Biological Disease Management Systems for Horticultural Crops

  • P. Narayanasamy
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 16)


Vegetable and fruit crops are high value crops and generally greater attention is paid to protect them against diseases caused by microbial pathogens at all stages crop growth and after harvest during storage also. Cultural practices, especially plant and fruit sanitation, are important to avoid infection. Prevention of wounds to the vegetables and fruits during harvesting, transit and storage is a basic requirement to reduce disease incidence. Biological disease management systems have to be developed based on the information on pathogen biology, epidemiology, cultivar resistance and availability of biotic and abiotic biocontrol agents that can be integrated with the existing production practices. Number of chemicals and frequency of their application are generally more than optimum. The chances of inducing resistance in the pathogens have to be lessened by restricting the chemical use. The biocontrol organisms compatible with chemicals, when applied in combination, can enhance the effectiveness of disease control, leading to reduction in the use of synthetic fungicides. Attempts to develop integrated systems of disease management have been fewer thus far. The systems of management of diseases of major vegetable and fruit crops for which information is available, are highlighted.


Powdery Mildew Wilt Disease Citrus Tristeza Virus Area Under Disease Progress Curve Methyl Bromide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abbasi PA, Al-Dahmani J, Sahin F, Hoitink HAJ, Miller SA (2002) Effect of compost amendments on disease severity and yield of tomato in organic and conventional production systems. Plant Dis 86:156–161Google Scholar
  2. Abbasi PA, Conn KI, Lazarovits G (2004) Suppression of Rhizoctonia and Pythium damping-off of radish and cucumber seedlings by addition of fish emulsion to peat mix or soil. Can J Plant Pathol 26:177–187Google Scholar
  3. Abo-Elyousr KAM, El-Hendawy HH (2008) Integration of Pseudomonas fluorescens and acibenzolar-S-methyl to control of bacterial spot disease of tomato. Crop Protect 27:1118–1124Google Scholar
  4. Abo-Elyousr KAM, Ibrahim YE, Balabel NM (2012) Induction of disease defensive enzymes in response to treatment with acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf2 and inoculation with Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (phylotype II). J Phytopathol 160:382–389Google Scholar
  5. Addy HS, Askora A, Kawasaki T, Fujie M, Yamada T (2012) Utilization of filamentous phage ØRSM3 to control bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Dis 96:1204–1209Google Scholar
  6. Afek U, Orenstein J, Nutriel E (1999) Steam treatment to prevent carrot decay during storage. Crop Prot 18:639–642Google Scholar
  7. Akgül DS, Mirik M (2008) Biocontrol of Phytophthora capsici on pepper plants by Bacillus megaterium strains. J Plant Pathol 90:29–34Google Scholar
  8. Alaphilippe A, Elad Y, David DR, Derridj S, Gessler C (2008) Effects of a biocontrol agent of apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) on the host plant and on non-target organisms: an insect pest (Cydia pomonella) and a pathogen (Venturia inaequalis). Biocontrol Sci Technol 18:121–138Google Scholar
  9. Algam SAE, Xie G, Li B, Yu S, Su T, Larsen J (2010) Effects of Paenibacillus strains and chitosan on plant growth promotion and control of Ralstonia wilt in tomato. J Plant Pathol 92:593–600Google Scholar
  10. Al-Mughrabi KI (2010) Biological control of Fusarium dry rot and other potato tuber diseases using Pseudomonas fluorescens and Enterobacter cloacae. Biol Control 53:280–284Google Scholar
  11. Altamiranda EAG, Andreu AVB, Daleo GR, Olivieri FP (2008) Effect of ß-aminobutyric acid (BABA) on protection against Phytophthora infestans throughout potato. Australas Plant Pathol 37:421–427Google Scholar
  12. Alvindia DG, Acada MA (2012) An integrated approach with Trichoderma harzianum DGA01 and hot water treatment on control of crown rot disease and retention of overall quality in banana. Biocontrol Sci Technol 22:1021–1033Google Scholar
  13. Ambadar VK, Sood AK (2010) Effect of solarization on tomato wilt incidence and population dynamics of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Ralstonia solanacearum. J Mycol Plant Pathol 40:120–123Google Scholar
  14. Amith KN, Momol MT, Kloepper JW, Marois JW, Olson SM, Jones JB (2004) Efficacy of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, acibenzolar-S-methyl and soil amendment for integrated management of bacterial wilt on tomato. Plant Dis 88:669–673Google Scholar
  15. Antoniou PP, Tjamos EC, Andreous MT, Panago-Poulos CG (1995) Effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of soil solarization for control of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis of tomato. Acta Horticult 382:119–128Google Scholar
  16. Askary H, Carriére Y, Bélanger R, Bordeur J (1998) Pathogenicity of the fungus Verticillium lecanii to aphids and powdery mildew. Biocontrol Sci Technol 8:23–32Google Scholar
  17. Baker KF (1971) Fire blight of pome fruits: the genesis of the concept that bacteria can be pathogenic to plants. Hilgardia 40:603–633Google Scholar
  18. Balogh B, Jones JB, Momol MT, Olson SM, Obradovic A, King P, Jackson L (2003) Improved efficacy of newly formulated bacteriophages for management of bacterial spot on tomato. Plant Dis 87:949–954Google Scholar
  19. Basu A (2009) Employing eco-friendly potato disease management allows organic tropical Indian production systems to prosper. Asian J Food Agro-Indust 2(Spl Issue):S80–S87Google Scholar
  20. Bateman RP, Hidalgo E, García J, Arroyo C, Ten Hoopen GM, Adonijah V, Krauss U (2005) Application of chemical and biological agents for the management of frosty pod rot (Moniliophthora roreri) in Costa Rican cocoa (Theobroma cacao). Ann Appl Biol 147:129–138Google Scholar
  21. Baumgartner K, Rizzo DM (2001) Ecology of Armillaria spp. in mixed-hardwood forests of California. Plant Dis 85:947–951Google Scholar
  22. Baumgartner K, Warnock AE (2006) A soil inoculant inhibits Armillaria mellea in vitro and improves productivity of grapevines with root disease. Plant Dis 90:439–444Google Scholar
  23. Baysal Ö, Soylu EM, Soylu S (2003) Induction of defence-related enzymes and resistance by the plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl in tomato seedlings against bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis. Plant Pathol 52:747–753Google Scholar
  24. Baysal Ö, Gürsoy YZ, Örnek H, Duru A (2005) Induction of oxidants in tomato leaves treated with DL-ß-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and infected with Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis. Eur J Plant Pathol 112:361–369Google Scholar
  25. Beagle-Ristaino JE, Papavizas GC (1985) Biological control of Rhizoctonia stem canker and black scurf of potato. Phytopathology 75:560–564Google Scholar
  26. Bélagner RR, Labbe C (2002) Control of powdery mildews: prophylactic and biological alternative for horticultural crops. In: Belanger RR, Bushnell WR, Dik AJ, Carver TLW (eds) The powdery mildews – a comprehensive treatise. APS Press, St. Paul, pp 256–267Google Scholar
  27. Bélanger RR, Bowen PA, Ehret DL, Menzies JG (1995) Soluble silicon: its role in crop and disease management of greenhouse crops. Plant Dis 79:329–336Google Scholar
  28. Bello GD, Mónaco C, Rollan MC, Lampugnani G, Arteta N, Abramoff C (2008) Biocontrol of postharvest grey mould on tomato by yeasts. J Phytopathol 156:257–263Google Scholar
  29. Benlioğlu S, Boz Ö, Yildiz A, Kaşkavalci G, Benlioğlu K (2005) Alternative soil solarization treatments for the control of soilborne diseases and weeds of strawberry in the Western Anatolia of Turkey. J Phytopathol 153:423–430Google Scholar
  30. Bi Y, Tian SP, Gao YR, Ge YH, Qin GZ (2006) Sodium silicate reduces postharvest decay on Hami melons: induced resistance and fungistatic effects. Plant Dis 90:279–283Google Scholar
  31. Blok WJ, Lamers JG, Termorshuizen AJ, Bollen GJ (2000) Control of soilborne plant pathogens by incorporating fresh organic amendments followed by tarping. Phytopathology 90:253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Boff P, Köhl J, Jansen M, Horsten PJFM, Lombaers-van der Plas C, Gerlagh M (2002) Biological control of gray mold with Ulocladium atrum in annual strawberry crops. Plant Dis 86:220–224Google Scholar
  33. Bonanomi G, Chiurazzi M, Caporaso S, Del Sorbo G, Moschetti G (2008) Soil solarization with biodegradable materials and its impact on soil microbial communities. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1989–1998Google Scholar
  34. Boukaew S, Chuenchit S, Petcharat V (2011) Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. for biological control of Sclerotium root and stem rot and Ralstonia wilt of chilli pepper. BioControl 56:365–374Google Scholar
  35. Bouws H, Finckh MR (2008) Effects of strip intercropping of potatoes with nonhosts on late blight severity and tuber yield in organic production. Plant Pathol 57:916–927Google Scholar
  36. Bradley GG, Punja ZK (2010) Composts containing fluorescent pseudomonads suppress Fusarium root and stem rot development on greenhouse cucumber. Can J Microbiol 56:896–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Brisset MN, Cesborn S, Pauling JP (2000) Acibenzolar-S-methyl induces the accumulation of defense-related enzymes in apple and protects from fire blight. Eur J Plant Pathol 106:529–536Google Scholar
  38. Broadbent P, Dephoff CM, Franks N, Gillings M, Industo J (1995) Preimmunization of grapefruit with a mild protective isolate of Citrus tristeza virus in Australia. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop CREC, Lake Alfred, pp 163–168Google Scholar
  39. Budge SP, Whipps JM (2001) Potential for integrated control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in glasshouse lettuce using Coniothyrium minitans and reduced fungicide application. Phytopathology 91:221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Burkhead KD, Bothast RJ, Slininger PJ, Schister DA (2003) Postharvest biological control of potato sprouting by Fusarium dry rot suppressive bacteria. Biocontrol Sci Technol 13:477–494Google Scholar
  41. Cañamás TP, Viñas I, Torres R, Usall J, Solsona C, Teixidó N (2011) Field applications of improved formulations of Candida sake CPA-1 for control of Botrytis cinerea in grapes. Biol Control 56:150–158Google Scholar
  42. Card SD, Walter M, Jaspers MV, Sztejnberg A, Stewart A (2009) Targeted selection of antagonistic microorganisms for control of Botrytis cinerea of strawberry in New Zealand. Australas Plant Pathol 38:183–192Google Scholar
  43. Carisse O, Rolland O (2004) Effect of timing of application of the biological control agent Microsphaeropsis ochracea on the production and ejection pattern of ascospores by Venturia inaequalis. Phytopathology 94:1305–1314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Carisse O, Philion V, Roland D, Bernier J (2000) Effect of fall application of fungal antagonists on spring ascospore production of the apple scab pathogen, Venturia inaequalis. Phytopathology 90:31–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Carisse O, Rotland D, Tremblay D-M (2006) Effect of Microsphaeropsis ochracea on production of sclerotia-borne and airborne conidia of Botrytis squamosa. BioControl 51:107–126Google Scholar
  46. Castoria R, Morena V, Caputo L, Panfili G, De Curtis F, De Cicco V (2005) Effect of the biocontrol yeast Rhodotorula glutinis LS11 on patulin accumulation in stored apples. Phytopathology 95:1271–1278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chalutz E, Droby S (1998) Biological control of postharvest disease. In: Boland GJ, Kuykendrall LD (eds) Plant-microbe interactions and biological control. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 157–170Google Scholar
  48. Charles MT, Mercier J, Makhlouf J, Arul J (2008) Physiological basis of UV-C-induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea. I. Role of pre- and post-accumulation of phytoalexin- rishitin. Postharvest Biol Technol 47:10–20Google Scholar
  49. Chellemi DO, Olson SM, Mitchell DJ (1994) Effects of soil solarization and fumigation on survival of soilborne pathogens of tomato in northern Florida. Plant Dis 78:1167–1172Google Scholar
  50. Chen M-H, Nelson EB (2008) Seed-colonizing microbes from municipal biosolids compost suppress Pythium ultimum damping-off on different plant species. Phytopathology 98:1012–1018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Chen R, Guo YB, Wang JH, Li JY, Wang HM (2007) Biological control of grape crown gall by Rahnella aqualis HX2. Plant Dis 91:957–963Google Scholar
  52. Chun WWC, Shetty KK (1994) Control of silver scurf disease of potatoes caused by Helminthosporium solani Dur. and Mont. with Pseudomonas corrugata. Phytopathology 84:1090 (Abst.)Google Scholar
  53. Chung WC, Huang JW, Huang HC (2005) Formulation of a soil fungicide for control of damping-off of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Biol Control 32:287–294Google Scholar
  54. Clarkson JP, Payne T, Mead A, Whipps JM (2002) Selection of fungal biological control agents of Sclerotium cepivorum for control of white rot by sclerotial degradation in a UK soil. Plant Pathol 51:735–745Google Scholar
  55. Clarkson JP, Mead A, Payne T, Whipps JM (2004) Effect of environmental factors and Sclerotinia cepivorum isolate on sclerotial degradation and biological control of white rot by Trichoderma. Plant Pathol 53:353–362Google Scholar
  56. Clarkson JP, Scruby A, Mead A, Wright C, Smith B, Whipps JM (2006) Integrated control of Allium white rot with Trichoderma viride, tebuconazole and composted onion waste. Plant Pathol 55:375–386Google Scholar
  57. Cook RJ (1993) Making greater use of introduced microorganisms for biological control of plant pathgoens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 31:53–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Coşkuntuna A, Özer N (2008) Biological control of onion basal rot disease using Trichoderma harzianum and induction of antifungal compounds in onion set following seed treatment. Crop Prot 27:330–336Google Scholar
  59. Coventry E, Noble R, Mead A, Whipps JM (2005) Suppression of Allium white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) in different soils using vegetable wastes. Eur J Plant Pathol 111:101–112Google Scholar
  60. Coventry E, Noble R, Mead A, Marin FR, Perez JA, Whipps JM (2006) Allium white rot suppression with composts and Trichoderma viride in relation to sclerotia viability. Phytopathology 96:1009–1020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. D’hallewin G, Arras G, Dessi R, Dettori A, Schirra M (1999) Citrus green mould control in stored “Star Ruby” grapefruit by the use of biocontrol yeast under curing conditions. Acta Horticult 485:111–115Google Scholar
  62. Daayf F, Adam L, Fernando WGD (2003) Comparative screening of bacteria for biological control of potato late blight (strain US-8) using in vitro, detached-leaves and whole-plant testing systems. Can J Plant Pathol 25:276–284Google Scholar
  63. Daivasikamani S, Rajanaika (2009) Biological control of coffee leaf rust pathogen, Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome using Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. J Biopest 2:94–98Google Scholar
  64. Davis JR, Huisman OC, Everson DO, Nolte P, Sorenson LH, Schneider AT (2010a) The suppression of Verticillium wilt of potato using corn as a green manure crop. Am J Potato Res 87:195–208Google Scholar
  65. Davis JR, Huisman OC, Everson DO, Nolte P, Sorenson LH, Schneider AT (2010b) Ecological relationships of Verticillium wilt suppression of potato by green manures. Am J Potato Res 87:315–326Google Scholar
  66. De Boer M, van der Sluis I, van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM (1999) Combining fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. strains to enhance suppression of Fusarium wilt of radish. Eur J Plant Pathol 105:201–210Google Scholar
  67. De Boer M, Bom P, Kindt F, Keurentjes JJB, van der Sluis I, van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM (2003) Control of Fusarium wilt of radish by combining Pseudomonas putida strains that have different disease suppressive mechanisms. Phytopathology 93:626–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. De Cal A, Melgarejo P (2001) Repeated applications of Penicillium oxalicum prolongs biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of tomato plants. Eur J Plant Pathol 107:805–811Google Scholar
  69. De Cal A, García-Lepe R, Melgarejo P (1999) Effects of timing and method of application of Penicillium oxalicum on efficacy and duration of control of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Plant Pathol 48:260–266Google Scholar
  70. De Cal A, Redondo C, Sztejnberg A, Melgarejo P (2008) Biocontrol of powdery mildew by Penicillium oxalicum in open-field nurseries of strawberries. Biol Control 47:103–107Google Scholar
  71. De Costa DM, Gunawardhana (2012) Effects of sodium bicarbonate on pathogenicity of Colletotrichum musae and potential for controlling postharvest diseases of banana. Postharvest Biol Technol 68:54–63Google Scholar
  72. De Curtis F, Lima G, Vitullo D, De Cicco V (2010) Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii on tomato by delivering antagonistic bacteria through a drip irrigation system. Crop Protect 29:663–670Google Scholar
  73. Deadman M, Al Hassani H, Al Sa’di A (2006) Solarization and biofumigation reduce Pythium aphanidermatum-induced damping-off and enhance vegetative growth of greenhouse cucumber in Oman. J Plant Pathol 88:335–337Google Scholar
  74. Declerck S, Risede JM, Rufyikiri G, Delvaux B (2002) Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on severity of root rot of bananas caused by Cylindrocladium spathiphylli. Plant Pathol 51:109–115Google Scholar
  75. Ding J, Shi K, Zhou YH, Yu JQ (2009) Microbial community responses associated with the development of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum after 24-epibrassinolide application to shoots and roots in cucumber. Eur J Plant Pathol 124:141–150Google Scholar
  76. Dinz LP, Maffia LA, Dhingra OD, Casali VWD, Santos RHS, Mizubuti ESG (2006) Avaliaçao de produtos alternatives para controle da requeima do tomateiro. Fitopatol Bras 31:171–179Google Scholar
  77. Domenech J, Reddy MS, Kloepper JW, Ramos B, Gutierrez-Mañero J (2006) Combined application of the biological product LS213 with Bacillus, Pseudomonas or Chrysobacterium for growth promotion and biological control of soilborne diseases in pepper and tomato. BioControl 51:245–258Google Scholar
  78. Douglas SM (2010) Late blight of tomato and potato in Connecticut – 2010. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.
  79. Droby S, Vinokur V, Weiss B, Cohen L, Daus A, Goldschmidt EE, Porat R (2002) Induction of resistance to Penicillium digitatum in grapefruit by the yeast biocontrol agent Candida oleophila. Phytopathology 92:393–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Eikeno H, Stensvand A, Tronsmo AM (2003) Induced resistance as a possible means to control diseases of strawberry caused by Phytophthora spp. Plant Dis 87:345–350Google Scholar
  81. Elad Y, Malathrakis NE, Dik AJ (1996) Biological control of Botrytis-incited diseases and powdery mildews in the greenhouse crops. Crop Protect 15:229–240Google Scholar
  82. El-Ghaouth A, Smilanick JL, Brown GE, Ippolito A, Wisniewski M, Wilson CL (2000) Application of Candida saitoana and glycochitosan for the control of postharvest diseases of apples and citrus under semi-commercial conditions. Plant Dis 84:243–248Google Scholar
  83. Elmer WH (2004) Combining nonpathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum with sodium chloride to suppress Fusarium crown rot of asparagus in replanted fields. Plant Pathol 53:751–758Google Scholar
  84. Elmer PAG, Reglinski T, Wood PN, Hill RA, Marsden SM, Parry FJ, Taylor JT (2003) Suppression of Botrytis in grapes using a combination of elicitors and fungal antagonists. In: 8th international plant pathology congress, Christchurch, p 43Google Scholar
  85. Elmer PAG, Hoyte SM, Vanneste JL, Reglinski T, Wood PN, Parry FJ (2005) Biological control of fruit pathogens. N Z Plant Protect 58:47–54Google Scholar
  86. El-Mougy NS, Abdel-Kader MM (2008) Long-term activity of bio-priming seed treatment for biological control of faba bean root rot pathogens. Australas Plant Pathol 37:464–471Google Scholar
  87. El-Tarabily KA (2004) Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani diseases of sugar beet by antagonistic plant growth-promoting yeasts. J Appl Microbiol 96:69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Eshel D, Regev R, Orenstein J, Droby S, Gan-Mor S (2009) Combining physical, chemical and biological methods for synergistic control of postharvest diseases: a case study of black root rot of carrot. Postharvest Biol Technol 54:48–52Google Scholar
  89. Etebarian HR, Scott ES, Wicks TJ (2000) Trichoderma harzianum T-39 and T.virens DAR 74290 as potential biological control agents for Phytophthora erythroseptica. Eur J Plant Pathol 106:329–337Google Scholar
  90. Evans JR, Evans RR, Regusi CL, Rademacher W (1999) Mode of action, metabolism and uptake of BAS 125W, prohexadione-calcium. Hortscience 34:1200–1201Google Scholar
  91. Fallik E, Ilic Z, Alkalai-Tuvia S, Copel A, Polevaya Y (2002) A short hot water rinsing and brushing reduces chilling injury and enhances resistance against Botrytis cinerea in harvested tomato. Adv Hortic Sci 16:3–6Google Scholar
  92. Fiedler Z, Sosnowska D (2007) Nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson is also a biological agent for control of greenhouse insects and mite pests. BioControl 52:547–558Google Scholar
  93. Flaherty JE, Jones JB, Harbaugh BK, Somodi GC, Jackson LE (2000) Control of bacterial spot on tomato in the greenhouse and field with h-mutant bacteriophages. Hortscience 35:882–884Google Scholar
  94. Fourie PH, Halleen F (2006) Chemical and biological protection of grapevine propagation material from trunk disease pathogens. Eur J Plant Pathol 116:255–265Google Scholar
  95. Francis MI, Redondo A, Burns JK, Graham JH (2009) Soil application of imidacloprid and related SAR-inducing compounds produce effective and persistent control of citrus canker. Eur J Plant Pathol 124:283–292Google Scholar
  96. Fravel DR, Deahl KL, Stormmel JR (2005) Compatibility of the biocontrol fungus Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 with selected fungicides. Biol Control 34:165–169Google Scholar
  97. Freeman S, Zveibil A, Vintal H, Maymon M (2002) Isolation of nonpathogenic mutants of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis for biological control of Fusarium wilt in cucurbits. Phytopathology 92:164–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. French-Monar RD, Rodrigues FA, Korndörfer GH, Datnoff LE (2010) Silicon suppresses phytophthora blight development on bell pepper. J Phytopathol 158:554–560Google Scholar
  99. Fu G, Huang S, Ye Y, Wu Y, Cen Z, Lin S (2010) Characterization of a bacterial biocontrol strain B106 and its efficacies on controlling banana leaf spot and postharvest anthracnose diseases. Biol Control 55:1–10Google Scholar
  100. Gao Y, Reitz SR, Wang J, Tamez-Guerra P, Wang E, Xu X, Lei Z (2012a) Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Oris sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Biocontrol Sci Technol 22:803–812Google Scholar
  101. Gao Y, Reitz SR, Wang J, Xu X, Lei Z (2012b) Potential of a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) as a biological control agent against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Biocontrol Sci Technol 22:491–495Google Scholar
  102. Gent DH, Schwartz HF (2005) Management of Xanthomonas leaf blight of onion with a plant activator, biological control agents and copper bactericides. Plant Dis 89(6):631–639Google Scholar
  103. Georgakopoulos DG, Fiddaman P, Leifert C, Malathrakis NE (2002) Biological control of cucumber and sugarbeet damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum with bacterial and fungal anatagonists. J Appl Microbiol 92:1078–1086PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Ghorbani R, Wicokson SJ, Giostis C, Leifert C (2004) Potato late blight management in organic agriculture. Outlooks Pest Manag 15:176–180Google Scholar
  105. Gilardi G, Garibaldi A, Gullino ML (2007) Effect of antagonistic Fusarium spp. and of different commercial biofungicide formulation on Fusarium wilt of lettuce. Phytoparasitica 35:457–465Google Scholar
  106. Glass JR, Johnson KB, Powelson ML (2001) Assessment of barriers to prevent the development of potato tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans. Plant Dis 85:521–528Google Scholar
  107. Gnanambigai BM, Ponmurugan P (2012) Evaluation of various fungicides and microbial based biocontrol agents against bird’s eye spot disease of tea plants. Crop Protect 32:111–118Google Scholar
  108. Graham JH, Myers ME (2011) Soil application of SAR inducers imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and acibenzolar-S-methyl for citrus canker control in young grapefruit trees. Plant Dis 95:725–728Google Scholar
  109. Gravel V, Martinez C, Antoun H, Tweddell RJ (2005) Antagonistic microorganisms with the ability to control Pythium damping-off of tomato seeds in rockwool. BioControl 50:771–786Google Scholar
  110. Grosch R, Faltin F, Lottmann J, Kofoet A, Berg G (2005) Effectiveness of 3 antagonistic bacterial isolates to control Rhizoctonia solani Kühn on lettuce and potato. Can J Microbiol 51:345–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Guetsky R, Shtienberg D, Elad Y, Fischer E, Dinoor A (2002) Improving biological control by combining biocontrol agents each with several mechanisms of disease suppression. Phytopathology 92:976–985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Haddad F, Maffia LA, Mizubuti ESG, Teixeira H (2009) Biological control of coffee rust by antagonistic bacteria under field conditions in Brazil. Biol Control 49:114–119Google Scholar
  113. Hanada RE, Pomella AWV, Soberanis W, Loguercio LL, Pereira JO (2009) Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma martiale against the black pod disease (Phytophthora palmivora) of cacao. Biol Control 50:143–149Google Scholar
  114. Hang NTT, Oh S-O, Kim GH, Hur J-S, Koh YJ (2005) Bacillus subtilis S1-0210 as a biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea in strawberries. Plant Pathol J 21:59–63Google Scholar
  115. Hao J, Subbarao KV, Koike ST (2003) Effects of broccoli rotation on lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor and on population density of sclerotia in soil. Plant Dis 87:159–166Google Scholar
  116. Hao W, Li H, Hu M, Yang L, Rizwan-ul-Haq M (2011) Integrated control of citrus green and blue mold and sour rot by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in combination with tea saponin. Postharvest Biol Technol 59:316–323Google Scholar
  117. Hassan MAE, Buchenaeur H (2007) Induction of resistance to fire blight in apple by acibenzolar-S-methyl and DL-3-aminobutyric acid. J Plant Dis Protect 114:151–158Google Scholar
  118. Hassan MAE, Buchenauer H (2008) Enhanced control of bacterial canker of tomato by DL-3-aminobutyric acid and the fluorescent Pseudomonas isolate CW2. J Plant Dis Protect 115:199–207Google Scholar
  119. Heller WE, Gessler C (1986) Induced systemic resistance in tomato plants against Phytophthora infestans. J Phytopathol 116:323–328Google Scholar
  120. Herman MAB, Davidson JK, Smart CD (2008) Induction of plant defense gene expression by plant activators and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in greenhouse-grown tomatoes. Phytopathology 98:1126–1232Google Scholar
  121. Hjeljord LG, Stensvand A, Tronsmo A (2001) Antagonism of nutrient-activated conidia of Trichoderma harzianum (atroviride) P1 against Botrytis cinerea. Phytopathology 91:1172–1180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Hong JC, Momol MT, Ji P, Olson SM, Colee J, Jones JB (2011) Management of bacterial wilt in tomatoes with thymol and acibenzolar-S-methyl. Crop Protect 30:1340–1345Google Scholar
  123. Hopkins DL (2005) Biological control of Pierce’s disease in the vineyard with strains of Xylella fastidiosa benign to grapevine. Plant Dis 89:1348–1352Google Scholar
  124. Houeto P, Bindoula G, Hoffman JR (1995) Ethylenebisdithiocarbamate and ethylenethiourea: possible human health hazards. Environ Health Perspect 103:568–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Huang H-C, Erickson RS (2007) Ulocladium atrum as a biological control agent for white mold of bean caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Phytoparasitica 35:15–22Google Scholar
  126. Isnaini M, Keane PJ (2007) Biocontrol and epidemiology of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor at Bacchus Marsh, Victoria. Australas Plant Pathol 36:295–304Google Scholar
  127. Jager G, Velvis JH (1986) Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani on potatoes by antagonists: the effectiveness of three isolates of Verticillium biguttatum as inoculum for seed tubers and of a soil treatment with low dosage of pencycuron. Neth J Plant Pathol 92:231–238Google Scholar
  128. Jaime MDLA, Hsiang T, McDonald MR (2008) Effects of Glomus intraradices and onion cultivar on Allium white rot development in organic soils in Ontario. Can J Plant Pathol 30:543–553Google Scholar
  129. Janisiewicz WJ, Korsten L (2002a) Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits. Annu Rev Phytopathol 40:411–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Janisiewicz WJ, Korsten L (2002b) Microbial control of postharvest disease and spoilage. In: Bartz JA, Brecht JA (eds) Postharvest physiology and pathology of vegetables. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 543–562Google Scholar
  131. Janisiewicz WJ, Conway WS, Glenn DM, Sams CE (1998) Integrating biological control and calcium treatment for controlling postharvest decay of apples. Hortscience 33:105–109Google Scholar
  132. Janisiewicz WJ, Leverentz B, Conway WS, Saftner RA, Reed AN, Camp MJ (2003) Control of bitter rot and blue mold of apples by integrating heat and antagonist treatments on 1-MCP-treated fruit stored under controlled atmospheric conditions. Postharvest Biol Technol 29:129–143Google Scholar
  133. Janisiewicz WJ, Peterson DL, Yoder KS, Miller SS (2005) Experimental bin drenching system for testing biocontrol agents to control postharvest decay of apples. Plant Dis 89:487–490Google Scholar
  134. Janousek CN, Lorber JD, Gubler WD (2009) Combination and rotation of bacterial antagonists to control powdery mildew on pumpkin. J Plant Dis Protect 116:260–262Google Scholar
  135. Jayaraj J, Radhakrishnan NV, Kannan R, Sakthivel K, Suganya D, Venkatesan S, Velazhahan R (2005) Development of new formulations of Bacillus subtilis for management of tomato damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Biocontrol Sci Technol 15:55–65Google Scholar
  136. Jetiyanon K, Fowler WD, Kloepper JW (2003) Broad-spectrum protection against several pathogens by PGPR mixtures under field conditions in Thailand. Plant Dis 87:1390–1394Google Scholar
  137. Ji P, Momol MT, Olson SM, Pradhanang PM, Jones JB (2005) Evaluation of thymol as biofumigant for control of bacterial wilt of tomato under field conditions. Plant Dis 89:497–500Google Scholar
  138. Ji P, Campbell HL, Kloepper JW, Jones JB, Suslow TV, Wilson M (2006) Integrated biological control of bacterial speck and spot of tomato under field conditions using foliar biological control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Biol Control 36:358–367Google Scholar
  139. Ji P, Momol MT, Rich JR, Olson SM, Jones JB (2007) Development of an integrated approach for managing bacterial wilt and root-knot on tomato under field conditions. Plant Dis 91:1321–1326Google Scholar
  140. Ji P, Yin J, Kone D (2011) Application of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and standard fungicides for control of Phytophthora blight on squash. Crop Protect 30:1601–1605Google Scholar
  141. Jiang Z-Q, Guo Y-H, Li S-M, Qi H-Y, Guo J-H (2006) Evaluation of biocontrol efficiency of different Bacillus preparations and field application methods against Phytophthora blight of bell pepper. Biol Control 36:216–223Google Scholar
  142. Jindal KK, Singh H, Meeta M (1988) Biological control of Phytophthora infestans on potato. Indian J Plant Pathol 6:59–62Google Scholar
  143. John S, Wicks TJ, Hunt JS, Lorimer MF, Oakey H, Scott ES (2005) Protection of grapevine pruning wounds from infection by Eutypa lata using Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium lateritium. Australas Plant Pathol 34:569–575Google Scholar
  144. Johnson TPC, Grout BWW, Bishop CFH, Perera A (2003) The use of radiant heat to reduce the inoculum level of silver scurf (Helminthosporium solani) on potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) before storage. Acta Horticult 619:207–211Google Scholar
  145. Jones AL (2001) Challenges of controlling fire blight. Comp Fruit Tree 34:86–91Google Scholar
  146. Juarez-Palacios C, Felix-Gastelum R, Wakeman RJ, Paplomats EJ, De Vay JE (1991) Thermal sensitivity of three species of Phytophthora and the effect of soil solarization on their survival. Plant Dis 75:1160–1164Google Scholar
  147. Karabulut OA, Smilanick JL, Gabler FM, Mansour M, Droby S (2003) Near harvest applications of Metschnikowia fructicola, ethanol and sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest diseases of grape in central California. Plant Dis 87:1384–1389Google Scholar
  148. Kato M, Mizbuti ESG, Goodwin SB, Fry WE (1997) Sensitivity to protect fungicides and pathogenic fitness of clonal lineages of Phytophthora infestans in the United States. Phytopathology 87:973–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Kawaguchi A, Inoue K (2012) New antagonistic strains of nonpathogenic Agrobacterium vitis to control grapevine crown gall. J Phytopathol 160:509–518Google Scholar
  150. Kerr A (1980) Biological control of crown gall through production of agrocin 84. Plant Dis 64:28–30Google Scholar
  151. Kidane EG, Laing MD (2010) Integrated control of Fusarium wilt of banana (Musa spp.). Acta Horticult 879:315–321Google Scholar
  152. Kiewnick S, Jacobsen BJ, Eckhoff JLA B-KA, Bergman JW (2001) Integrated control of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot of sugar beet with fungicides and antagonistic bacteria. Plant Dis 85:718–722Google Scholar
  153. Kim CH (1989) Phytophthora blight and other diseases of red pepper in Korea: disease and pest problems from continuous cropping. II. Soil-borne diseases. FFTC Ext Bull 302:10–17Google Scholar
  154. Kim S-T, Yun S-C (2011) Biocontrol with Myxococcus sp. KYC 1126 against anthracnose in hot pepper. Plant Pathol J 27:156–163Google Scholar
  155. Kim YC, Jung H, Kim KY, Park SK (2008) An effective biocontrol formulation against Phytophthora blight of pepper using growth mixtures of combined chitinolytic bacteria under different field conditions. Eur J Plant Pathol 120:373–382Google Scholar
  156. Kim GH, Lim MT, Hur J-S, Yum K-J, Koh YJ (2009) Biological control of tea anthracnose using antagonistic bacterium of Bacillus subtilis isolated from tea leaves. Plant Pathol 25:99–102Google Scholar
  157. Klein E, Katan J, Gamliel A (2011) Soil suppressiveness to Fusarium disease following organic amendments and solarization. Plant Dis 95:1116–1123Google Scholar
  158. Konstantinidou-Doltsinis S, Markellou E, Kasselaki A-M, Siranidou E, Kalamarakis A, Tzembelikou K, Schmitt A, Koumakis C, Malathrakis N (2007) Control of powdery mildew of grape in Greece using Sporodex®L and Milsana®. J Plant Dis Protect 114:256–262Google Scholar
  159. Kosaka Y, Fukunishi T (1997) Multiple inoculation with three attenuated viruses for the control of cucumber virus disease. Plant Dis 81:733–738Google Scholar
  160. Kosaka Y, Ryang B-S, Kobori T, Shiomi H, Yasuhara H, Kataoka M (2006) Effectiveness of an attenuated Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolate for cross-protecting cucumber. Plant Dis 90:67–72Google Scholar
  161. Kouassi KHS, Bajji M, Jijakli H (2012) The control of postharvest blue and green molds of citrus in relation with essential oil-wax formulations, adherence and viscosity. Postharvest Biol Technol 71:122–128Google Scholar
  162. Krauss U, Soberanis W (2001) Biocontrol of cocoa pod diseases with mycoparasite mixtures. Biol Control 22:149–158Google Scholar
  163. Kurze S, Bahl H, Dahl R, Berg G (2001) Biological control of fungal strawberry diseases by Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48. Plant Dis 85:529–534Google Scholar
  164. Lafontaine JP, Benhamou N (1996) Chitosan treatment: an emerging strategy for enhancing resistance of greenhouse tomato plants to infection by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici. Biocontrol Sci Technol 6:111–124Google Scholar
  165. Lambert DH, Salas B (2001) Pink rot. In: Stevenson WR, Loria R, Franc GD, Weingartner DP (eds) Compendium of potato diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, pp 33–34Google Scholar
  166. Larena I, Melgarejo P, De Cal A (2003) Production, survival and evaluation of solid-substrate inocula of Penicillium oxalicum, a biocontrol agent against Fusarium wilt of tomato. Phytopathology 92:863–869Google Scholar
  167. Larkin RP, Fravel DR (1998) Efficacy of various fungal and bacterial biocontrol organisms for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Plant Dis 82:1022–1028Google Scholar
  168. Larkin RP, Fravel DR (2002) Effects of varying environmental conditions on biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato by nonpathogenic Fusarium spp. Phytopathology 92:1160–1166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Larkin RP, Honeycutt CW, Griffin TS, Olanya OM, Halloran JM, He Z (2011) Effects of different potato cropping system approaches and water management on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities. Phytopathology 101:58–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Leverentz B, Janisiewicz WJ, Conway WS, Saftner RA, Fuchs Y, Sams CE, Camp MJ (2000) Combining yeasts or a bacterial biocontrol agent and heat treatment to reduce postharvest decay of “Gala” apples. Poshtharvest Biol Technol 21:87–94Google Scholar
  171. Leverentz B, Janisiewicz WJ, Conway WS, Saftner RA (2001) Effect of combining biocontrol heat treatment and MCP-treatment on the reduction of postharvest decay of ‘Delicious’ apples. Phytopathology 91:S55 (Abst.)Google Scholar
  172. Liang YC, Sun WC, Si J, Römheld V (2005) Effects of foliar- and root-applied silicon on the enhancement of induced resistance to powdery mildew in Cucumis sativus. Plant Pathol 54:678–685Google Scholar
  173. Liljeroth E, Bengtsson T, Wük L, Andreasson E (2010) Induced resistance on potato to Phytophthora infestans: effects of BABA in greenhouse and field tests with different potato varieties. Eur J Plant Pathol 127:171–183Google Scholar
  174. Lima G, De Curtis F, Piedimonte D, Spina AM, De Cicco V (2006) Integration of biocontrol yeast and thiabendazole protects stored apples from fungicide sensitive and resistant isolates of Botrytis cinerea. Postharvest Biol Technol 40:301–307Google Scholar
  175. Lima G, Castoria R, De Curtis F, Raiola A, Ritieni A, De Cicco V (2011) Integrated control of blue mold using new fungicides and biocontrol yeasts lowers levels of fungicide residues and patulin contamination in apples. Postharvest Biol Technol 60:164–172Google Scholar
  176. Lin T-C, Ishizaka M, Ishii H (2009) Acibenzolar-S-methyl induced systemic resistance against anthracnose and powdery mildew diseases on cucumber plants without accumulation of phytoalexins. J Phytopathol 157:40–50Google Scholar
  177. Ling N, Xue C, Huang Q, Yang X, Xu Y, Shen Q (2010) Development of a mode of application of bioorganic fertilizer for improving the biocontrol efficacy to Fusarium wilt. BioControl 55:673–683Google Scholar
  178. Lobato MC, Olivieri FP, Altamiranda EAG, Wolski EA, Daleo GR, Caldiz DO, Andrew AB (2008) Phosphite compounds reduce disease severity in potato seed tubers and foliage. Eur J Plant Pathol 122:349–358Google Scholar
  179. Loguercio LL, de Carvalho AC, Niella GR, De Souza JT, Pomella AWV (2009) Selection of Trichoderma stromaticum isolates for efficient biological control of witches’ broom disease in cacao. Biol Control 51:130–139Google Scholar
  180. Lopez-Mondejar R, Bernal-Vicente A, Ros M, Tittarelli F, Canali S, Intrigiolo F, Pascual JA (2010) Utilisation of citrus compost-based growing media amended with Trichoderma harzianum T-78 in Cucumis melo L. seedling production. Biores Technol 101:3718–3723Google Scholar
  181. Louws FJ, Wilson M, Campbell HL, Cupples DA, Jones JB, Shoemaker PB, Sahin F, Miller SA (2001) Field control of bacterial spot and bacterial speck to tomato using a plant activator. Plant Dis 85:481–488Google Scholar
  182. Malolepsza U (2006) Induction of disease resistance by acibenzolar-S-methyl and O-hydroxy-ethyolrutin against Botrytis cinerea. Crop Protect 25:956–962Google Scholar
  183. Manikandan R, Saravanakumar D, Rajendran L, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2010) Standardization of liquid formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf1 for its efficacy against Fusarium wilt of tomato. Biol Control 54:83–89Google Scholar
  184. Mari M, Martini C, Spadoni A, Rouissi W, Bertolini P (2012) Biocontrol of apple postharvest decay by Aureobasidium pullulans. Postharvest Biol Technol 73:56–62Google Scholar
  185. Martin FN, Bull CT (2002) Biological approaches for control of root pathogens of strawberry. Phytopathology 92:1356–1362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Matheron ME, Porchas M (2002) Suppression of Phytophthora root and crown rot on pepper plants treated with acibenzolar-S-methyl. Plant Dis 86:292–297Google Scholar
  187. Matheron ME, Porchas M (2010) Evaluation of soil solarization and flooding as management tools for Fusarium wilt of lettuce. Plant Dis 94:1323–1328Google Scholar
  188. Maxson-Stein K, He S-Y, Hammerschmidt R, Jones AL (2002) Effects of treating apple trees with acibenzolar-S-methyl on fire blight and expression of pathogenesis-related protein genes. Plant Dis 68:785–790Google Scholar
  189. Mazzola M (1998) Towards the development of sustainable alternatives for the control of apple replant disease in Washington. In: Proceedings of the annual international research conference on methyl bromide alternatives and emissions reductions, Fesno, pp 8.1–8.3Google Scholar
  190. Mazzola M (1999) Transformation of soil microbial community structure and Rhizoctonia-suppressive potential in response to apple roots. Phytopathology 89:920–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Mazzola M, Gu Y-H (2000) Impact of wheat cultivation on microbial communities from replant soils and apple growth in greenhouse trials. Phytopathology 90:114–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Mazzola M, Gu Y-H (2002) Wheat genotype-specific induction of soil microbial communities suppressive to disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-5 and AG-8. Phytopathology 92:1300–1307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. McLean KL, Hunt JS, Stewart A, Wite D, Porter IJ, Villalta O (2012) Compatibility of a Trichoderma atroviride biocontrol agent with management practices of Allium crops. Crop Protect 33:94–100Google Scholar
  194. Md. Hamiduzzaman M, Jakab G, Barnavon L, Neuhaus J-M, Mauch-Mani B (2005) ß-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance against downy mildew in grapevine acts through the potentiation of callose formation and jasmonic acid signaling. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 18:819–829Google Scholar
  195. Melero-Vara JM, Prados-Ligero AM, Basallote-Ureba MJ (2000) Comparison of physical, chemical and biological methods of controlling garlic white rot. Eur J Plant Pathol 106:581–588Google Scholar
  196. Mercier J, Jiménez J (2004) Control of fungal decay of apples and peaches by the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus. Postharvest Biol Technol 31:1–8Google Scholar
  197. Meshram SU (1984) Suppressive effect of Azotobacter chroococcum on Rhizoctonia solani infestation of potatoes. Nether J Plant Pathol 90:127–132Google Scholar
  198. Minuto A, Spadaro D, Garibaldi A, Gullino ML (2006) Control of soilborne pathogens of tomato using a commercial formulation of Streptomyces griseoviridis and solarization. Crop Protect 25:468–475Google Scholar
  199. Momol MT, Olson SM, Funderburk JE, Stavisky J, Marois JJ (2004) Integrated management of tomato wilt on field-grown tomatoes. Plant Dis 88:882–890Google Scholar
  200. Moore NY, Pegg KG, Bentley S, Smith LJ (1999a) Fusarium wilt of banana: global problems and perspectives. In: Molina AB, Mabdek NHN, Liew KW (eds) Banana fusarium wilt management: towards sustainable cultivation. Proceedings of the international workshop on banana Fusarium wilt disease, Malaysia, pp 11–30Google Scholar
  201. Moore NY, Pegg KG, Smith LJ, Langdon PW, Bentley S, Smith MK (1999b) Fusarium wilt of banana in Australia. In: Molina AB, Masdek NHN, Liew KW (eds) Banana fusarium wilt management: towards sustainable cultivation. Proceedings of the international workshop on banana Fusarium wilt disease, Malaysia, pp 64–75Google Scholar
  202. Moss WP, Byrne JM, Campbell HL, Ji P, Bonas U, Jones JB, Wilson M (2007) Biological control of bacterial spot of tomato using hrp mutants of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Biol Control 41:199–206Google Scholar
  203. Murphy JF, Eubanks MD, Masiri J (2008) Reflective plastic mulch but not a resistance-inducing treatment reduced Watermelon mosaic virus incidence and yield losses in squash. Int J Veg Sci 15:3–12Google Scholar
  204. Narisawa K, Ohki T, Hashiba T (2000) Suppression of clubroot and Verticillium yellows in Chinese cabbage in the field by the root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira. Plant Pathol 49:141–146Google Scholar
  205. Narisawa K, Usuki F, Hashiba T (2004) Control of Verticillium yellows in Chinese cabbage by the dark septate endophytic fungus LtVB3. Phytopathology 94:412–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Neher OT, Johnston MR, Zidack NK, Jacobsen BJ (2009) Evaluation of Bacillus mycoides isolate BmJ and B. mojavensis isolate 203-7 for the control of anthracnose of cucurbits caused by Glomerella cingulata var. orbiculare. Biol Control 48:140–146Google Scholar
  207. Nel B, Steinberg C, Labuschagne N, Viljoen A (2006) The potential of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and other biological control organisms for suppressing Fusarium wilt of banana. Plant Pathol 55:217–223Google Scholar
  208. Nielssen TH, Thrane C, Christophersen C, Anthoni U, Sørensen J (2000) Structure, production characteristics and fungal antagonism of tensin – a new antifungal cyclic lipopeptide from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 96.578. J Appl Microbiol 89:992–1001Google Scholar
  209. Njoroge SMC, Kabir Z, Martin FN, Koike ST, Subbarao KV (2009) Comparison of crop rotation for Verticillium wilt management and effect on Pythium species in conventional and organic strawberry production. Plant Dis 93:519–527Google Scholar
  210. Norelli JL, Jones AL, Aldwinckle HS (2003) Fire blight management in the twenty-first century. Plant Dis 87:756–765Google Scholar
  211. Ojaghian MR (2011) Potential of Trichoderma spp. and Talaromyces flavus for biological control of potato stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Phytoparasitica 39:185–193Google Scholar
  212. Olivieri FP, Lobato MC, Altamiranda EG, Daleo GR, Huarte M, Guevara MG, Andreu AB (2009) BABA effect on the behavior of potato cultivars infected by Phytophthora infestans and Fusarium solani. Eur J Plant Pathol 123:47–56Google Scholar
  213. Omar I, O’Neill TM, Rossall S (2006) Biological control of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato with antagonistic bacteria and integrated control when combined with the fungicide carbendazim. Plant Pathol 55:92–99Google Scholar
  214. Orober M, Siegrist J, Buchenauer H (2002) Mechanisms of phosphate-induced resistance in cucumber. Eur J Plant Pathol 108:345–353Google Scholar
  215. Özaktan H, Bora T (2004) Biological control of fire blight in pear orchards with a formulation of Pantoea agglomerans strain Eh24. Braz J Microbiol 35:224–229Google Scholar
  216. Özer N, Köycii ND (2006) The ability of plant compost leachates to control black mold (Aspergillus niger) and to induce the accumulation of antifungal compounds in onion following seed treatment. BioControl 51:229–243Google Scholar
  217. Palma-Guerrero J, Jansson H-B, Salinas J, Lopez-Llorca LV (2008) Effect of chitosan on hyphal growth and spore germination of plant pathogenic and biocontrol fungi. J Appl Microbiol 104:541–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Park K, Paul D, Kim E, Kloepper JW (2008) Hyaluronic acid of Streptococcus sp. as potent elicitor for induction of systemic resistance against plant diseases. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:1153–1158Google Scholar
  219. Patricio FRA, Sinigaglia C, Barros BC, Freitas SS, Neto JT, Cantarella H, Ghini R (2006) Solarization and fungicides for the control of drop, bottom rot and weeds in lettuce. Crop Protect 25:31–38Google Scholar
  220. Paulitz TC, Bélanger RR (2001) Biological control in greenhouse systems. Annu Rev Phytopathol 39:103–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Percival GC, Noviss K, Haynes I (2009) Field evaluation of systemic resistance inducing chemicals at different growth stages for the control of apple (Venturia inaequalis) and pear (Venturia pirina) scab. Crop Protect 28:629–633Google Scholar
  222. Pertot I, Zasso R, Amsalem L, Baldessari M, Angeli G, Elad Y (2008) Integrating biocontrol agents in powdery mildew control strategies in high tunnel growing systems. Crop Protect 27:622–631Google Scholar
  223. Peters RD, Sturz AV, Carter MR, Sanderson B (2003) Developing disease-suppressive soils through crop rotation and tillage management practices. Soil Tillage Res 72:181–192Google Scholar
  224. Peters RD, Sturz AV, Carter MR, Sanderson JB (2005) Crop rotation can confer resistance to potatoes from Phytophthora erythroseptica. Can J Plant Sci 85:523–528Google Scholar
  225. Pinkerton JN, Ivors KL, Reeser PW, Bristow PR, Windom GE (2002) The use of soil solarization for the management of soilborne plant pathogens in strawberry and raspberry production. Plant Dis 86:645–651Google Scholar
  226. Plaza P, Usall J, Smilanick JL, Lamarca N, Viñas I (2004) Combining Pantoea agglomerans (CPA-2) and curing treatments to control established infections of Penicillium digitatum on lemons. J Food Protect 67:781–786Google Scholar
  227. Ponmurugan P, Baby U (2007) Evaluation of fungicides and biocontrol agents and microbial based biocontrol agents against Phomopsis canker of tea under field conditions. Australas Plant Pathol 31:68–72Google Scholar
  228. Porras M, Barrau C, Arroyo FT, Santos B, Blanco C, Romero F (2007) Reduction of Phytophthora cactorum in strawberry fields by Trichoderma spp. and soil solarization. Plant Dis 91:142–146Google Scholar
  229. Pradhanang PM, Ji P, Momol MT, Olson SM, Mayfield JL, Jones JB (2005) Application of acibenzolar-S-methyl enhances host resistance in tomato against Ralstonia solanacearum. Plant Dis 89:989–993Google Scholar
  230. Press CM, Loper JE, Kloepper JW (2001) Role of iron in rhizosphere-mediated induced systemic resistance of cucumber. Phytopathology 91:593–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Punja ZK, Rose S, Yip R (2002) Biological control of root diseases. In: Proceedings of the Canadian greenhouse conference, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  232. Purcell AH (1990) Homopteran transmission of xylem-inhabiting bacteria. In: Harris KF (ed) Advances in disease vector research, vol 5. Springer, New York, pp 243–266Google Scholar
  233. Pusey PL (2002) Biological control agents for fire blight of apple compared under conditions limiting natural dispersal. Plant Dis 86:639–644Google Scholar
  234. Pusey PL, Stockwell VO, Rudell DR (2008) Antibiosis and acidification by Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 may contribute to suppression of Erwinia amylovora. Phytopathology 98:1136–1143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Raupach GS, Kloepper JW (2000) Biocontrol of cucumber diseases in the field by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria with and without methyl bromide fumigation. Plant Dis 84:1073–1075Google Scholar
  236. Reglinski T, Elmer PAG, Taylor JT, Parry EJ, Marsden R, Wood PN (2005) Suppression of Botrytis bunch rot in Chardonnay grapevines by induction of host resistance and fungal antagonism. Australas Plant Pathol 34:481–488Google Scholar
  237. Reid TC, Hausbeck MK, Kizilkaya K (2002) Use of fungicides and biological controls in the suppression of Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus under greenhouse and growth chamber conditions. Plant Dis 86:493–498Google Scholar
  238. Rekanovic E, Milijasevic S, Todorovic B, Potocnik I (2007) Possibilities of biological and chemical control of Verticillium wilt in pepper. Phytoparasitica 35:436–441Google Scholar
  239. Reuveni M, Zahavi T, Cohen Y (2001) Controlling downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) in field-grown grapevine with ß-aminobutyric acid (BABA). Phytoparasitica 29:125–133Google Scholar
  240. Riley DG, Pappu HR (2000) Evaluation of tactics for management of thrips-vectored Tomato spotted wilt virus in tomato. Plant Dis 84:847–852Google Scholar
  241. Ristaino JB, Parra G, Campbell CL (1997) Suppression of Phytophthora blight in bell pepper by a no-till wheat cover crop. Phytopathology 97:242–249Google Scholar
  242. Romanazzi G, Gabler FM, Smilanick JL (2006) Preharvest chitosan and postharvest UV irradiation treatments suppress gray mold of table grapes. Plant Dis 90:445–450Google Scholar
  243. Romero D, de Vicente A, Zeriouh H, Cazorla FM, Fernández-Ortuño D, Tores JA, Pérez-García A (2007) Evaluation of biological control agents for managing cucurbit powdery mildew on greenhouse-grown melon. Plant Pathol 56:976–986Google Scholar
  244. Rong RF, Feng SQ (2001) Effect of UV-C light irradiation on ripening and disease infection of postharvest tomato. J China Agric Univ 6:68–73Google Scholar
  245. Rossetti V, Pompeu J, Rodriguez JO, Vechiato MH, da Veiga ML, Oliveira DA, Sobrinho JT (1980) Reaction of exocortis-infected and healthy trees to experimental Phytophthora inoculations. In: Proceedings of the 8th conference on IOCV, Riverside, pp 209–241Google Scholar
  246. Ruiz-Ruiz S, Moreno P, Guerri J, Ambrós S (2009) Discrimination between mild and severe Citrus tristeza virus isolates with a rapid and highly specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method using TaqMan LNA probes. Phytopathology 99:307–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Sabuquillo P, De Cal A, Melgarejo P (2006) Biocontrol of tomato wilt by Penicillium oxalicum formulations in different crop conditions. Biol Control 37:256–265Google Scholar
  248. Sabuquillo P, De Cal A, Melgarejo P (2010) Development of a dried Penicillium oxalicum conidial formulation for use as a biological agent against Fusarium wilt of tomato: selection of optimal additives and storage conditions for maintaining conidial viability. Biol Control 54:221–229Google Scholar
  249. Sadeghi A, Hesan AR, Askari H, Qomi DN, Farsi M, Hervan EM (2009) Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani, damping-off of sugar beet with native Streptomyces strains under field conditions. Biocontrol Sci Technol 19:985–991Google Scholar
  250. Sadfi N, Chérif M, Hajlaoui MR, Boudabbous A (2002) Biological control of the potato tubers dry rot caused by Fusarium roseum var. sambucinum under greenhouse, field and storage conditions using Bacillus spp. isolates. J Phytopathol 150:640–648Google Scholar
  251. Sağir A, Eylen M, Pirinc V (2005) Effect of irrigation methods on pepper crown rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici. Int J Agric Biol 7:804–806Google Scholar
  252. Saito T, Sugiyama K (2005) Pathogenicity of three Japanese strains of entomopathogenic fungi against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Appl Entomol Zool 40:169–172Google Scholar
  253. Sakuma F, Maeda M, Takahashi M, Kondo N (2011) Suppression of common scab of potato caused by Streptomyces turgidiscabies using lopsided oat green manure. Plant Dis 95:1124–1130Google Scholar
  254. Salman M, Abuamsha R (2012) Potential for integrated biological and chemical control of damping-off disease caused by Pythium ultimum in tomato. BioControl 57:711–718Google Scholar
  255. Sanzani SM, Schena L, De Sicco V, Ippolito A (2012) Early detection of Botrytis cinerea latent infections, as a tool to improve postharvest quality of table grapes. Postharvest Biol Technol 68:64–71Google Scholar
  256. Saravanakumar D, Vijayakumar C, Kumar N, Samiyappan R (2007) PGPR-induced defense responses in the tea plant against blister blight disease. Crop Protect 26:556–565Google Scholar
  257. Schisler DA, Slininger PJ, Kleinkopf G, Bothast RJ, Ostrowski RC (2000) Biological control of Fusarium dry rot of potato tubers under commercial storage conditions. Am J Potato Res 77:29–40Google Scholar
  258. Schisler DA, Slininger PJ, Miller JS, Woodell LK, Clayson S, Olsen N (2009) Bacterial antagonists, zoospore inoculum retention time and potato cultivar influence pink rot disease development. Am J Potato Res 86:102–111Google Scholar
  259. Schmid A, Daniel C, Weibel F (2005) Effect of cultural methods on leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae) and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) damage in strawberries. BioControl 50:179–194Google Scholar
  260. Schuerger AC, Hammer W (2003) Suppression of powdery mildew on greenhouse-grown cucumber by addition of silicon to hydroponic nutrient solution is inhibited at high temperature. Plant Dis 87:177–185Google Scholar
  261. Sengonca CM, Thungrabeab M, Blaeser P (2006) Potential of different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi from Thailand as biological control agent against western flower thrips Frankliniellla occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera-Thirpidae). J Plant Dis Protect 113:74–80Google Scholar
  262. Seyb AM (2004) Botrytis cinerea inoculum sources in the vineyard system. Doctoral thesis, Lincoln University, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  263. Shiomi HF, Silva HAS, de Melo IS, Nunes FV, Bettiol W (2006) Bioprospecting endophytic bacteria for biological control of coffee leaf rust. Sci Agric Braz 63:32–39Google Scholar
  264. Shorten PR, Elmer PAG, Soboleva TK (2003) A dynamic model to describe the interaction between Botrytis cinerea and the biological control agent, Ulocladium oudemansii. In: 8th international plant pathology congress, Christchurch, p 23Google Scholar
  265. Shtienberg D, Elad Y, Bornstein Z, Ziv G, Grava A, Cohen S (2010) Polyethylene mulch modifies greenhouse microclimate and reduces infection of Phytophthora infestans in tomato and Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber. Phytopathology 100:97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Sieburth PJ, Nolan KG, Hilf ME, Lee RF, Moreno P, Garnsey SM (2005) Discrimination of stem-pitting from other isolates of Citrus tristeza virus. In: Proceedings of the 16th conference, IOCV, Riverside, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  267. Slininger PJ, Schisler DA, Ericsson LD, Brandt TL, Frazier MJ, Woodell LK, Olsen NL, Kleinkopf GE (2007) Biological control of postharvest late blight of potatoes. Biocontrol Sci Technol 17:647–663Google Scholar
  268. Slininger PJ, Dunlap CA, Schisler DA (2010) Polysaccharide production benefits dry storage survival of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens S11:P:12 effective against several maladies of stored potatoes. Biocontrol Sci Technol 20:227–244Google Scholar
  269. Slusarski C, Pietr SJ (2009) Combined application of dazomet and Trichoderma asperellum as an efficient alternative to methyl bromide in controlling the soilborne disease complex of bell pepper. Crop Protect 28:668–674Google Scholar
  270. Someya N, Tsuchiya K, Yoshida T, Tsujimoto-Noguchi M, Sawada H (2007) Combined application of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LRB3W1 with a low dosage of benomyl for control of cabbage yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans. Biocontrol Sci Technol 17:21–31Google Scholar
  271. Sosa-Alvarez M, Madden L, Ellis MA (1995) Effects of temperature and wetness duration on sporulation of Botrytis cinerea on strawberry leaf residues. Plant Dis 79:609–615Google Scholar
  272. Soylu EM, Soylu S, Baysal Ö (2003) Induction of disease resistance and antioxidant enzymes by acibenzolar-S-methyl against bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato. J Plant Pathol 85:175–181Google Scholar
  273. Soylu EM, Soylu S, Kurt S (2006) Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato late blight disease agent Phytophthora infestans. Mycopathologia 161:119–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Sriram S, Roopa KP, Savitha MT (2011) Extended shelf-life of liquid fermentation derived talc formulations of Trichoderma harzianum with the addition of glycerol in the production medium. Crop Protect 30:1334–1339Google Scholar
  275. Srivastava R, Khalid A, Singh US, Sharma AK (2010) Evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, fluorescent Pseudomonas and Trichoderma harzianum formulations against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici for the management of tomato wilt. Biol Control 53:24–31Google Scholar
  276. Stavisky J, Funderburk J, Broadbeck BV, Olson SM, Anderson CP (2002) Population dynamics of Frankliniella spp. and tomato spotted wilt incidence as influenced by cultural management tactics in tomato. J Econ Entomol 95:1216–1221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Strashnov Y, Elad Y, Sivan A, Rudich Y, Chet I (1985) Control of Rhizoctonia solani fruit rot of tomatoes by Trichoderma harzianum Rifai. Crop Protect 4:359–364Google Scholar
  278. Steddom KC, Menge JA (1998) Continuous application of the biocontrol bacterium, Pseudomonas putida 06909, increases soil populations over a single application. Phytopathology 88:S85 (Abst.)Google Scholar
  279. Steddom KC, Menge JA (1999) Continuous application of the biocontrol bacterium, Pseudomonas putida 06909 improves biocontrol of Phytophthora parasitica on citrus. Phytopathology 89:S75 (Abst.)Google Scholar
  280. Steddom KC, Menge JA (2001) Evaluation of continuous application technology for delivery of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas putida 06909-rif/nal. Plant Dis 85:387–392Google Scholar
  281. Steddom KC, Becker O, Menge JA (2002a) Repetitive applications of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas putida 06909-rif/nal and effects on populations of Phytophthora parasitica in citrus orchards. Phytopathology 92:857–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Steddom KC, Menge JA, Crowley D, Borneman J (2002b) Effect of repetitive applications of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas putida 06909 rif/nal on citrus soil microbial communities. Phytopathology 92:857–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Stevens C, Lui J, Khan VA, Lu JY, Wilson CL, Igwegbe ECK, Kabwe MK, Chalutz E, Droby S (1998) Application of hermetic UV-C for delayed ripening and reduction of Rhizopus soft rot in tomatoes: the effect of tomatine on storage rot development. J Phytopathol 146:211–221Google Scholar
  284. Stockwell VO, Johnson KB, Sugar D, Loper JE (2002) Antibiosis contributes to biological control of fire blight by Pantoea agglomerans strain Eh252 in orchards. Phytopathology 92:1202–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Suárez-Estrella F, Vargas-Garcia C, Lopez MJ, Capel C, Moreno J (2007) Antagonistic activity of bacteria and fungi from horticultural compost against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis. Crop Protect 26:46–53Google Scholar
  286. Subbarao KV, Koike ST, Hubbard JC (1996) Effects of deep plowing on the distribution and density of Sclerotinia minor sclerotia and lettuce drop incidence. Plant Dis 80:28–33Google Scholar
  287. Subbarao KV, Hubbard JC, Schulbach KF (1997) Comparison of lettuce diseases and yield under subsurface drip and furrow irrigation. Phytopathology 87:877–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Subbarao KV, Kabir Z, Martin FN, Koike ST (2007) Management of soilborne diseases in strawberry using vegetable rotations. Plant Dis 91:964–972Google Scholar
  289. Summers CG, Mitchell JP, Stapleton JJ (2004) Management of aphid-borne viruses and Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in zucchini squash using UV reflective plastic and wheat straw mulches. Environ Entomol 33:1447–1457Google Scholar
  290. Sundaramoorthy S, Raguchander T, Ragupathi N, Samiyappan R (2012) Combinatorial effect of endophytic and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria against wilt disease of Capsicum annuum L. caused by Fusarium solani. Biol Control 60:59–67Google Scholar
  291. Sundheim L, Amundsen T (1982) Fungicide tolerance in the hyperparasite Ampelomyces quisqualis and integrated control of cucumber powdery mildew. Acta Agric Scand 32:349–355Google Scholar
  292. Sundheim L, Krekling T (1982) Host-parasite relationships of the hyperparasite Ampelomyces quisqualis and its powdery mildew host Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Phytopathol Z 104:202–210Google Scholar
  293. Sundin GW, Werner NA, Yoder KS, Aldwinckle HS (2009) Field evaluation of biological control of fire blight in the eastern United States. Plant Dis 93:386–394Google Scholar
  294. Szentiványi O, Kiss L (2003) Overwintering of Ampelomyces mycoparasites on apple trees and other plants infected with powdery mildews. Plant Pathol 52:737–746Google Scholar
  295. Szezech M, Shoda M (2006) The effect of mode of application of Bacillus subtilis RB14-C on its efficacy as a biocontrol agent against Rhizoctonia solani. J Phytopathol 154:370–377Google Scholar
  296. Tamietti G, Valentino D (2006) Soil solarization as an ecological method for the control of Fusarium wilt of melon in Italy. Crop Protect 25:389–397Google Scholar
  297. Teixidó N, Usall J, Palou L, Asensio A, Nunes C, Viñas I (2001) Improving control of green and blue molds of oranges by combining Pantoea agglomerans (CPA-2) and sodium bicarbonate. Eur J Plant Pathol 107:685–694Google Scholar
  298. Thirumalachar MJ, O’Brien MJ (1977) Suppression of charcoal rot in potato with a bacterial antagonist. Plant Dis Rep 61:543–546Google Scholar
  299. Thomas TP, Kunta M, da Graça JV, Sétamou M, Skaria M (2010) Suppression of Phytophthora infection in citrus infected with viroids. Hortscience 45:1069–1072Google Scholar
  300. Thuerig B, Binder A, Boller T, Guyer T, Jiménez S, Rentsch C, Tamm L (2006) An aqueous extract of the dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum induces resistance in several crops under controlled and field conditions. Eur J Plant Pathol 114:185–197Google Scholar
  301. Ting Z, Northover J, Schneider KE, Lu XW (2002) Interactions between Pseudomonas syringae MA-4 and cypridinil in the control of blue and gray mold of apples. Can J Plant Pathol 24:154–161Google Scholar
  302. Ting ASY, Fang MT, Tee CS (2009) Assessment on the effect of formulative materials on the viability and efficacy of Serratia marcescens – a biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cubense race 4. Am J Agric Biol Sci 4:283–288Google Scholar
  303. Torres T, Nunes C, García JM, Abadias M, Viñas I, Manso T, Olmo M, Usall J (2007) Application of Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2, in combination with heated sodium bicarbonate solutions to control the major postharvest diseases affecting citrus fruit at several Mediterranean locations. Eur J Plant Pathol 118:73–83Google Scholar
  304. Tränkner A (1992) Use of agricultural and municipal organic wastes to develop suppressiveness to plant pathogens. In: Tjamos EC, Papavizas GC, Cook RJ (eds) Biological control of plant diseases. Plenum Press, New York, pp 35–42Google Scholar
  305. Turchek WW, Peres NA (2009) Heat treatment effects on strawberry plant survival and angular leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas fragariae in nursery production. Plant Dis 93:299–308Google Scholar
  306. Turney JK, Yang CH, Cooksey DA, Menge JA (1994) Mechanisms of biocontrol of Phytophthora citrophthora by Pseudomonas putida. Phytopathology 84:1091 (Abst.)Google Scholar
  307. Uppal AK, El Hadrami A, Adam LR, Tenuta M, Daayf F (2008) Biological control of potato Verticillium wilt under controlled and field conditions using selected bacterial antagonists and plant extracts. Biol Control 44:90–100Google Scholar
  308. Utkhede RS, Koch C (2004) Biological treatments to control bacterial canker of greenhouse tomatoes. BioControl 49:305–313Google Scholar
  309. Utkhede RS, Mathur S (2006) Preventive and curative biological treatments for control of Botrytis cinerea stem canker of greenhouse tomatoes. BioControl 51:363–373Google Scholar
  310. van den Boogert PHJF, Luttikholt AJG (2004) Compatible biological and chemical control systems for Rhizoctonia solani in potato. Eur J Plant Pathol 110:111–118Google Scholar
  311. Van der Schaaf DA, Ravenberg WJ, Malais M (1991) Verticillium lecanii as a microbial insecticide against whitefly. IOBC/WPRS Bull 14:120–123Google Scholar
  312. Vanneste JL, Cornish DA, Yu J, Voyle MD (2002) P10c: a new biological control agent for control of fire blight which can be sprayed or distributed using honey bees. Acta Horticult 590:231–236Google Scholar
  313. Velvis H, Jager G (1983) Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani on potatoes by antagonists: preliminary experiments with Verticillium biguttatum, a sclerotium-inhabiting fungus. Neth J Plant Pathol 89:113–123Google Scholar
  314. Verhaar MA, Hijwegen T (1994) Biological control of cucumber powdery mildew by mycoparasites. In: Strink PC, Vredenberg WJ, Renkema JA, Parlevliet JE (eds) Plant production on the threshold of a new century. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 373–374Google Scholar
  315. Vermeire M-L, Kablan L, Dorel M, Delvaux B, Risede J-M, Legréve A (2011) Protective role of silicon in the banana-Cylindirocladium spathiphylli pathosystem. Eur J Plant Pathol 131:621–630Google Scholar
  316. Vero S, Garmendia G, González B, Garat F, Wisniewski M (2009) Aureobasidium pullulans as a biocontrol agent of postharvest pathogens of apples in Uruguay. Biocontrol Sci Technol 19:1033–1049Google Scholar
  317. Vestergaard S, Butt TM, Gillespie AT, Schreiter G, Eilenberg J (1995) Pathogenicity of the hyphomycete fungi Verticillium lecanii and Metarhizium aniopliae to the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. Biocontrol Sci Technol 5:185–192Google Scholar
  318. Viljoen A (2002) The status of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) of banana in South Africa. S Afr J Sci 38:341–344Google Scholar
  319. Wang Y, Xu Z, Zhu P, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Mastuda Y, Toyoda H, Xu L (2010a) Postharvest biological control of melon pathogens using Bacillus subtilis EXWB1. J Plant Pathol 92:645–652Google Scholar
  320. Wang Y, Yu T, Xia J, Yu D, Wang J, Zheng X (2010b) Biocontrol of postharvest gray mold of cherry tomatoes with marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum. Biol Control 53:178–182Google Scholar
  321. Wen A, Balogh B, Momol MT, Olson SM, Jones JB (2009) Management of bacterial spot of tomato with phosphorus acid salts. Crop Protect 28:859–863Google Scholar
  322. Wiggins BE, Kinkel LI (2005) Green manures and crop sequences influence potato diseases and pathogen inhibitory activity of indigenous streptomycete. Phytopathology 95:178–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Wilson M, Campbell HL, Ji P, Jones JB, Cuppels DA (2002) Biological control of bacterial speck of tomato under field conditions at several locations in North America. Phytopathology 92:1284–1292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Yan Z, Reddy MS, Ryu C-M, McInroy JA, Wilson M, Kloepper JW (2002) Induced systemic protection against tomato late blight elicited by plant growth-promoting bacteria. Phytopathology 92:1329–1333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. Yang DM, Bi Y, Chen XR, Ge YH, Zho J (2006) Biological control of postharvest diseases with Bacillus subtilis (B1 strain) on musk melon (Cucumis melo cv. Yindi). Acta Horticult 712:735–740Google Scholar
  326. Yildiz A, Benlioğlu S, Boz Ö, Benlioğlu K (2010) Use of different plastics for soil solarization in strawberry growth and time-temperature relationships for the control of Macrophomina phaseolina and weeds. Phytoparasitica 38:463–473Google Scholar
  327. Yoder KS, Miller SS, Byers RE (1999) Suppression of fire blight in apple shoots by prohexadione-calcium following experimental and natural inoculation. HortScience 34:1202–1204Google Scholar
  328. Youssef K, Ligorio A, Sanzani SM, Nigro F, Ippolito A (2012) Control of storage diseases of citrus by pre- and postharvest application of salts. Postharvest Biol Technol 72:57–63Google Scholar
  329. Yu T, Zhang H, Li X, Zheng X (2008) Biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea in apple fruit by Cryptococcus laurentii and indole-3-acetic acid. Biol Control 46:171–177Google Scholar
  330. Yu T, Yu C, Lu H, Zunum M, Chen F, Zhou T, Sheng K, Zheng X (2012) Effect of Cryptoccus laurentii and calcium chloride on control of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea. Biol Control 61:169–175Google Scholar
  331. Zamani M, Tehrani AS, Ahmadzadeh M, Hosseininaveh V, Mostofy Y (2009) Control of Penicillium digitatum on orange fruit combining Pantoea agglomerans with hot sodium bicarbonate dipping. J Plant Pathol 91:437–442Google Scholar
  332. Zhang J, Dou H (2002) Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis as potential biocontrol agent for postharvest green mold control on ‘Valencia’ orange. Proc Fla State Hortic Soc 115:60–64Google Scholar
  333. Zhang H-Y, Zheng X-D, Xi Y-F (2005) Biological control of postharvest blue mold of oranges by Cryptococcus laurentii (Kufferath) Skinner. BioControl 50:331–342Google Scholar
  334. Zhou XG, Everts KL (2004) Suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by soil amendment with hairy vetch. Plant Dis 88:1357–1365Google Scholar
  335. Zhou XG, Everts KL (2012) Anthracnose and gummy stem blight are reduced on watermelon grown on a no-till hairy vetch cover crop. Plant Dis 96:431–436Google Scholar
  336. Zhou CY, Hailstones DL, Broadbent P, Connor R, Bowyer J (2002) Studies on mild strain cross-protection against stem-pitting Citrus tristeza virus. In: Fifteenth IOCV conference, pp 151–157Google Scholar

Additional References for Further Reading

  1. Snowdon AL (1992) A color atlas of postharvest diseases and disorders of fruits and vegetables, vol 2, Vegetables. Wolfe Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Wakil W, Ghazanfar MU, Kwon YJ, Shamas-ul-Islam AK (2012) Toxicity of Paecilomyces ­lilacinus blended with non-conventional agents to control cotton thrips (Thirps tabaci Lind.) (Insecta: Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Afr J Microbiol Res 6:526–533.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations