Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Induced Chrondrogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Role of Smad Signaling Pathways

  • Peter M. van der Kraan
Part of the Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells book series (STEM, volume 10)


Mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated to a number of lineages, adipocytes, osteoblasts and also chondrocytes. In the differentiation process of chondrocytes, members of the TGF-β superfamily play a decisive role. These factors control not only lineage determination but also the subsequent steps of chondrocyte differentiation. The intracellular signaling molecules of this family, the Smads, are indispensable to regulate, in concerted action with Runx2, this process. Specific Smad subtypes play differing roles in the various stages of chondrocyte differentiation. This feature of the Smads can be used to control chondrocyte differentiation and to generate stable cartilage that can be used for repair purposes.


Terminal Differentiation Chondrogenic Differentiation Smad Signaling Chondrocyte Differentiation Cartilage Formation 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RheumatologyRadboud University Nijmegen Medical CentreNijmegenThe Netherlands

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