The International Hydro-Political Policies of Israel

  • Deborah F. ShmueliEmail author
  • Ram Aviram
Part of the Global Issues in Water Policy book series (GLOB, volume 4)


The variables which determine the international dimensions of Israel's policies are heavily influenced by changes in domestic demand and supply. As this list of variables continues to grow, Israel's efforts to ensure its portion of its internationally-shared water resources need to be adjusted within the context of its geo-strategic interests and positions, its international commitments and the growing global concern with water issues. This chapter highlights the main characteristics of Israel's foreign policies in the water sector, how they have evolved, and presents conclusions which point to possible future trends.


Water Issue Peace Agreement Palestinian Authority Palestinian Liberation Organization Mountain Aquifer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Allan, J. A. (2002). Hydro-peace in the Middle East: Why no water wars? A case study of the Jordan river basin. SAIS Review, XXII(2), 255–272 (Summer–Fall).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barghouthi, I. (2004 May 5). Statement before the house (United States House of Representatives) Committee on International Relations.
  3. Declaration of Principles. (1993, September 13). Declaration of principles on interim self-government arrangements. The Government of Israel and the P.L.O. Oslo, Norway.
  4. Declaration of Principles (1996, February 13). Declaration of principles for cooperation on water-related matters and new and additional water resources multilateral peace process in the Middle East Multilateral Working Group on Water Resources, Oslo.Google Scholar
  5. Dreizin, Y., Tenne, A., & Hoffman, D. (2007). Integrating large scale seawater desalination plants within Israel’s water supply system. Desalination, 220, 1–18.Google Scholar
  6. Eran, O. (2002). Arab-Israel peacemaking. In A. Sela (Ed.), The continuum political encyclopedia of the Middle East. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  7. Feitelson, E. (2000). Water rights within a water cycle framework. In E. Feitelson & M. Haddad (Eds.), Management of shared groundwater resources: The Israeli–Palestinian case with an international perspective (pp. 395–405). Boston/Ottawa: Kluwer Academic Publishers and International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  8. Feitelson, E. (2002). Implications of shifts in the Israeli water discourse for Israeli–Palestinian water negotiations. Political Geography, 21, 293–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feitelson, E., & Haddad, M. (Eds.). (2000). Management of shared groundwater resources: The Israeli–Palestinian case with an international perspective. Boston/Ottawa: Kluwer Academic Publishers/International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  10. Feitelson, E., & Rosenthal, G. (2012). Desalination, space and power: The ramifications of Israel’s changing water geography. Geoforum, 43, 272–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fishhendler, I. (2008). Ambiguity in transboundary environmental dispute resolution: The Israeli_Jordanian water agreement. Journal of Peace Research, 45, 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frerks, G. (2007, October 3). Linking environment and conflict building blocks for a knowledge, innovation and research strategy. BuZa-NWO Workshop on Conflict and Natural Resources. The Hague: Wageningen University.Google Scholar
  13. Friedler, E. (2001). Water reuse – An integral part of water resources management: Israel as a case study. Water Policy, 3, 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haddadin, M. J. (2002). The Jordan River Basin, part I: Water conflict and negotiated resolution. (UNESCO, IHP, WWAP, Technical Documents in Hydrology, PC/CP Series, No. 15, pp. 1–20).Google Scholar
  15. Hays, J. B. (1948). T.V.A. on the Jordan, Commission on Palestine Surveys. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press.Google Scholar
  16. Israel Hydrology Service Report on the Development of the Water Resources Until Autumn 2009. August 22, 2011 (Hebrew).
  17. Israel Water Authority (2012). Website: (a); (b); (c) Scholar
  18. Israel Water Sector Master Plan – Policy paper – Approved by the Government Council for Water and Sewerage on 4 July 2011 (Hebrew).
  19. Israel-Palestinian Interim Agreement (1995, September 18). Article 40. Water and sewage.Google Scholar
  20. Kjellen, B. (2007). A new diplomacy for sustainable development. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  21. Kliot, N. (1994). Water resources and conflict in the Middle East. London: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kliot, N. (2000). Sharing scarce water resources. In H. Amery & A. Wolf (Eds.), Water in the Middle East: A geography of peace (pp. 191–217). Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  23. Lowi, M. (1993). Water and power – The politics of a scarce resource in the Jordan River Basin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Middle East Regional Study (2001). Middle East regional study on water supply and demand development. Concluding Report Prepared by Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian Study Teams. Desalination, 136, 105–108.Google Scholar
  25. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2009, January 14). Ministry’s position at the National Committee of Inquiry.Google Scholar
  26. Mizrahi, S., Mehrez, A., & Naor, A. (2001). A two-level analysis of Israel’s strategy toward peace during the 1990s. Fairfax: George Mason University.
  27. Mizyed, N. (2000). Land use management in the context of joint management of shared aquifers. In E. Feitelson & M. Haddad (Eds.), Management of shared groundwater resources: The Israeli–Palestinian case with an international perspective (pp. 445–452). Boston/Ottawa: Kluwer Academic Publishers/International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  28. Piskin, D. (2011, June 6). Reported in Jordan: The government intends to increase the purchase of water from Israel. Calcalist (Yediot Ahronot).,7340,L-3520432,00.html.
  29. Red Sea – Dead Sea Water Conveyance Project, Terms of Reference. (2005). Feasibility study – Environmental, technical and economic and environmental and social assessment. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  30. Sadoff, C., & Grey, D. (2005, December). Cooperation on international rivers: A continuum for securing and sharing benefits. Water International, 30(4), 420–427.Google Scholar
  31. Sagie, U. (2011). The frozen hand, Israel: Yediot Achronot Books (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  32. Selby, J. (2003). Dressing up domination as ‘cooperation’: The case of Israeli–Palestinian water relations. Review of International Studies, 29, 121–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shamir, U. (2004). Statement before the house (United States House of Representatives) Committee on International Relations, May 5,
  34. Shamir, U. & Haddadin, M. (2003). Jordan case study. As part of a UNESCO-IHP. Paris: PCCP Series Publication.Google Scholar
  35. Soffer, A. (1999). Rivers of fire: The conflict over water in the Middle East. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Tal, A., & Abed-Rabbo, A. (Eds.). (2010). Water wisdom: preparing the groundwork for cooperative and sustainable water management in the Middle East. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 2010.Google Scholar
  37. Treaty of Peace between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (1994, October 26). Annex II Water Related Matters.Google Scholar
  38. Union for the Mediterranean (UFM) (2012). UFM Gaza desalination project.
  39. United Nations (2009, January 15). The law of transboundary aquifers, resolution adopted by the general assembly.Google Scholar
  40. Wolf, A. (1995). Hydropolitics along the Jordan river. Tokyo/New York: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Wolf, A. (1998). Conflict and cooperation along international waterways. Water Policy, 1(2), 251–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wolf, A. (2001a). Transboundary freshwater dispute database (TFDD). Available at
  43. Wolf, A. (2001b). Transboundary waters: sharing benefits, lessons learned. International conference on fresh water, Bonn.
  44. Zeitoun, M., Eid-Sabbagh, K., Dajani, M., & Talhami, M. (2012). Hydro-political baseline of the Upper Jordan River. Beirut: Association of the Friends of Ibrahim Abd el Al.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Environmental StudiesUniversity of HaifaHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.BIT-Consultancy, Water Beyond BoundariesTel AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations