Surface Quality Improvement in CNC End Milling of Aluminum Alloy Using Nanolubrication System

  • Mohd Sayuti Ab Karim
  • Ahmed Aly Diaa Mohammed Sarhan
  • Mohd Hamdi Abd Shukor
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 229)


Aerospace applications and energy saving strategies in general raised the interest and study in the field of lightweight materials, especially on aluminum alloys. Aluminum Al2017-T4 and Al6061-T6 alloy which are used in this research work have low specific weight and high strength.The (CNC) milling machine facilities provides a wide variety of parameters setup, making the machining process of the aluminum alloy excellent in manufacturing complicated special products. However, the demand for high quality focuses attention especially on the roughness of the machined surface. The key solution for this issue is by introducing the nanolubrication system since it could produce much less friction in the tool-chip interface. In this research work, the Al2017-T4 and Al6061-T6 is machined by using the carbon onion nanoparticle and \(\mathrm{{SiO}}_{2}\) nanoparticles, respecticely when it mixed with ordinary mineral oil at various concentrations as a nanolubrication system. The reduction of surface roughness could be obtained when carbon onion and \(\mathrm{{SiO}}_{2}\) nanolubricant are used compared with the case of using ordinary lubricant due to the tribological properties of the carbon onion and \(\mathrm{{SiO}}_{2}\) nanolubricant to reduce the coefficient of friction in the tool-chip interface.


Al2017-T4 alloy Al6061-T6 alloy Carbon onion nanolubrication End milling Morphological surface SiO2 nanolubrication Surface quality 



The authors would like to acknowledge the University of Malaya, Malaysia and Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan for providing the necessary facilities and resources for this research. This study was partially funded by HIR Grant no. HIR-MOHE-D000001-16001. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia for the financial support.


  1. 1.
    Sayuti M, Tanaka T, Sarhan AAD, Saito Y, Hamdi M (2012) Surface quality improvement in CNC milling machined aerospace AL-2017-T4 alloy using carbon onion nanolubrication with DLC coated cutting tool. In: Lecture notes in engineering and computer science : proceeding of the world congress engineering 2012, WCE 2012, London, U.K., pp 1487–1491Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lathkar GS, Bas USK (2000) Clean metal cutting process using solid lubricants. In: Proceeding of the 19th AIMTDR conference. Narosa Publishing House, IIT Madras, pp 15–31Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Suresh Kumar Reddy N, Venkateswara Rao P (2006) Enhancement of machinability of AISI1045 steel using molybdenum disulphide as a solid lubricant. In: 2006 ASME international mechanical engineering congress and exposition, IMECE2006. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Chicago, IL, United States, 5–10 November 2006Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Belgasim O, El-Axir MH (2010) Modeling of residual stresses induced in machining aluminum magnesium alloy (Al–3Mg). In: Proceedings of the world congress on engineering 2010, WCE 2010, London, U.K., June 30–July 2 2010Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Spanoudakis P, Tsourveloudis N, Nikolos I (2008) Optimal selection of tools for rough machining of sculptured surfaces. In: Proceedings of the international multiConference of engineers and computer scientists 2008, IMECS 2008, Hong Kong, 19–21 March 2008Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dilbag S, Rao PV (2008) Performance improvement of hard turning with solid lubricants. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 38:529–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yassin IN, Hamdi M, Fadzil M, Norhirni MZ (2011) Investigation into new development of minimal quantity lubricant (MQL) system in high speed milling of H13. In: UK–Malaysia–Ireland engineering science conference 2011 (UMIES 2011): Faculty of Economics & Administration, University Malaya, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klocke F, Eisenblätter G (1997) Dry cutting. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 46(2):519–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sarhan AAD, Hassan MA, Matsubara A, Hamdi M (2011) Compensation of machine tool spindle error motions in the radial direction for accurate monitoring of cutting forces utilizing sensitive displacement sensors. In: Proceedings of the world congress on engineering (2011) WCE 2011, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reddy NSK, Nouari M (2011) The influence of solid lubricant for improving tribological properties in turning process. Lubr Sci 23(2):49–59Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deshmukh SD, Basu SK (2006) Significance of solid lubricants in metal cutting. In: 22nd AIMTDRGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hirata A, Igarashi M, Kaito T (2004) Study on solid lubricant properties of carbon onions produced by heat treatment of diamond clusters or particles. Tribol Int 37:899–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Street KW, Marchetti M, Wal RLV, Tomasek AJ (2004) Evaluation of the tribological behavior of nano-onions in Krytox 143AB. Tribol Lett 16:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ramana SV, Ramji K, Satyanarayana B (2010) Studies on the behaviour of the green particulate fluid lubricant in its nano regime when machining AISI 1040 steel. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf 224(10):1491–1501Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shenoy BS, Binu KG, Pai R, Rao DS, Pai RS (2012) Effect of nanoparticles additives on the performance of an externally adjustable fluid film bearing. Tribol Int 45(1):38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang B-S, Xu B-S, Xu Y, Gao F, Shi P-J, Wu Y-X (2011) CU nanoparticles effect on the tribological properties of hydrosilicate powders as lubricant additive for steel–steel contacts. Tribol Int 44(7–8):878–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin YC, So H (2004) Limitations on use of ZDDP as an antiwear additive in boundary lubrication. Tribol Int 37:25–33Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee K, Hwang Y, Cheong S, Choi Y, Kwon L, Lee J, Kim SH (2009) Understanding the role of nanoparticles in nano-oil lubrication. Tribol Lett 35:127–131Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zalnezhad E, Sarhan AAD, Hamdi M (2013) Optimizing the PVD TiN thin film coating’s parameters on aerospace AL7075-T6 alloy for higher coating hardness and adhesion with better tribological properties of the coating surface. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 64(1–4):281–290Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kragelsky IV, Zolotar AI, Sheiwekhman AO (1985) Theory of material wear by solid particle impact—a review. Tribol Int 18(1):3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Raadnui S (2005) Wear particle analysis—utilization of quantitative computer image analysis: a review. Tribol Int 38(10):871–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Williams JA (2005) Wear and wear particles—some fundamentals. Tribol Int 38(10):863–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Trent EM, Wright PK (2000) Metal cutting, 4 edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, BostonGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yan J, Zhang Z, Kriyagawa T (2011) Effect of nano-particle lubrication in diamond turning of reaction-bonded SiC. Int J Autom Technol 5(3):307–312Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd Sayuti Ab Karim
    • 1
  • Ahmed Aly Diaa Mohammed Sarhan
    • 1
  • Mohd Hamdi Abd Shukor
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Engineering Design and Manufacturing, Engineering FacultyUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations