The Use of Indicators to Assess Urban Regeneration Performance for Climate-Friendly Urban Development: The Case of Yokohama Minato Mirai 21

Chapter

Abstract

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges in the twenty-first century. Immediate actions are required to slow down climate change and address its impacts on human life and settlements. Cities can play crucial roles in this respect, as they not just contribute to causes of climate change but also are under severe threat from its impacts. Urban regeneration projects can provide opportunities to make cities more climate-friendly and less vulnerable. However, the potential role of urban regeneration in tackling climate change is not sufficiently recognized. In many cities, integration between urban regeneration projects and climate policy is still weak. Besides, limited methods exist to evaluate the performance of urban regeneration projects for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Considering these challenges, this chapter is intended to elaborate on use of indicators to assess the progress achieved in urban regeneration projects toward climate-friendly urban development. The chapter presents the findings of a research on the case of Minato Mirai 21 Project in Yokohama, which is a prominent waterfront redevelopment over brownfield sites. The project has converted former shipyards and railroad yards into mixed-use and high-density urban quarter with a working and resident population of 70,000 people at present. A set of 34 indicators grouped under six performance categories is developed and applied to MM21 project. Research findings not only indicate the extent of achievements in MM21 project toward climate-friendly urban development but also highlight the strengths and weaknesses in using indicators for assessing urban regeneration performance.

Keywords

Climate change mitigation and adaptation Sustainable development Urban regeneration Indicators 

References

  1. Alam M, Rabbani MDG (2007) Vulnerabilities and responses to climate change for Dhaka. Environ Urban 19(1):81–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berrini M, Bono L (2007) Report 2007 urban ecosystem Europe: an integrated assessment on the sustainability of 32 European cities. Ambiente Italia – Research Institute, MilanGoogle Scholar
  3. Bryman A (2001) Social research methods. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Costello A et al (2009). Managing the health effects of climate change. In: Lancet and University College London Institute for Global Health Commission Report, 373, May 16, UCL, London, pp 1693–1733Google Scholar
  5. Couch C, Dennemann A (2000) Urban regeneration and sustainable development in Britain: the example of the Liverpool ropewalks partnership. Cities 17(2):137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dhakal S (2009) Urban energy use and carbon emissions from cities in China and policy implications. Energ Policy 37(11):4208–4219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ewing R, Bartholomew K, Winkelman S, Walters J, Chen D (2008) Growing cooler: the evidence on urban development and climate change. Urban Land Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  8. Gill S, Handley J, Ennos AR, Pauleit S (2007) Adapting cities for climate change: the role of the green infrastructure. Built Environ 33(1):115–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hemphill L, McGreal S, Berry J (2004a) An indicator based approach to measuring sustainable urban regeneration performance: part 1, conceptual foundations and methodological framework. Urban Stud 41:725–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hemphill L, McGreal S, Berry J (2004b) An indicator based approach to measuring sustainable urban regeneration performance: part 2, empirical evaluation and case study analysis. Urban Stud 41:757–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M et al (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  12. Kato Y (1990) Yokohama: past and present. Yokohama City University, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  13. Kishida H, Uzuki M (2009) Urban development strategy and project management: the challenge of Yokohama Minato Mirai 21. Gakugei Shuppansha, Kyoto (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  14. Langstraat JW (2006) The urban regeneration industry in Leeds: measuring sustainable urban regeneration performance. Earth Environ 2:167–210Google Scholar
  15. MM21 (2010) Yokohama Minato Mirai 21: plans and projects, vol. 81. Minato Mirai 21 Promotion Division, Urban Development Bureau, City of Yokohama, JapanGoogle Scholar
  16. Moussiopoulos N, Achilllas C, Vlachokostas C, Spyridi D (2010) Environmental, social and economic information management for the evaluation of sustainability in urban areas: a system of indicators for Thessaloniki, Greece. Cities 27:377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Prasad N, Ranghieri F, Shah F, Trohanis Z, Kessler E, Sinha R (2009) Climate resilient cities: a primer on reducing vulnerabilities to disasters. The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  18. Puppim De Oliveira JA (2009) The implementation of climate change related policies at the subnational level: an analysis of three countries. Habitat Int 33:253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Reed MS, Fraser EDG, Dougill A (2006) An adaptive learning process for developing and applying sustainability indicators with local communities. Ecol Econ 59:406–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Roberts P (2000) The evolution, definition and purpose of urban regeneration. In: Roberts P, Sykes H (eds) Urban regeneration: a handbook. Sage, London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi, pp 9–36Google Scholar
  21. Roberts D (2008a) Thinking globally, acting locally-institutionalizing climate change at the local government level in Durban, South Africa. Environ Urban 20(2):521–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Roberts S (2008b) Effects of climate change on the built environment. Energ Policy 36:4552–4557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Satterthwaite D, Huq S, Pelling M, Reid H, Lankao PR (2007) Adapting to climate change in urban areas: the possibilities and constraints in low- and middle-income nations, vol 1, Human settlements discussion paper series: climate change and cities. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Shen LY, Ochoa JJ, Shah MN, Zhang Z (2011) The application of urban sustainability indicators – a comparison between various practices. Habitat Int 35:17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tanguay GA, Rojaoson J, Lefebvre JF, Lanoie P (2010) Measuring the sustainability of cities: an analysis of the use of local indicators. Ecol Indic 10:407–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. UNSIAP (2007) United Nations Statistical Institute for Asia and Pacific, “Building administrative data systems for statistical purposes-addressing training issues and needs of countries”. In: Inception/Regional workshop on RETA6356: improving administrative data sources for the monitoring of the MDG indicators, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  27. Urban Task Force (2005) Towards a strong urban renaissance. An independent report by members of the Urban Task Force chaired by Lord Rogers of Riverside, Urban Task Force, UK. Available at: http://www.urbantaskforce.org/UTF_final_report.pdf
  28. Villa V, Westfall M (2002) Urban indicators for managing cities: cities data book. Asian Development Bank, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  29. Wong C (2000) Indicators in use: challenges to urban and environmental planning in Britain. Town Plan Rev 71(2):213–239Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Advanced StudiesUnited Nations UniversityYokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations