Declining natural growth rates in population have resulted in shortages of skilled workers in all western countries. However, within each country, smaller regions are affected even more because of the added phenomenon of youth out-migration to larger regions. Immigration is seen as an important tool to reverse these trends in regional population growth rates. However, international migrants tend to settle in the large urban centres of their host countries, mainly because of greater economic opportunities and the presence of large social networks formed by the already established immigrant communities in these larger centres. Since the middle of 1990s, immigration policy in these countries is responding to the challenges posed by regional population imbalances through federal-regional collaborations that introduce special programs to attract immigrants to smaller areas and then retain them there. The main focus of regional/provincial and state policies in western countries to attract and retain immigrants has been the skilled immigrant. The following brief overview of such policy initiatives undertaken in four major immigrant-receiving countries will provide the readers of this book some broad perspective on such efforts.
KeywordsLabour Market International Student Immigration Policy Local Labour Market Labour Market Performance
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