2):111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Watts L, Urry J (2008) Moving methods, travelling times. Environ Plann Soc Space 26(5):860–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Winston GC (1987) Activity choice: a new approach to economic behavior. J Econ Behav Organ 8(4):567–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wirth L (1928) The ghetto. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, Global Urban Research UnitNewcastle UniversityNewcastle Upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations