Advertisement

Burden of Disease from Indoor Air Pollution

Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Technology Library book series (ENST, volume 24)

Abstract

Indoor air pollution has evolved into a high-priority risk across the globe, with various organizations ranking indoor air pollution in the top category of environmental risks. Indoor air pollutant concentrations are a function of indoor source emissions, the infiltration of ambient pollution via building leakage, and the air exchange rate (ventilation) in the building. Health effects range from acute conditions such as sensory irritation to chronic, potentially life-threatening conditions such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. The three primary factors that affect indoor air quality are the nature of indoor pollutant sources, ventilation of the building, and occupant behaviors. This initial modeling effort focuses on the residential environment because people spend the majority of their time indoors in residential dwellings. Deficient air quality can exist in all types of enclosed buildings and structures. In the future, the methods and models developed here could be applied to other indoor environments. The burden of disease due to a particular pollutant was calculated by multiplying the attributable fraction by the observed number of cases of the relevant health outcome in the population. The leading source of indoor air pollution contributing to excess cases of illness is environmental tobacco smoke. Altogether, it appears to cause more than 80% of the health-care facility visits attributed to indoor air pollution. The leading health outcomes attributed to indoor air pollution are cardiovascular disease and lower respiratory tract infections. An estimated 280 deaths result from those diseases, with approximately 88% of those deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease caused by environmental tobacco smoke. Our analyses suggest that indoor air pollution is a considerable risk to public health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), accounting for at least 77,000 excess visits to health-care facilities in 2008 in addition to the 280 excess deaths. In terms of mortality, indoor air quality ranks second only to outdoor air pollution as a cause of environmentally related diseases in the UAE.

Keywords

Indoor air pollution Environmental burden of disease Contaminant concentrations Air exchange rates Concentration-response function Relative risk Attributable fraction Premature deaths and health-care facility visits Environmental tobacco smoke United Arab Emirates 

References

  1. Antova, T., S. Pattenden, B. Brunekreef, J. Heinrich, P. Rudnai, F. Forastiere, H. Luttmann-Gibson, et al. 2008. Exposure to indoor mould and children’s respiratory health in the PATY study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 62(8): 708–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bennett, D.H., T.E. McKone, J.S. Evans, W.W. Nazaroff, M.D. Margni, O. Jolliet, and K.R. Smith. 2002. Defining intake fraction. Environmental Science and Technology 36(9): 207A–211A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bluyssen, P.M. 2009. Towards an integrative approach of improving indoor air quality. Building and Environment 44(9): 1980–1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boffetta, P. 2002. Involuntary smoking and lung cancer. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 28(Supplement 2): 30–40.Google Scholar
  5. Bornehag, C.G., J. Sundell, L. Hägerhed-Engman, and T. Sigsgaard. 2005. Association between ventilation rates in 390 Swedish homes and allergic symptoms in children. Indoor Air 15(4): 275–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. California Air Resources Board. 2005. Report to the California legislature: Indoor air pollution in California. July. http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/indoor/ab1173/rpt0705.pdf
  7. Cardenas, V.M., M.J. Thun, H. Austin, C.A. Lally, W.S. Clark, R.S. Greenberg, and C.W. Heath Jr. 1997. Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer mortality in the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Prevention Study II. Cancer Causes & Control 8(1): 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, A.J., H.R. Anderson, B. Ostro, K.D. Pandey, M. Krzyzanowski, N. Kunzli, K. Gutschmidt, et al. 2005. The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A 68: 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dales, R., L. Liu, A.J. Wheeler, and N.L. Gilbert. 2008. Quality of indoor residential air and health. Canadian Medical Association Journal 179(2): 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Darby, S., D. Hill, H. Deo, A. Auvinen, J.M. Barros-Dios, H. Baysson, F. Bochicchio, et al. 2006. Residential radon and lung cancer: Detailed results of a collaborative analysis of individual data on 7,148 persons with lung cancer and 14,208 persons without lung cancer from 13 epidemiologic studies in Europe. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 32(Supplement 1): 1–83.Google Scholar
  11. DeBrouwere, K., E. Goelen, M. Spruyt, and R. Torfs. 2007. Ranking indoor air health problems using health impact assessment: Final report. Service contract for the European Commission. DG Environment: Contract 061651. 2007/IMS/R/394.Google Scholar
  12. Dockery, D.W., C.A. Pope, X. Xu, J.D. Spengler, J.H. Ware, M.E. Fay, B.G. Ferris, and F.E. Speizer. 1993. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. The New England Journal of Medicine 329: 1753–1759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. European Chemicals Agency. 2007. Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). http://echa.europa.eu/reach_en.asp
  14. Friborg, J.T., J.M. Yuan, R. Wang, W.P. Koh, H.P. Lee, and M.C. Yu. 2008. Incense use and respiratory tract carcinomas: A prospective cohort study. Cancer 113(7): 1676–1684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. He, J., and P.K. Whelton. 1999. Passive cigarette smoking increases risk of coronary heart disease. European Heart Journal 20(24): 1764–1765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Health Authority–Abu Dhabi (HAAD). 2009. 2008 health data for Abu Dhabi emirate.Google Scholar
  17. Hill, S.E., T. Blakely, I. Kawachi, and A. Woodward. 2007. Mortality among lifelong nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke at home: Cohort data and sensitivity analyses. American Journal of Epidemiology 165(5): 530–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jaakkola, M.S., H. Nordman, R. Piipari, J. Uitti, J. Laitinen, A. Karjalainen, P. Hahtola, and J.J. Jaakkola. 2002. Indoor dampness and molds and development of adult-onset asthma: A population-­based incident case–control study. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(5): 543–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jaffal, A.A., I.M. Banat, A.A. El Mogheth, H. Nsanze, A. Bener, and A.S. Ameen. 1997. Residential indoor airborne microbial populations in the United Arab Emirates. Environment International 23(4): 529–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kasim, K., P. Levallois, B. Abdous, P. Auger, and K.C. Johnson. 2005. Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of adult leukemia. Epidemiology 16(5): 672–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim, D., A. Sass-Kortsak, J.T. Purdham, R.E. Dales, and J.R. Brook. 2006. Sources of personal exposure to fine particles in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 55: 1134–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Klepis, N.E., W.C. Nelson, W.R. Ott, J.P. Robinson, A.M. Tsang, P. Switzer, J.V. Behar, S.C. Hern, and W.H. Engelmann. 2001. The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): A resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 11(3): 231–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li, J.S., J.K. Peat, W. Xuan, and G. Berry. 1999. Meta-analysis on the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and the prevalence of lower respiratory tract infection in early childhood. Pediatric Pulmonology 27(1): 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu, W., J. Zhang, L.R. Korn, L. Zhang, C.P. Wiesel, B. Turpin, M. Morandi, T. Stock, and S. Colome. 2007. Predicting personal exposure to airborne carbonyls using residential measurements and time/activity data. Atmospheric Environment 41: 5280–5288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McCormack, M.C., P.N. Breysse, E.C. Matsui, N.N. Hansel, D. Williams, J. Curtin-Brosnan, P. Eggleston, and G.B. Diette. 2009. In-home particle concentrations and childhood asthma morbidity. Environmental Health Perspectives 117(2): 294–298.Google Scholar
  26. Nazaroff, W.W., and C.J. Weschler. 2001. Indoor air and the public good. Indoor Air 11(3): 143–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pope, C.A.III. 1991. Respiratory hospital admissions associated with PM10 pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache valleys. Archives of Environmental Health 46: 90–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rumchev, K., J. Spickett, M. Bulsara, et al. 2002. Domestic exposure to formaldehyde significantly increases the risk of asthma in young children. European Respiratory Journal 20: 403–408.Google Scholar
  29. Rumchev, K.B., J.T. Spickett, M.K. Bulsara, M.R. Phillips, and S.M. Stick. 2004. Association of domestic exposure to volatile organic compounds with asthma in young children. Thorax 59(9): 746–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1991. Building air quality: A guide for building owners and facility managers. 402-F-91-102.Google Scholar
  31. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2003. EPA assessment of risks from radon in homes. EPA 402-R-63-603. Washington, D.C.: EPA, Office of Air and Radiation.Google Scholar
  32. UAE University. 2002. UAE health and lifestyle survey. UAEU Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Health Sciences and College of Business and Economics.Google Scholar
  33. Vork, K.L., R.L. Broadwin, and R.J. Blaisdell. 2007. Developing asthma in childhood from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke: Insights from a meta-regression. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(10): 1394–1400.Google Scholar
  34. World Health Organization (WHO). 2002. The world health report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/entity/whr/2002/en/whr02_en.pdf
  35. Yeatts, K.B., M. El-Sadig, D. Leith, W. Kalsbeek, F. Al-Maskari, D. Couper, W.E. Funk, T. Zoubeidi, R.L. Chan, C.B. Trent, C.A. Davidson, M.G. Boundy, M.M. Kassab, M.Y. Hasan, I. Rusyn, J. MacDonald Gibson, and A. Olshan. 2012. Indoor air pollutants and health in the United Arab Emirates. Environmental Health Perspectives 120(5): 687–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gillings School of Global Public HealthUniversity of North Carolina–Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Environment Agency–Abu DhabiAbu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates
  3. 3.Health Authority–Abu DhabiAbu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates

Personalised recommendations