From When and Where I Enter: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations of Minority Students’ Transition to College

  • Deborah Faye Carter
  • Angela Mosi Locks
  • Rachelle Winkle-Wagner
Part of the Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research book series (HATR, volume 28)


The focus of this chapter is the transition to college for students of color (Asian American, Latina/o, African American, and Native American students). The dominant thrust of much of the scholarship examining the transition to college for students comes from Tinto’s Theory of Student Departure and research using the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ). While such theories have been important for understanding transition, recent theories particular to the experiences of students of color (e.g., acculturation, theory of validation) shed light on future areas for theory and research on transition to college. We discuss other areas of first-year college experiences (financial matters, academic preparation, family and community support) and factors that support such students’ positive acclimation to campus, which include on-campus mentoring, family and/or community support, first-year experience programming, academic support, adequate financial aid, and amelioration of a negative racial climate. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for future directions of theory development and for practice, especially the need for additional research within racial/ethnic groups and by gender.


African American Student Academic Preparation Asian American Student Undocumented Student Racial Climate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adelman, C. (1999). Answers in the tool box: Academic intensity, attendance patterns, and bachelor’s degree attainment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Development.Google Scholar
  2. Adelman, C. (2004). Principal indicators of student academic histories in postsecondary education, 1972–2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, K. (2007). How fair is college financing that speaks Spanish first? Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 72(9), 39–43.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, W. (1991). Introduction. In W. Allen, E. G. Epps, & N. Z. Haniff (Eds.), College in Black and White (pp. 1–14). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  5. Allensworth, E., Nomi, T., Montgomery, N., & Lee, V. E. (2009). College preparatory curriculum for all: Academic consequences of requiring algebra and English I for ninth graders in Chicago. Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 31(4), 367–391. doi: 10.3102/0162373709343471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alon, S. (2007). The influence of financial aid in leveling group differences in graduating from elite institutions. Economics of Education Review, 26(3), 296–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ancis, J. R., Sedlacek, W. E., & Mohr, J. J. (2000). Student perceptions of campus cultural climate by race. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(2), 180–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anglin, D. M., & Wade, J. C. (2007). Racial socialization, racial identity, and Black students’ adjustment to college. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(3), 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arboleda, A., Wang, Y., Shelley, M. C., & Whalen, D. F. (2003). Predictors of residence hall involvement. Journal of College Student Development, 44(4), 517–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Astin, A. (1985). Achieving educational excellence: A critical assessment of priorities and practices in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  11. Attewell, P. (2001). The winner-take-all high school: Organizational adaptations to educational stratification. Sociology of Education, 74(4), 267–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Attewell, P., Lavin, D., Domina, T., & Levey, T. (2005). New evidence on college remediation. Journal of Higher Education, 77(5), 886–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Attinasi, L. C., Jr. (1989). Getting in: Mexican Americans’ perceptions of university attendance and the implications for freshman year persistence. Journal of Higher Education, 60(3), 247–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Aud, S., Hussar, W., Johnson, F., Kena, G., Roth, E., Manning, E., Wang, X., & Zhang, J. (2012). The condition of education 2012 (NCES 2012–045). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved June 30, 2012 from Scholar
  15. Allen, W. (1991). Introduction. In W. Allen, E. G. Epps, & N. Z. Haniff (Eds.), College in Black and White (pp. 1–14). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  16. Baker, R. (1986, April). The student adaptation to college questionnaire and its use in an intervention study with freshmen. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American College Personnel Association, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  17. Baker, R. W., & Siryk, B. (1980). Alienation and freshman transition to college. Journal of College Student Personnel, 21(5), 437–442.Google Scholar
  18. Baker, R. W., & Siryk, B. (1984). Measuring adjustment to college. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(2), 179–189.Google Scholar
  19. Baker, R. W., & Siryk, B. (1989). Student adaptation to college questionnaire manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  20. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  23. Bandura, A. (1991). Self-regulation of motivation through anticipatory and self-reactive mechanisms. In Dienstbier, R. (Ed.), Perspectives on motivation: Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1990 (Vol. 38, pp. 69–164). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  24. Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bannon, E., & King, T. (2002). The burden of borrowing: Reversing the trend toward unmanageable student debt. Student Aid Transcript, 13(4), 49–53.Google Scholar
  26. Barlow, A. E. L., & Villarejo, M. (2004). Making a difference for minorities: Evaluation of an educational enrichment program. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(9), 861–881. doi: 10.1002/tea.20029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Barry, C. L., & Finney, S. J. (2009). Can we feel confident in how we measure college confidence? A psychometric investigation of the college self-efficacy inventory. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 42(3), 197–222. doi: 10.1177/0748175609344095/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Baum, S., & Flores, S. M. (2011). Higher education and children in immigrant families. The Future of Children, 21(1), 171–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Becker, G. (1964). Human capital. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  30. Belenky, M., Clinchy, B., Goldberger, N., & Tarule, J. (1986). Women’s ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  31. Bell, A. D., Rowan-Kenyon, H. T., & Perna, L. W. (2009). College knowledge of 9th and 11th grade students: Variation by school and state context. Journal of Higher Education, 80(6), 663–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Berger, J. B., & Milem, J. F. (1999). The role of student involvement and perceptions of integration in a causal model of student persistence. Research in Higher Education, 40(6), 641–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bettinger, E. P., & Long, B. T. (2004). Shape up or ship out: The effects of remediation on students at four-year colleges (Working Paper No. w10369). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  34. Bettinger, E. P., & Long, B. T. (2009). Addressing the needs of underprepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? Journal of Human Resources, 44(3), 736–771.Google Scholar
  35. Beyers, W., & Goossens, L. (2002). Concurrent and predictive validity of the student adaptation to college questionnaire in a sample of European freshman students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62(3), 527–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bong, M. (2001). Role of self-efficacy and task-value in predicting college students’ course performance and future enrollment intentions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26(4), 553–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste (R. Nice, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1979)Google Scholar
  38. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J.-C. (1979). The inheritors: French students and their relation to culture (R. Nice, Trans.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1964)Google Scholar
  39. Bowman, N. A. (2010). The development of psychological well-being among first-year college students. Journal of College Student Development, 51(2), 180–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bozick, R. (2007). Making it through the first year of college: The role of students’ economic resources, employment, and living arrangements. Sociology of Education, 80(3), 261–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bradurn, E. M., Moen, P., & Dempster-McClain, D. (1995). Women’s return to school following the transition to motherhood. Social Forces, 73(4), 1517–1551.Google Scholar
  42. Braxton, J. M., Hirschy, A. S., & McClendon, S. A. (2004). Understanding and reducing college student departure (ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Vol 30. No 3). Adriana Kezar, Series Editor.Google Scholar
  43. Braxton, J. M., Sullivan, A. V., & Johnson, R. M. (1997). Appraising Tinto’s theory of college student departure. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp, Vol. 12, pp. 107–164). New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
  44. Brown, S. D., Lent, R. W., & Larkin, K. C. (1989). Self-efficacy as a moderator of scholastic aptitude-academic performance relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(1), 64–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Occupation outlook handbook: Overview of the 2010–20 projections. Retrieved from:
  46. Burgette, J. E., & Magun-Jackson, S. (2008). Freshman orientation, persistence, and achievement: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 10(3), 235–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Burris, C. C., Heubert, J. P., & Levin, H. M. (2006). Accelerating mathematics achievement using heterogeneous grouping. American Educational Research Journal, 43(1), 137–154. doi: 10.3102/00028312043001105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cabrera, A. F., Hagedorn, L. S., Nora, A., Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. T. (1999). Campus racial climate and the adjustment of students to college: A comparison between White students and African-American students. Journal of Higher Education, 70(2), 134–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cabrera, A. F., Nora, A., & Castaneda, M. B. (1992). The role of finances in the persistence process: A structural model. Research in Higher Education, 33(5), 571–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Canagarajah, A. S. (1997). Safe houses in the contact zone: Coping strategies of African-American students in the academy. College Composition and Communication, 48(2), 173–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cano, M. A., & Castillo, L. G. (2010). The role of enculturation and acculturation on Latina college student distress. Journal of Hispanics in Higher Education, 9, 221–231. doi: 10.1177/1538192710370899.Google Scholar
  52. Carter, P. (2005). Keepin’ it real: School success beyond Black and White. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Carter, P. (2006). Straddling boundaries: Identity, culture, and school. Sociology of Education, 79(3), 304–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ceja, M. (2006). Understanding the role of parents and siblings as information sources in the college choice process of Chicana students. Journal of College Student Development, 47(1), 87–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Chaves, C. (2006). Involvement, development, and retention theoretical foundations and potential extensions for adult community college students. Community College Review, 34(2), 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Chavous, T. M., Bernat, D. H., Schmeelk-Cone, K., Caldwell, C. H., Kohn-Wood, L., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2003). Racial identity and academic attainment among African American adolescent. Child Development, 74, 1076–1090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Cheadle, J. E. (2008). Educational investment, family context, and children’s math and reading growth from kindergarten through the third grade. Sociology of Education, 81(1), 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Chemers, M. M., Hu, L., & Garcia, B. F. (2001). Academic self-efficacy and first year college student performance and adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 55–64. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.93.1.55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Chen, X. (2005). First generation students in postsecondary education: A look at their college transcripts (NCES 2005–171). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  60. Chhuon, V., & Hudley, C. (2008). Factors supporting Cambodian American students’ successful adjustment into the university. Journal of College Student Development, 49(1), 15–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Chickering, A. W., & Schlossberg, N. K. (1995). Getting the most out of college. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  62. Choi, N. (2005). Self-efficacy and self-concept as predictors of college students’ academic performance. Psychology in the Schools, 42(2), 197–205. doi: 10.1002/pits.20048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Colyar, J. E., & Stich, A. E. (2011). Discourses of remediation: Low-income students and academic identities. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(2), 121–141. doi:10.1177/0002764210381870Google Scholar
  64. Conley, D. (2008). Rethinking college readiness. New Directions for Higher Education, 144, 3–13.Google Scholar
  65. Cook, B., & King, J. E. (2005). Improving lives through higher education: Campus programs and policies for low-income adults. Washington, DC: Lumina Foundation for Education and American Council on Education Center for Policy AnalysisGoogle Scholar
  66. Cooper, J., & Robinson, P. (1999). Promoting core skills and lifelong learning through cooperative learning. In E. Dunne (Ed.), The learning society: International perspectives on core skills in higher education. London: Kogan Paul.Google Scholar
  67. Corrigan, M. E. (2003). Beyond access: Persistence challenges and the diversity of low-income students. New Directions for Higher Education, 121, 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Crisp, G., & Nora, A. (2010). Hispanic student success: Factors influencing die persistence and transfer decisions of Latino community college students enrolled in developmental education. Research in Higher Education, 51(2), 175–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Cruce, T., Wolniak, G. C., Seifert, T. A., & Pascarella, E. T. (2006). Impacts of good practices on cognitive development, learning orientations, and graduate degree plans during the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 47(4), 365–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Cruce, T. M., & Moore, J. V. I. I. I. (2007). First-year students’ plans to volunteer: An examination of the predictors of community service participation. Journal of College Student Development, 48(6), 655–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Dahmus, S., Bernardin, H. J., & Bernardin, K. (1992). Student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 25(3), 139–142.Google Scholar
  72. Deil-Amen, R., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2002). The unintended consequences of stigma-free remediation. Sociology of Education, 75(3), 249–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. DesJardins, S. L., McCall, B. P., Ott, M., & Kim, J. (2010). A quasi-experimental investigation of how the Gates Millennium Scholars program is related to college students’ time use and activities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 32(4), 456–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Diaz-Strong, D., Gómez, C., Luna-Duarte, M. E., & Meiners, E. R. (2011). Purged: Undocumented students, financial aid policies, and access to higher education. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 10, 107–119. doi: 10.1177/1538192711401917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Duffy, R. D., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2007). The presence of and search for a calling: Connections to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(3), 590–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  77. England-Siegerdt, C. (2011). Do loans really expand opportunities for community college students? Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 35(1), 88–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Erwin, T. D. (1996). Students’ contribution to their college costs and intellectual development. Research in Higher Education, 25(2), 194–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Fenske, R. H., Porter, J. D., & DuBrock, C. P. (2000). Tracking financial aid and persistence of women, minority, and needy students in science, engineering, and mathematics. Research in Higher Education, 41(1), 67–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Flores, S. M. (2010). State Dream Acts: The effect of in-state resident tuition policies on the college enrollment of undocumented Latino students in the United States. The Review of Higher Education, 33(2), 239–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Fordham, S. (1995). Blacked out: Dilemmas of race, identity and success at capital high. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  82. Fordham, S. (2008). Beyond capital high: On dual citizenship and the strange career of “acting white”. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 39(3), 227–246.Google Scholar
  83. Fordham, S., & Ogbu, J. U. (1986). Black students’ school success: Coping with the “burden of ‘acting white.’”. The Urban Review, 18(3), 176–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Fries-Britt, S. (1998). Moving beyond Black achiever isolation: Experiences of gifted Black collegians. Journal of Higher Education, 69(5), 556–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fries-Britt, S., & Griffin, K. (2007). The Black box: How high-achieving Black resist stereotypes about Black Americans. Journal of College Student Development, 48(5).Google Scholar
  86. Furr, S. R., & Elling, T. W. (2002). African-American students in a predominantly White university: Factors associated with retention. College Student Journal, 36(2), 188–202.Google Scholar
  87. Galbraith, M. W., & Shedd, P. E. (1990). Building skills and proficiencies of the community college instructor of adult learners. Community College Review, 18(2), 6–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Getzlaf, S. B., Sedlacek, G. M., Kearney, K. A., & Blackwell, J. M. (1984). Two types of voluntary undergraduate attrition: Application of Tinto’s model. Research in Higher Education, 20(3), 257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Giddings, P. (1996). When and where I enter: The impact of Black women on race and sex in America. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  90. Gilligan, H. (2012). An examination of the financial literacy of California college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University.Google Scholar
  91. Gold, J., Burrell, S., Haynes, C., & Nardecchia, D. (1990). Student adaptation to college as a predictor of academic success: An exploratory study of Black undergraduate education students (Research Report 143). (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 331 946).Google Scholar
  92. Good, J., Halpin, G., & Halpin, G. (2001–2002). Retaining black students in engineering: Do minority programs have a longitudinal impact? Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 3(4), 351–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gorman, T. J. (1998). Social class and parental attitudes toward education – Resistance and conformity to schooling in the family. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 27(1), 10–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Griffith, A. L. (2011). Keeping up with the Joneses: Institutional changes following the adoption of a merit aid policy. Economics of Education Review, 30(5), 1022–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Grubb, W. N., & Kalman, J. (1994). Relearning to earn – The role of remediation in vocational-education and job-training. American Journal of Education, 103(1), 54–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hackett, G., Betz, N. E., Casas, J. M., & Rocha-Singh, I. A. (1992). Gender, ethnicity, and social cognitive factors predicting the academic achievement of students in engineering. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39(4), 527–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hallinan, M. T. (1994a). Tracking: From theory to practice. Sociology of Education, 67(2), 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hallinan, M. T. (1994b). School differences in tracking effects on achievement. Social Forces, 72(3), 799–820.Google Scholar
  99. Harkreader, S., Hughes, J., Tozzi, M. H., & Vanlandingham, G. (2008). The impact of Florida’s Bright Futures Scholarship Program on high school performance and college enrollment. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 38(1), 5–16.Google Scholar
  100. Harper, S. R. (2006). Peer support for African American male college achievement: Beyond internalized racism and the burden of ‘acting White. Journal of Men’s Studies, 14(3), 337–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hart, N. K., & Mustafa, S. (2008). What determines the amount students borrow? Revisiting the crisis–convenience debate. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 38(1), 17–32.Google Scholar
  102. Hawley, T. H., & Harris, T. A. (2005). Student characteristics related to persistence for first-year community college students. Journal of College Student Retention, 7(1–2), 117–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Haylo, N., & Le, Q. (2011). Results of using multimedia case studies and open-ended hands-on design projects in an ‘introduction to engineering’ course at Hampton University. Journal of STEM Education, 12(7 & 8), 32–35.Google Scholar
  104. Heller, D. E. (2004). The changing nature of financial aid. Academe, 90(4), 36–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hilmer, M. J. (1998). Post-secondary fees and the decision to attend a university or a community college. Journal of Public Economics, 67(3), 329–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Holmes, L. S., Ebbers, L. H., Robinson, D. C., & Mugenda, A. B. (2001). Validating African-American students at predominantly white institutions. Journal of College Student Retention, 2(1), 41–58.Google Scholar
  107. Horn, L., & Carrol, D. (1998). Stopouts or stayouts? Undergraduates who leave college in their first year, NCES 1999–087. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  108. Horvat, E. M., & Lewis, K. (2003). Reassessing the ‘Burden of Acting White’: The importance of peer groups in managing academic success. Sociology of Education, 76, 265–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Horvat, E. M., & O’Connor, C. (Eds.). (2006). Beyond acting White: Reframing the debate on Black student achievement. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  110. Hu, S. (2010). Scholarship awards, college choice, and student engagement in college activities: A study of high-achieving low-income students of color. Journal of College Student Development, 51(2), 151–162.Google Scholar
  111. Hu, S., & St. John, E. P. (2001). Student persistence in a public higher education system: Understanding racial and ethnic differences. Journal of Higher Education, 72(3), 265–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hurtado, S., & Carter, D. F. (1997). Effects of college transition and perceptions of the campus racial climate on Latino college students’ sense of belonging. Sociology of Education, 70(4), 324–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hurtado, S., Carter, D. F., & Spuler, A. J. (1996). Latino student transition to college: Assessing difficulties and factors in successful adjustment. Research in Higher Education, 37(2), 135–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Hurtado, S., Eagan, M. K., Cabrera, N. L., Lin, M. H., Park, J., & Lopez, M. (2008). Training future scientists: Predicting first-year minority participation in health science research. Research in Higher Education, 49(2), 126–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hurtado, S., Han, J. C., Sáenz, V. B., Espinosa, L., Cabrera, N., & Cerna, O. (2007). Predicting transition and adjustment to college: Biomedical and behavioral science aspirants’ and minority students’ first year of college. Research in Higher Education, 48(7), 841–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Inkelas, K., & Weisman, J. (2003). Different by design: An examination of student outcomes among participants in three types of living-learning prognosis. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 335–368.Google Scholar
  117. Inkelas, K. K., Daver, Z. E., Vogt, K. E., & Leonard, J. B. (2007). Living-learning programs and first-generation college students’ academic and social transition to college. Research in Higher Education, 48(4), 403–434. doi: 10.1007/s11162-006-9031-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Inkelas, K. K., & Soldner, M. (2011). Undergraduate living-learning programs and student outcomes. In J. Smart, & M. Paulsen (Eds.), Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 26, pp. 1–56). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  119. Ishitani, T. T. (2008). How do transfers survive after “transfer shock”? A longitudinal study of transfer student departure at a four-year institution. Research in Higher Education, 49, 403–419. doi:10.1007/s11162-008-9091-x.Google Scholar
  120. Iturbide, M. I., Raffaelli, M., & Carlo, G. (2009). Protective effects of ethnic identity on Mexican American college students’ psychological well-being. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 31, 536–552. doi:10.1177/0739986309345992.Google Scholar
  121. Jaeger, A. J., & Eagan, M. K., Jr. (2009). Unintended consequences: Examining the effect of part-time faculty members on associate’s degree completion. Community College Review, 36(3), 167–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. James, V., Marreno, I., & Underwood, D. (2010). Branching out and coming back together: Exploring the undergraduate experiences of young Black women. Harvard Educational Review, 80(1), 61–73.Google Scholar
  123. Kaase, K. J. (1994, May). Testing the limits of student adaptation to college questionnaire. Paper presented at the Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research, New Orleans, LA (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 373619).Google Scholar
  124. Kalsner, L., & Pistole, M. C. (2003). College adjustment in a multiethnic sample: Attachment, separation-individuation, and ethnic identity. Journal of College Student Development, 44(1), 92–109.Google Scholar
  125. Kash, J. P., & Lasley, S. (2009). Defining merit: The impact of award structure on the distribution of merit aid. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 39(1), 30–40.Google Scholar
  126. Kim, D. (2007). The effect of loans on students’ degree attainment: Differences by student and institutional characteristics. Harvard Educational Review, 77(1), 64–100.Google Scholar
  127. Kim, J. K., & Gasman, M. (2011). In search of a “Good College”: Decisions and determinations behind Asian American students’ college choice. Journal of College Student Development, 52(6), 706–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. King, J. E. (2006). Working their way through college: Student employment and its impact on the college experience retrieved from American Council on Education,
  129. Kozeracki, C. (2002). Issues in developmental education. Community College Review, 29(4), 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Krosteng, M. V. (1992). Predicting persistence from the student adaptation to college questionnaire: Early warning or siren song? Research in Higher Education, 33(1), 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Cruce, T., Shoup, R., & Gonyea, R. M. (2006a). Connecting the dots: Multi-faceted analyses of the relationships between student engagement results from the NSSE, and the institutional practices and conditions that foster student success. Bloomington, IN: Center for Postsecondary Research, Indiana University.Google Scholar
  132. Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Cruce, T., Shoup, R., & Gonyea, R. M. (2006b). Connecting the dots: Multi-faceted analyses of the relationships between student engagement results from the NSSE, and the institutional practices and conditions that foster student success. Bloomington, IN: Center for Postsecondary Research, Indiana University.Google Scholar
  133. Lapsley, D. K., & Edgerton, J. (2002). Separation-individuation, adult attachment style, and college adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(4), 484–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lareau, A. (1987). Social class difference in family-school relationships: The importance of cultural capital. Sociology of Education, 60(2), 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  136. Lavin, D. E., &Weininger, E. (1998, March 19). New admissions criteria at the City University of New York: Ethnic and enrollment consequences and Addendum: Their impact on women. Report prepared for hearings of the New York City Council, Committee on Higher Education.Google Scholar
  137. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Larkin, K. C. (1984). Relation of self-efficacy expectations to academic achievement and persistence. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(3), 356–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Larkin, K. C. (1986). Self-efficacy in the prediction of academic performance and perceived career options. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(3), 265–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Larkin, K. C. (1987). Comparison of three theoretically derived variables in predicting career and academic behavior: Self-efficacy, interest congruence, and consequence thinking. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34(3), 293–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Levin, J. S. (2001). Globalizing the community college: Strategies for change in the twenty first century. New York: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Li, Y., McCoy, E., Shelley, M. C., & Whalen, D. F. (2005). Contributors to student satisfaction with special program (fresh start) residence halls. Journal of College Student Development, 46(2), 176–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Locks, A. M., & Gregerman, S. R. (2008). Undergraduate research as an institutional retention strategy. In R. Taraban & R. L. Blanton (Eds.), To think and act like a scientist: Undergraduate research experiences and their effects (pp. 11–32). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  143. Locks, A. M., Hurtado, S., Bowman, N. A., & Oseguera, L. (2008). Extending notions of campus climate and diversity to students’ transition to college. The Review of Higher Education, 31(3), 257–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Lohfink, M. M., & Paulsen, M. B. (2005). Comparing the determinants of persistence for first-generation and continuing generation students. Journal of College Student Development, 46(4), 409–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Long, B. T., & Riley, E. (2007). Financial aid: A broken bridge to college access? Harvard Educational Review, 77(1), 39–63.Google Scholar
  146. Lundberg, C. A., Schreiner, L. A., Hovaguimian, K. D., & Miller, S. S. (2007). First-generation status and student race/ethnicity as distinct predictors of student involvement and learning. NASPA Journal, 44(1), 57–83.Google Scholar
  147. MacCallum, M. (2008). Effect of financial aid processing policies on student enrollment, retention and success. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 37(2), 17–32.Google Scholar
  148. Maldonado, D. E. Z., Rhoads, R., & Buenavista, T. L. (2005). The student-initiated retention project: Theoretical contributions and the role of self-empowerment. American Educational Research Journal, 42(4), 605–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Marcus, J. (2000). Revamping remedial education. National CrossTalk, 8, 1.Google Scholar
  150. Marks, H. M., & Robb, S. R. (2004). Community service in the transition: Shifts and continuities in participation from high school to college. Journal of Higher Education, 75(3), 307–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Martin, A. J. (2009). Motivation and engagement across the academic life span: A developmental construct validity study of elementary school, high school, and university/college students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69(5), 794–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Martinez Alemàn, A. M. (2010). College women’s female friendships: A longitudinal view. Journal of Higher Education, 81(5), 553–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mattanah, J. F., Hancock, G. R., & Brand, B. L. (2004). Parental attachment, separation-individuation and college student adjustment: A structural equation analysis of mediational effects. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(2), 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. McAtee, A. B., & Benschoff, J. M. (2006). Rural dislocated women in career transition: The importance of support and strategies. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 30, 697–714. doi: 10.1080/10668920500207858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. McCabe, R. (2000). No one to waste: A report to public decision-makers and community college leaders. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges, Community College Press.Google Scholar
  156. McCallister, L., Evans, J., & Illich, P. (2010). Perceptions about higher education among parents of Hispanic students in middle school: Implications for community colleges. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 34(10), 784–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. McDonough, P., & Calderon, S. (2006). The meaning of money: Perceptual differences between college counselors and low income families about college costs and financial aid. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(12), 1703–1718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Mendoza, P., Mendez, J. P., & Malcolm, Z. (2009). Financial aid and persistence in community colleges: Assessing the effectiveness of federal and state financial aid programs in Oklahoma. Community College Review, 37(2), 112–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Merisotis, J., & Phipps, R. (2000). Remedial education in colleges and universities: What’s really going on? The Review of Higher Education, 24(1), 67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Merker, B. M., & Smith, J. V. (2001). Validity of the MMPI-2 college maladjustment scale. Journal of College Counseling, 4(1), 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Moore, J. V., & Rago, M. (2009). The impact of employment on student engagement: Results from NSSE. In B. Perozzi (Ed.), Enhancing student learning through college employment (pp. 87–107). Bloomington, IN: Association of College Unions International.Google Scholar
  162. Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(1), 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Murr, C. (2010). A scholarship workshop program to improve underrepresented student access to higher education. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 40(2), 30–40.Google Scholar
  164. Myers, R. D. (2003). College success programs. Washington, DC: Pathways to College Network ClearinghouseGoogle Scholar
  165. National Survey of Student Engagement. (2009). Assessment for improvement: Tracking student engagement over time—Annual results 2009. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research.Google Scholar
  166. Nettles, M. T. (1991). Racial similarities and differences in the predictor of college student achievement. In W. R. Allen, E. Epps, & N. Z. Haniff (Eds.), College in Black and White: African American students in predominantly White and in Historically Black Public Universities (pp. 75–91). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  167. Nora, A., Barlow, L., & Crisp, G. (2006). An assessment of Hispanic students in four-year institutions of higher education. In A. M. Gloria, J. Castellanos, & M. Kamimura (Eds.), The Latina/o pathway to the Ph.D.: Abriendo caminos (pp. 55–78). Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
  168. Nora, A., Cabrera, A., Hagedorn, L. S., & Pascarella, E. (1996). Differential impacts of academic and social experiences on college-related behavioral outcomes across different ethnic and gender groups at four-year institutions. Research in Higher Education, 37(4), 427–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Nuñez, A. (2009). Latino students’ transitions to college: A social and intercultural capital perspective. Harvard Educational Review, 79(1), 22–48.Google Scholar
  170. Nuñez, A. (2011). Counterspaces and connections in college transitions: First-generation Latino students’ perspectives on Chicano studies. Journal of College Student Development, 56(2), 639–655. doi: 10.1353/csd.2011.0077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Nyrienda, S. M., & Gong, T. (2009–2010). The squishy and stubborn problem of retention: A study of a mid at an Mid-Atlantic Historically Black Institution with a land-grant mission. Journal of College Student Retention, 11(4), 529–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. O’Connor, C., Mueller, J., Lewis, R. L., Rivas-Drake, D., & Rosenberg, S. (2011). “Being” Black and strategizing for excellence in a racially stratified academic hierarchy. American Educational Research Journal, 48(6), 1232–1257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Oakes, J. (1994). More than misapplied technology: A normative and political response to Hallinan on tracking. Sociology of Education, 67(2), 84–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Oakes, J. (1995). Two cities’ tracking and within-school segregation. Teachers College Record, 96(4), 681–690.Google Scholar
  175. Oakes, J., Wells, A. S., Jones, M., & Datnow, A. (1997). Detracking: The social construction of ability, cultural politics, and resistance to reform. Teachers College Record, 98(3), 483–510.Google Scholar
  176. Ogbu, J. U. (1987). Variability in minority school performance: A problem in search of an explanation. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 18(4), 312–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Ogbu, J. U., & Davis, A. (2003). Black American students in an affluent suburb: A study of academic disengagement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  178. Oliver, M., & Shapiro, T. (1997). Black wealth, White wealth: A new perspective on racial inequality. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  179. Orbe, M. P., & Groscurth, C. R. (2004). A co-cultural theoretical analysis of communicating on campus and at home: Exploring the negotiation strategies of first generation college (FGC) students. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 5, 41–47.Google Scholar
  180. Orfield, G. (1992). Money, equity, and college access. Harvard Educational Review, 62(3), 337–372.Google Scholar
  181. Oseguera, L., Denson, N., & Hurtado, S. (2008). Hispanic students and the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program: Promising results extending to the third college year. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 10(3), 307–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Oseguera, L. O., Locks, A. M., & Vega, I. I. (2009). Increasing Latina/o students baccalaureate attainment: A focus on retention. Journal of Hispanics in Higher Education, 8(1), 23–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Owen, S. V., & Froman, R. D. (1988, April). Development of a college academic self-efficacy scale. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  184. Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 6(4), 543–578. doi: 10.3102/00346543066004543.Google Scholar
  185. Pascarella, E. T., Pierson, C. T., Wolniak, G. C., & Terenzini, P. T. (2004). First-generation college students: Additional evidence on college experiences and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 75(3), 249–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (1980). Predicting freshman persistence and voluntary dropout decisions from a theoretical model. Journal of Higher Education, 51(1), 60–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  188. Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. (2008). U.S. population projections: 2005–2050. Retrieved from The Pew Hispanic Center website,
  189. Perez, W. (2011). Americans by heart: Undocumented Latino students and the promise of higher education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  190. Perez, W., & Cortes, R. D. (2011). Undocumented Latino college students: Their socioemotional and academic experiences. El Paso, TX: LFB Publishing.Google Scholar
  191. Perna, L. W. (2006). Studying college choice: A proposed conceptual model. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 21, pp. 99–157). Dordrecht, The Netherlands/London: Springer.Google Scholar
  192. Perna, L. W., & Titus, M. (2004). Understanding differences in the choice of college attended: The role of state public policies. The Review of Higher Education, 27(4), 501–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Perna, L. W., & Titus, M. (2005). The relationship between parental involvement as social capital and college enrollment: An examination of racial/ethnic group differences. Journal of Higher Education, 76(5), 485–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Ramos-Sanchez, L., & Nichols, L. (2007). Self-efficacy of first-generation and non-first-generation college students: The relationship with academic performance and college adjustment. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 6–18. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1882.2007.tb00002.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Rayle, A. D., Kurpius, S. E. R., & Arredondo, P. (2007). Relationships of self-beliefs, social support, and university comfort with academic success of freshman college women. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice, 8(3), 325–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Reid, M. J., & Moore, J. L. (2008). College readiness and academic preparation for postsecondary education: Oral histories of first-generation urban college students. Urban Education, 43(2), 240–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Rendón, L. I. (1994). Validating cultural diverse students: Toward a new model of learning and student development. Innovative Higher Education, 19(1), 3–51. doi: 10.1007/BF01191156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Rendón, L. I. (2002). Community College Puente: A validating model of education. Educational Policy, 16(4), 642–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Rendón, L. I., Hope, R., & Associates. (1996). Educating a new majority: Transforming America’s educational system for diversity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  200. Reyes, M. E. (2000). What does it take? Successful Alaska Native students at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Journal of College Student Retention, 2(2), 141–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Reyes, M.-E. (2011). Unique challenges for women of color in STEM transferring from community college to universities. Harvard Educational Review, 81(2), 241–263.Google Scholar
  202. Rice, K. G., Fitzgerald, D. P., Whaley, T. J., & Gibbs, C. L. (1995). Cross-sectional and longitudinal examination of attachment, separation-individuation, and college student adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 73(4), 463–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Robinson, J. P. (2008). Evidence of a differential effect of ability grouping on the reading achievement growth of language-minority Hispanics. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(2), 141–180. doi: 10.3102/0162373708317742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Rosenbaum, J. (2001). Beyond college for all. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  205. Roueche, J., & Roueche, S. (1999). High stakes, high performance: Making remedial education work. Washington, DC: Community College Press.Google Scholar
  206. Rowley, S. A. J., Sellers, R. M., Chavous, T. M., & Smith, M. (1998). The relationship between racial identity and self-esteem in African American college and high school students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(3), 715–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Rubin, B. C. (2003). Unpacking detracking: When progressive pedagogy meets students’ social worlds. American Educational Research Journal, 40(2), 539–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Ruiz, S., Sharkness, J., Kelley, K., DeAngleo, L., & Pryor, J. (2010). Findings from the 2009 administration of Your First College Year (YFCY): National aggregates. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Los Angeles, Higher Education Research Institute.Google Scholar
  209. Salisbury, M. H., Pascarella, E. T., Padgett, R. D., & Blaich, C. (2012). The effects of work on leadership development among first-year college students. Journal of College Student Development, 53(2), 300–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Sanchez, B., Esparza, P., Colon, Y., & Davis, K. E. (2010). Tryin’ to make it during the transition from high school: The role of family obligation attitudes and economic context for Latino-emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 25(6), 858–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Sankar, C. S., & Raju, P. K. (2011). Use of presage-pedagogy-process-product model to assess the effectiveness of case study methodology in achieving learning outcomes. Journal of STEM Education, 12(7 & 8), 45–56.Google Scholar
  212. Schaefer, J. L. (2010). Voices of older baby boomer students: Supporting their transitions back into college. Educational Gerontology, 36(1), 67–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Schlossberg, N. K. (1981). A model for analyzing human adaptation to transition. The Counseling Psychologist, 9(2), 2–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Schlossberg, N. K. (1984). Counseling adults in transitions. New York: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  215. Schlossberg, N. K., Waters, E. B., & Goodman, J. (1995). Counseling adults in transition: Linking practice with theory (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  216. Schneider, M. E., & Ward, D. J. (2003). The role of ethnic identification and perceived social support in Latinos’ adjustment to college. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(4), 539–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Schwartz, R. A., & Washington, C. M. (2001). Predicting academic performance and retention among African American freshmen men. NASPA Journal, 39(4), 354–370.Google Scholar
  218. Sellers, R. M., Chavous, T. M., & Cooke, D. Y. (1998). Racial ideology and racial centrality as predictors of African American college students’ academic performance. Journal of Black Psychology, 24(1), 8–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Shaw, K. M., & London, H. B. (2001). Culture and ideology in keeping transfer commitment: Three community colleges. The Review of Higher Education, 25, 91–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Shim, S., Barber, B. L., Card, N. A., Xiao, J. J., & Serido, J. (2010). Financial socialization of first-year college students: The roles of parents, work, and education. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(12), 1457–1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Smedley, B. D., Myers, H. F., & Harrell, S. P. (1993). Minority-status stresses and the college adjustment of ethnic minority freshmen. Journal of Higher Education, 64(4), 434–452.Google Scholar
  222. Smith, A. K., Carmack, H. J., & Titsworth, B. S. (2006). Managing the tension of In(ter) dependence: Communication and the socialization of first-year college students. Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition, 18(2), 83–109.Google Scholar
  223. Solberg, V. S., O’Brien, K., Villareal, P., Kennel, R., & Davis, B. (1993). Self-efficacy and Hispanic college students: Validation of the college self-efficacy instrument. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 15, 180–195. doi: 10.1177/07399863930151004.Google Scholar
  224. Soliday, M. (2002). The politics of remediation. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  225. Solórzano, D., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. (2000). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African-American college students. The Journal of Negro Education, 69(1/2), 60–73.Google Scholar
  226. Soucy, N., & Larose, S. (2000). Attachment and control in family and mentoring contexts as determinants of adolescent adjustment at college. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(1), 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Spady, W. (1970). Dropouts from higher education: An interdisciplinary review and synthesis. Interchange, 1(1), 64–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Spady, W. (1971). Dropouts from higher education: Toward an empirical model. Interchange, 2(3), 38–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. St. John, E. P. (1991). What really influences minority attendance? Sequential analyses of the high school and beyond sophomore cohort. Research in Higher Education, 32(2), 141–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. St. John, E. P. (2003). Refinancing the college dream: Access, equal opportunity, and justice for taxpayers. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  231. St. John, E. P. (2012). Academic capital formation: An emergent theory. In R. Winkle-Wagner, E.P. St. John, & P. Bowman (Eds.), Expanding postsecondary opportunity for underrepresented students: Theory and practice of academic capital formation. (Readings on equal education series, Vol. 26, pp. 3–28). New York: AMS Press Inc.Google Scholar
  232. St. John, E. P., Fisher, A. S., & Hu, S. (2011). Breaking through the access barrier: Academic capital formation informing public policy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  233. St. John, E. P., Hu, S., Simmons, A., Carter, D. F., & Weber, J. (2004). What difference does a major make? The influence of college major field on persistence by African American and White students. Research in Higher Education, 45(3), 209–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. St. John, E. P., & Noell, J. (1989). The effects of student financial aid on access to higher education: An analysis of progress with special consideration of minority enrollment. Research in Higher Education, 30(6), 563–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. St. John, E. P., Paulsen, M. B., & Starkey, J. B. (1996). The nexus between college choice and persistence. Research in Higher Education, 37(2), 175–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. St. John, E. P., & Starkey, J. B. (1995). An alternative to net price: Assessing the influence of prices and subsidies on within-year persistence. Journal of Higher Education, 66(2), 156–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Stage, F. K., & Rushin, P. W. (1993). A combined model of student predisposition to college and persistence in college. Journal of College Student Development, 34(4), 276–282.Google Scholar
  238. Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2004). Social capital among working-class minority students. In M. A. Gibson, P. Gandara, & J. P. Koyama (Eds.), School connections: U.S.-Mexican youth, peers, and school achievement. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  239. Svanum, S., & Bigatti, S. M. (2009). Academic course engagement during one semester forecasts college success: Engaged students are more likely to earn a degree, do it faster, and do it better. Journal of College Student Development, 50(1), 120–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Tao, S., Dong, Q., Pratt, M. W., Hunsberger, B., & Pancer, S. M. (2000). Social support: Relations to coping and adjustment during the transition to university in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15(1), 123–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Tekleselassie, A. A. (2010). Demystifying conventional assumptions: Do African American parents anticipate investing less toward their children’s college costs than their white peers? Journal of Student Financial Aid, 40(2), 5–20.Google Scholar
  242. Terenzini, P., Rendón, L. I., Upcraft, L., Millar, S., Allison, K., Gregg, P., & Jalomo, R. (1994). The transition to college: Diverse students, diverse stories. Research in Higher Education, 35(1), 57–73. doi: 10.1007/BF02496662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Terenzini, P. T., & Wright, T. M. (1987). Influences on students’ academic growth during four years of college. Research in Higher Education, 26(2), 161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Tierney, W. G. (1992). An anthropological analysis of student participation in college. Journal of Higher Education, 62(6), 603–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Tierney, W. G. (1998). Models of minority college going and retention: Cultural integrity versus cultural suicide. The Journal of Negro Education, 68(1), 80–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Tierney, W. G., Corwin, Z. B., & Colyar, J. E. (Eds.). (2004). Preparing for college: Nine elements of effective outreach Albany. New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  247. Tierney, W., & Hagedorn, L. (Eds.). (2002). Increasing access to college: Extending possibilities for all students. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  248. Tierney, W. G., Sallee, M. W., & Venegas, K. M. (2007). Access and financial aid: How American-Indian students pay for college. Journal of College Admission, 197, 14–23.Google Scholar
  249. Tinto, V. (1975). Dropouts from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of the recent literature. A Review of Educational Research, 45, 89–125.Google Scholar
  250. Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  251. Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  252. Torres, J. B., & Solberg, V. S. (2001). Role of self-efficacy, stress, social integration, and family support in Latino college student persistence and health. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59(1), 53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Tovar, E., & Simon, M. A. (2006). Academic probation as a dangerous opportunity: Factors influencing diverse college students’ success. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 30(7), 547–564. doi: 10.1080/10668920500208237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Trombley, W. (1998). Remedial education under attack. National CrossTalk, 6(3).Google Scholar
  255. Tuttle, T., McKinney, J., & Rago, M. (2005, April). College students working: The choice nexus. IPAS (Indiana Project on Academic Success) Topic BriefGoogle Scholar
  256. Tyson, K. (2002). Weighing in: Elementary-age students and the debate on attitudes toward school among Black students. Social Forces, 80(4), 1157–1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Tyson, K., Darity, W., & Castellino, D. R. (2005). It’s not a “black thing”: Understanding the burden of acting white and other dilemmas of high achievement. American Sociological Review, 70(4), 582–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Umbach, P. D. (2007). How effective are they? Exploring the impact of contingent faculty on undergraduate education. The Review of Higher Education, 30(2), 91–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Van Gennep, A. (1960). Rites of passage, (M. B. Vizedom & G. L. Caffee, Trans.), with an introduction by Solon T. Kimball. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  260. Villlarejo, M., Barlow, A. E. L., Kogan, D., Veazey, B. D., & Sweeney, J. K. (2008). Encouraging minority undergraduates to choose sciences careers: Career paths survey results. Cell Biology Education Life Sciences Education, 7(4), 394–409. doi: 10.1187/cbe.08-04-0018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Warburton, E. C., Bugarin, R., & Nuñez, A. M. (2001). Bridging the gap: Academic preparation and postsecondary success of first-generation students (Rep. No. NCES 2001–153).Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  262. Wei, C. C., Berkner, L., He, S., Lew, S., Cominole, M., & Siegel, P. (2009). 2007–08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:08): Student financial aid estimates for 2007–08: First look (NCES 2009–166). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  263. Weidman, J. C. (1989). Undergraduate socialization: A conceptual approach. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 5, pp. 289–322). New York: Agathon Press.Google Scholar
  264. Weidman, J. C. (2006). Socialization of students in higher education: Organizational perspectives. In C. Conrad & R. C. Serlin (Eds.), The Sage handbook for research in education: Engaging ideas and enriching inquiry (pp. 253–262). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  265. Welner, K. G., & Oakes, J. (1996). (Li)Ability grouping: The new susceptibility of school tracking systems to legal challenges. Harvard Educational Research, 66(3), 451–471.Google Scholar
  266. White, J. W., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2011). Minority college students and tacit “codes of power”: Developing academic discourse and identities. The Review of Higher Education, 34(2), 283–318. doi: 10.1353/rhe.2010.0028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Winkle-Wagner, R. (2009a). The unchosen me: Race, gender, and identity among Black women in college. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  268. Winkle-Wagner, R. (2009b). The perpetual homelessness of college experiences: The tensions between home and campus for African American women. The Review of Higher Education, 33(1), 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Winkle-Wagner, R. (2010). Cultural capital: The uses and abuses of a key theoretical concept in educational research. ASHE Higher Education Report Series, 36(1). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  270. Winkle-Wagner, R. (2012). Academic capital formation: Can it help untangle the confusion about social stratification in the study of college students? In R. Winkle-Wagner, E. P. St John, & P. Bowman (Eds.), Expanding postsecondary opportunity for underrepresented students: Theory and practice of academic capital formation (Readings on equal education series, Vol. 26). New York: AMS Press Inc.Google Scholar
  271. Winkle-Wagner, R., St. John, E., & Bowman, P. (Eds.) (2012). Expanding postsecondary opportunity for underrepresented students: Theory and practice of academic capital formation (Readings on equal education Series, 26). New York: AMS Press.Google Scholar
  272. Yancy, D. C., Sutton-Haywood, M., Hermitte, E., Dawkins, P. W., Rainey, K., & Parker, F. E. (2008). The impact of the freshman academy/learning communities on student progression and engagement. The Journal of Negro Education, 77(3), 250–263.Google Scholar
  273. Yazedjian, A., Toews, M. L., & Navarro, A. (2009). Exploring parental factors, adjustment, and academic achievement among White and Hispanic college students. Journal of College Student Development, 50(4), 458–467. doi: 10.1353/csd.0.0080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Yonezawa, S., Wells, A. S., & Serna, I. (2002). Choosing tracking: “Freedom of choice” in detracking schools. American Educational Research Journal, 39(37), 37–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Yosso, T. J., Parker, L., Solórzano, D. G., & Lynn, M. (2004). From Jim Crow to affirmative action and back again: A critical race discussion of racialized rationales and access to higher education. Review of Research in Education, 28, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Yosso, T. J., Smith, W. A., Ceja, M., & Solórzano, D. G. (2009). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate for Latina/o undergraduates. Harvard Educational Review, 79(4), 659–691.Google Scholar
  277. Zajacova, A., Lynch, S. M., & Espenshade, T. J. (2005). Self-efficacy, stress, and academic success in college. Research in Higher Education, 46(6), 677–706. doi: 10.1007/s11162-004-4139-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Zeldin, A. M., & Pajares, F. (2000). Against the odds: Self-efficacy beliefs of women in mathematical, scientific, and technological careers. American Educational Research Journal, 37(1), 215–246. doi: 10.3102/00028312037001215.Google Scholar
  279. Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulating academic learning and achievement: The emergence of a social cognitive perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 2(2), 173–201. doi: 10.1007/BF01322178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Matinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 663–676.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deborah Faye Carter
    • 1
  • Angela Mosi Locks
    • 2
  • Rachelle Winkle-Wagner
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Educational StudiesClaremont Graduate UniversityClaremontUSA
  2. 2.Student Development in Higher Education, College of EducationCalifornia State UniversityLong BeachUSA
  3. 3.Educational Leadership and Policy AnalysisUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations