Sustainable City: A Case Study of Stormwater Management in Economically Developed Urban Catchments

Chapter

Abstract

Stormwater run-off is difficult to manage in an economically developed and highly urbanized city. It causes diffuse pollution which impacts despite its local origin are not limited to the local pollution problems. The pollution gets mixed with the waste and impacts public health, aquatic life and ecosystem characteristics. The problem is closely linked to land use (e.g. the application of fertilizer to farmland or forestry plantations; livestock stocking rates on pastureland; handling and transport of oil, chemicals, raw materials and products through catchments). The economic development leads to urbanization which increases the impervious area of the catchment. This results in amplification of stormwater being generated and causes diffuse pollution. Planning of management strategies and application of pollution control measures can be done only after identification of sources which become difficult considering the dense sprawl in the city. The existing drainage systems may have many disadvantages like if run-off being added, it can increase the risk of flooding downstream containing contaminants such as oil, organic matter and toxic metals. Therefore, it is very important to amalgamate the use of sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDs) along with the existing drainage infrastructure in order to minimize the adverse impacts of the stormwater in thriftily established and extensively built-up city. The present study comprises of qualitatively evaluating the role of SUDs in stormwater management of dense urban cities. This chapter talks about an approach to manage rainfall run-off arising due to urbanization which is a direct impact of economic growth of a city. The chapter also highlights the need of SUDs for Delhi (national capital territory of India).

Keywords

Sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDs) Filter strips Filter drains Infiltration devices and basins and ponds 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Mr. Amit Srivastava (GIS/RS Specialist, IWMI India) for creating the profile map of Delhi. We would also like to show gratitude towards Ms. Priyanka Banerjee (Sr Journalist, Feature Writer, Efficient Manufacturing; A&D India; Efficient Infrastructure Publish Industry India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India) for editing and proof-reading the chapter. We would also like to thank Dr. Zongwei Luo (the University of Hong Kong) for giving an opportunity to write the book chapter.

References

  1. Ackerman D, Schiff K (2003) Modeling storm water mass emissions to the Southern California Bight. J Environ Eng ASCE 129(4):308–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Campbell N, D’Arcy B, Frost A, Novotny V, Sansom A (2004) Diffuse pollution: an introduction to the problems and solutions. IWA Publishing, London, p 310. ISBN 1900222531Google Scholar
  3. CIRIA (1994) CIRIA Report 142 – Control of Pollution from Highway Drainage Discharges.Google Scholar
  4. D’Arcy BJ, Ellis JB, Ferrier RC, Jenkins A, Dils R (2000) Diffuse pollution impacts: the environmental and economic impacts of diffuse pollution in the UK. Chartered Institute of Water and Environmental Management (CIWEM), Terence Dalton Publishers, LavenhamGoogle Scholar
  5. Economic Survey of Delhi (2007–2008) State Deomestic Product. http://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/ES2007-08/C2.PDF. Accessed 21 Jan 2012
  6. Ellisa JB, Deutschb JC, Mouchelb JM, Scholesa L, Revitta MD (2004) Multicriteria decision approaches to support sustainable drainage options for the treatment of highway and urban runoff. Sci Total Environ 334–335:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goonetilleke A, Thomas E, Ginn S, Gilbert D (2005) Understanding the role of land use in urban stormwater quality management. J Environ Manage 74(1):31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Graves GA, Wan YS, Fike DL (2004) Water quality characteristics of storm water from major land-uses in South Florida. J Am Water Resour Assoc 40(6):1405–1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haskins CA (2012) Cape Town’s sustainable approach to urban stormwater management C.A. (Catchment, Stormwater and River Management Branch, City of Cape Town). http://www.capetown.gov.za/en/CSRM/Documents/CTsustainableApproachToUrbanStormwaterManagement.pdf. Accessed 12 Mar 2012
  10. Huang DB, Bader HP, Scheidegger R, Schertenleib R, Gujer W (2007) Confronting limitations: new solutions required for urban water management in Kunming City. J Environ Manage 84(1):49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. International Joint Commission (1974) Management programs, effects of research, and present land use activities on water quality of the Great Lakes, 2 vols. Pollution from Land Use Activities Reference Group (PLUARG). International Joint Commission, WindsorGoogle Scholar
  12. Jamwal P, Mittal AK, Mouchel JM (2006) Non point source microbial pollution: a case study of Delhi. In: Proceedings of the “Man and River Systems II” conference. Ed. PIREN-Seine,Pub. “Presses des Ponts et Chaussées”, pp 123–125Google Scholar
  13. Kim LH, Kayhanian M, Zoh KD, Stenstrom MK (2005) Modeling of highway stormwater runoff. Sci Total Environ 348(1–3):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim G, Chung S, Lee C (2007a) Water quality of runoff from agricultural-forestry watersheds in the Geum River Basin, Korea. Environ Monit Assess 134(1–3):41–52Google Scholar
  15. Kim LH, Ko SO, Jeong S, Yoon J (2007b) Characteristics of washed-off pollutants and dynamic EMCs in parking lots and bridges during a storm. Sci Total Environ 376(1–3):178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee JG, Heaney JP (2003) Estimation of urban imperviousness and its impacts on storm water systems. J Water Resour Plan 129(5):419–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee JH, Bang KW, Ketchum LH, Choe JS, Yu MJ (2002) First flush analysis of urban storm runoff. Sci Total Environ 293(1–3):63–75Google Scholar
  18. Makropoulos C, Butler D, Maksimovic C (1998) A GIS based methodology for the evaluation of suitability of urban areas for source control application. In: Novotny V (ed) Proceedings of the 3rd annual conference on diffuse pollution, IAWQ, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  19. Mallin MA, Williams KE, Esham EC, Lowe RP (2000) Effect of human development on bacteriological water quality in coastal watersheds. Ecol Appl 10:1047–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McLeod SM, Kells JA, Putz GJ (2006) Urban runoff quality characterization and load estimation in Saskatoon, Canada. J Environ Eng ASCE 132(11):1470–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Misra AK (2011) Impact of urbanization on the hydrology of Ganga basin (India). Water Resour Manage 25(2):705–719. doi: 10.1007/s11269-010-9722-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) Urban flooding and its management. nidm.gov.in/idmc/Proceedings/Flood/B2%20-%2036.pdfSimilar. Accessed 23 Jan 2012Google Scholar
  23. NIPC (1997) Reducing the impacts of urban runoff with alternative site design approaches. Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission distributed through the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.p2pays.org/ref/26/25090.htm. Accessed 21 Jan 2012
  24. Pindado MA, Aguado A, Josa A (1999) Fatigue behavior of polymer modified porous concretes. Cem Concr Res 29(7):1077–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pratt CJ, Newman AP, Bond PC (1999) Mineral oil biodegradation within a permeable pavement: long-term observations. Water Sci Technol 39(2):109–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Scholz M, Grabowiecki P (2007) Review of permeable pavement systems. Build Environ 42(11):3830–3836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sharma D, Kansal A (2010) Assessment of diffuse water pollution load from an urban catchment in India. NOVATECH, Lyon, France, 27 June–1 July 2010Google Scholar
  28. Sharma D et al (2008) Watershed management using land use change in National Capital Territory. In: Proceedings of ICWRDM, BITS-Pilani, India, 23–24 Oct 2008Google Scholar
  29. Sharma D et al (2012) Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMCs) from rainfall runoff on mixed agricultural land use in the shoreline zone of the Yamuna River in Delhi, India. Appl Water Sci 2(1):55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sustainable city. http://www.devalt.org/newsletter/jul00/lead.htm. Accessed 10 Mar 2012
  31. Sustainable city: sustainable future for San Francisco. http://www.sustainable-city.org. Accessed 10 Mar 2012
  32. Sustainable Stormwater Management, Logan City Council. http://www.logan.qld.gov.au/planning-and-building/stormwater/sustainable-stormwater-management. Accessed 10 Mar 2012
  33. Tong STY, Chen W (2002) Modeling the relationship between land use and surface water quality. J Environ Manage 66(4):377–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ukabiala CO, Nwinyi OC, Abayomi A, Alo BI (2010) Assessment of heavy metals in urban highway runoff from Ikorodu expressway Lagos, Nigeria. J Environ Chem Ecotoxicol 2:34–37Google Scholar
  35. United Nations (2004) World urbanization prospects: the 2003 revision data tables and highlights. United Nations, New York (Taken from: Cohen B (2006) Urbanization in developing countries: current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability. Technol Soc 28:63–80)Google Scholar
  36. Yusop Z, Tan LW, Ujang Z, Mohamed M, Nasir KA (2005) Runoff quality and pollution loadings from a tropical urban catchment. Water Sci Technol 52(9):125–132Google Scholar
  37. Zhao JW, Shan BQ, Yin CQ (2007) Pollutant loads of surface runoff in Wuhan City Zoo, an urban tourist area. J Environ Sci China 19(4):464–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zoppou C (2001) Review of urban storm water models. Environ Model Softw 16(3):195–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Natural ResourcesTERI UniversityDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations