Salmon Aquaculture in Canada and Norway – Appraising Governability

  • Yajie Liu
  • Ratana Chuenpagdee
  • U. Rashid Sumaila
Chapter
Part of the MARE Publication Series book series (MARE, volume 7)

Abstract

Salmon aquaculture is one of the world’s fastest growing food producing industries that provides many benefits for producers and society. Its rapid development has raised some concerns related to environmental and economic impacts. Is sustainable development an achievable governance goal for salmon aquaculture? We explore this question by examining key features that may hinder or foster its governability. We base the discussion on a review of the evolution of the industry, current practices and trends, emerging concerns, management challenges, and existing policies and regulations. As a system-to-be-governed, salmon aquaculture is a highly capital-intensive and industrialized commercial activity, with well established technology and markets. The governing system is rather complex, involving multi-layered authorities, international, regional, national, provincial, state and local departments and agencies, and numerous regulations, policies and standards. Environmental issues and concerns related to salmon aquaculture production add to the difficulty in governing this industry to achieve sustainability. All of these have effects on the governability of salmon aquaculture industry, which can be improved through technological improvement, economic-based instruments, and governance solutions.

Keywords

Salmon aquaculture Evolution Challenges Policies Regulations • Governability Sustainability 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank the participants of the governance symposium at the annual conference of the American Fishery Society held in August 2008, Ottawa, Canada for their helpful comments. Canada’s Research Network in Aquaculture (AquaNet) and Norwegian Research Council are acknowledged for financial support to the first author. R. Chuenpagdee acknowledges support from the Canada Research Chairs program and Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. R. Sumaila thanks the Sea Around Us and Global Ocean Economic Projects for the support. Any errors, opinions or conclusions expressed are those of the authors alone and should not reflect the funding agencies.

References

  1. Aarset, B. (1998). Norwegian salmon-farming industry in transition: Dislocation of decision control. Ocean and Coastal Management, 38, 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asche, F. (2001). Testing the effect of an anti-dumping duty: the US salmon market. Empirical Economics, 26, 343–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asche, F. (2008). Farming the sea. Marine Resource Economics, 23(4), 527–547.Google Scholar
  4. Asche, F., & Khatun, F. (2006). Aquaculture: Issues and opportunities for sustainable production and trade. Issue Paper No. 5. Geneva: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
  5. Asche, F., Bremnes, H., Wessells, C.R. (1999a). Product aggregation, market integration and relationships between prices: An application to world salmon markets. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 81, 568–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asche, F., Guttormsen, A., Tveterås, R. (1999b). Environmental problems, productivity and innovations in Norwegian salmon aquaculture. Aquaculture Economics and Management, 3(1), 19–29.Google Scholar
  7. Asche, F., Hansen, H., Tveteras, R., Tveteras, S. (2010). The Salmon disease crisis in Chile. Marine Resource Economics, 24, 405–411.Google Scholar
  8. Aunsmo, A., Valle, P.S., Sandberg, M., Midtlyng, P. J., Bruheim, T. (2010). Stochastic modelling of direct costs of pancreas disease (PD) in Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon (salmo salar L.). Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 93, 233–241.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, C., Jentoft, S., Sinclair, P. (1996). Social science contributions to aquacultural development. In C. Bailey, S. Jentoft, P. Sinclair (Eds.), Social dimensions of an emerging industry (pp. 3–20). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  10. Barrington, K., Chopin, T., Robinson, S. (2009). Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in marine temperate waters. In D. Soto (Ed.), Integrated mariculture: A global review. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 529 (pp. 7–46). Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  11. Bjørndal, T., Tveterås, R., Asche, F. (2002). The development of salmon and trout aquaculture. In P. Paquotte, C. Mariojouls, J. Young (Eds.), Seafood market studies for the introduction of new aquaculture products (pp. 101–115). Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes 59. Paris: CIHEAM.Google Scholar
  12. Bjørndal, T., Knapp, G.A., Lem, A. (2003). Salmon – A study of global supply and demand. Report No. 92. Bergen: Centre for Fisheries Economics, Institute for Research in Economics and Business Administration.Google Scholar
  13. Buschmann, A.H., Troell, M., Kautsky, N., Kautsky, L. (1996). Integrated tank cultivation of salmonids and Gracilaria Chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia, 32, 775–782.Google Scholar
  14. Buschmann, A.H., Troell, M., Kautsky, N. (2001). Integrated algal farming: A review. Cahiers De Biologie Marine, 42(1–2), 83–90.Google Scholar
  15. Carvajal, P. (2007). Chile seeks tax on salmon profits. Bergen: Intrafish.Google Scholar
  16. Chopin, T., Buschmann, A.H., Halling, C., Troell, M., Kautsky, N., Neori, A., Kraemer, G.P., Zertuche-Gonzalez, J.A., Yarish, C., Neefus, C. (2001). Integrating seaweeds into marine aquaculture systems: A key toward sustainability. Journal of Physiology, 37(6), 975–986.Google Scholar
  17. Chuenpagdee, R. (2011). Interactive governance for marine conservation: An illustration. Bulletin of Marine Science 87(2), 197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chuenpagdee, R., Kooiman, J., Pullin, R.S. (2008). Assessing governability in capture fisheries, aquaculture and coastal zones. The Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies, 7(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
  19. Cochrane, K., & Willmann, R. (2000). Eco-labelling in fisheries management. Proceedings of the 2000 Conference by the Centre of Ocean Law and Policy, University of Virginia, and FAO on Current Fisheries Issues and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  20. Costello, M.J. (2009). The global economic cost of sea lice to the salmonid farming industry. Journal of Fish Diseases, 32, 115–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. FAO. (1995). Code of conduct for responsible fisheries. Retrieved August 6, 2007, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/v9878e/v9878e00.HTM
  22. FAO. (2007). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2006. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  23. Forster, J. (2002). Farming salmon: An example of aquaculture for the mass market. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 10(3&4), 557–591.Google Scholar
  24. Garcia, M.S., & Grainger, R.J.R. (2005). Gloom and doom? The future of marine capture fisheries. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 360, 21–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gargan, P.G., Tully, O., Poole, W.R. (2002). The Relationship between sea lice infestation, sea lice production and sea trout survival in Ireland, 1992–2001. In D. Mills (Ed.), Salmon on the edge (pp. 119–135). Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.Google Scholar
  26. Hites, R.A, Foran, J.A., Carpenter, D.O., Hamilton, M.C., Knuth, B.A., Schwager, S.J. (2004). Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon. Science, 303(5655), 226–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hjelt, K.A. (2000). The Norwegian regulation system and the history of the Norwegian salmon farming industry. In C.I. Liao, & C. Kwei (Eds.), Cage aquaculture in Asia (pp. 1–17). Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Cage Aquaculture in Asia. Quezon City, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society.Google Scholar
  28. Holm, P., & Jentoft, S. (1996). The sky is the limit? The rise and fall of Norwegian salmon aquaculture, 1970–1990. In C. Bailey, S. Jentoft, P. Sinclair (Eds.), Aquaculture development (pp. 23–42). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  29. Jacquet, J.L., & Pauly, D. (2008). Trade secrets: Renaming and mislabeling of seafood. Marine Policy, 32, 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jensen, Ø., Dempster, T., Thorstad, E.B., Uglem, I., Fredheim, A. (2010). Escapes of fishes from Norwegian sea-cage aquaculture: Causes, consequences and prevention. Aquaculture Environment Interaction, 1, 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jentoft, S. (2007). Limits of governability: Institutional implications for fisheries and coastal governance. Marine Policy, 31, 360–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kautsky, N., C. Folke, Ronnback, P., Troell, M., Beveridge, M., Primavera, J. (2001). Aquaculture and biodiversity. In S. Levin, G. Daily, R. Colwell, J. Lubchenco, H. Mooney, E-D. Schultze, D. Tilman (Eds.), Encyclopedia of biodiversity (pp. 1185–1198). San Diego: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Knapp, G. (2005). Implications of aquaculture for wild fisheries: The case of Alaska wild salmon. (Presentation for the Bevan Sustainable Fisheries Lecture Series, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington). Retrieved August 6, 2007, from http://www.iser.uaa.alaska.edu/iser/people/knapp/Knapp_UW_Bevan_Series_Salmon_Lecture_050210.pdf
  34. Knapp, G., Roheim, C., Anderson, J.L. (2007). The great salmon run: Competition between wild and farmed salmon. TRAFFIC North America. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.Google Scholar
  35. Kooiman, J. (2003). Governing as governance. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Kooiman, J. (2008). Exploring the concept of governability. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 10(2), 171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krkošek, M., Lewis, M.A., Morton, A., Frazer, L.N., Volpe, J.P. (2006). Epizootics of wild fish induced by farm fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103(42), 15506–15510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu, Y., & Sumaila, U.R. (2007). Economic analysis of netcage versus sea-bag production systems for salmon aquaculture in British Columbia. Aquaculture Economics and Management, 11, 413–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liu, Y., & Sumaila, U.R. (2008). Can farmed salmon production keep growing? Marine Policy, 32, 497–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liu, Y., Olaussen, J.O., Skonhoft, A. (2011). Wild and farmed salmon in Norway – A review. Marine Policy, 35, 413–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. MAFF. (2006). Template for development of facility – Specific fish health management plans. Vancouver: British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries.Google Scholar
  42. Maroni, K. (2000). Monitoring and regulation of marine aquaculture in Norway. Journal Applied Ichthyology, 16, 192–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mathis, M.L., & Baker, P. (2006). Assurance bonds: A tool for managing environmental costs in aquaculture. Aquaculture Economics and Management, 6(½), 1–18.Google Scholar
  44. Maurstad, A., Dale, T., Bjorn, P.A. (2007). You wouldn’t spawn in a septic tank, would you? Human Ecology, 35, 601–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Milewski, I. (2001). Impacts of salmon aquaculture on the coastal environmental: a review. In M.F. Tlusty, D.A. Bengston, H.O. Halvorson, S.D. Oktay, J.B. Pearce, J.R.B. Rheault (Eds.), Marine aquaculture and the environment: A meeting for stakeholders in the Northeast. Falmouth: Cape Cod Press.Google Scholar
  46. Morton, A., & Routledge, R. (2005). Mortality rates for juvenile pink Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum O. keta salmon infested with sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis in the Broughton Archipelago. Alaska Fisheries Research Bulletin, 11, 146–152.Google Scholar
  47. NASCO. (2007). The williamsburg resolution. The North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization. Retrieved May 5, 2008, from http://www.nasco.int/pdf/cnl_06_48.pdf
  48. Naylor, R.L., & Burke, M. (2005). Aquaculture and ocean resources: Raising tigers of the sea. Annual Review of Environmental Resources, 30, 185–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Naylor, R.L., Goldburg, R.J., Primavera, J.H., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M.C.M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Lubchenco, J., Mooney, H., Troell, M. (2000). Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature, 405(6790), 1017–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Naylor, R.L., Eagle, J., Smith, W.L. (2003). Salmon aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest – A global industry. Environment, 45(8), 18–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Neori, A., Chopin, T., Troell, M., Buschmann, A.H., Kraemer, G.P., Halling, C., Shpigel, M., Yarish, C. (2004). Integrated aquaculture: Rationale, evolution and state of the art emphasizing seaweed biofiltration in modem mariculture. Aquaculture, 231(1–4), 361–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Olaussen, J.O., & Liu, Y. (2011). On the willingness-to-pay for recreational fishing-escaped farmed versus wild Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture Economics and Management, 15, 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pauly, D., Tyedmers, P., Froese, R., Liu, Y. (2001). Fishing down and farming up the food web. Conservation Biology in Practice, 2, 25.Google Scholar
  54. Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Guenette, S., Pitcher, T.J., Sumaila, U.R., Walters, C.J., Watson, R., Zeller, D. (2002). Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature, 418(6898), 689–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Porter, G. (2005). Protecting wild Atlantic salmon from impacts of salmon aquaculture: A country-by-country progress report. 2nd Edn. St. Andrews: World Wildlife Fund and Atlantic Salmon Federation.Google Scholar
  56. Pullin, R., & Sumaila, U.R. (2005). Aquaculture. In J. Kooiman, M. Bavinck, S. Jentoft, R. Pullin (Eds.), Fish for life: Interactive fisheries for fisheries (pp. 93–107). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Ridler, N.,  Wowchuk, M., Robinson, B.,  Barrington, K.,  Chopin, T.,  Robinson, S.,  Page, F.,  Reid, G.,  Szemerda, M.,  Sewuster, J., Boyne-Travis, S. (2007). Integrated multi – trophic aquaculture (IMTA): A potential strategic choice for farmers. Aquaculture Economics and Management, 11(1), 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. SAR. (1997). Salmon aquaculture review (Vol. 3). Victoria: Environmental Assessment Office.Google Scholar
  59. Sønvisen, S.A. (2003). Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM): The allocation of space in Norwegian aquaculture – From local lottery to central planning? Tromsø: Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø.Google Scholar
  60. Sylvia, G., Anderson, J.L., Cai, D. (1996). A multilevel, multiobjective policy model: The case of marine aquaculture development. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 78(1), 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tacon, A.G.J., & Metian, M. (2008). Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture, 285(1–4), 146–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thorpe, J.E. (1980). The development of salmon culture towards ranching. In J.E. Thorpe (Eds.), Salmon ranching (pp. 1–12). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  63. Tidwell, J.H., & Allan, G.L. (2001). Fish as food: Aquaculture’s contribution – Ecological and economic impacts and contributions of fish farming and capture fisheries. EMBO Report, 2(11), 958–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Troell, M., Halling, C., Nilsson, A., Buschmann, A.H., Kautsky, N., Kautsky, L. (1997). Integrated marine cultivation of gracilaria Chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) and salmon cages for reduced environmental impact and increased economic output. Aquaculture, 156(1–2), 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Troell, M., Halling, C., Neori, A., Chopin, T., Buschmann, A.H., Kautsky, N., Yarish, C. (2003). Integrated mariculture: Asking the right questions. Aquaculture, 226(1–4), 69–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Troell, M., Joyce, A., Chopin, T., Neori, A., Buschmann, A.H., Fang, J.G. (2009). Ecological engineering in aquaculture – Potential for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in marine offshore systems. Aquaculture, 297(1–4), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tveterås, S. (2002). Norwegian salmon aquaculture and sustainability: The relationship between environmental quality and industry growth. Marine Resource Economics, 17(1), 121–132.Google Scholar
  68. Wessells, C.R., Johnston, R., Donath, H. (1999). Assessing consumer preferences for ecolabeled seafood: The influence of species, certifier and household attributes. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 81(5), 1084–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Whitmarsh, D., & Wattage, P. (2006). Public attitudes towards the environmental impact of salmon aquaculture in Scotland. European Environment, 16, 108–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Whitmarsh, D.J., Cook, E.J., Black, K.D. (2006). Searching for sustainability in aquaculture: an investigation into the economic prospects for an integrated salmon-mussel production system. Marine Policy, 30(3), 293–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Willoughby, S. (1999). Manual of Salmonid farming. Oxford, MA: Fishing News Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yajie Liu
    • 1
  • Ratana Chuenpagdee
    • 2
  • U. Rashid Sumaila
    • 3
  1. 1.SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture (Fiskeri og havbruk)TrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Department of GeographyMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada
  3. 3.Fisheries Economics Research Unit, Fisheries CentreUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations