Advertisement

Present state of the systematics of planktonic coccoid green algae of inland waters

  • Lothar Krienitz
  • Christina Bock
PHYTOPLANKTON Review Paper
Part of the Developments in Hydrobiology book series (DIHY, volume 221)

Abstract

This review discusses the main developments in the systematics of coccoid green algae over the last three decades. The relationships of key groups of planktonic coccoid green algae are shown in the phylogenetic trees of Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae. The trees clearly show that the morphology of these algae do not adequately reflect their phylogenetic position. Different phylogenetic species can be hidden under one and the same morphotype. As most of the genera have a polyphyletic origin, they are in need of a systematic re-evaluation. Species classification using the phylogenetic species concept resulted in the establishment of new genera with smaller numbers of species and the description of new species that are not distinguishable by light microscopy. An overview of genera is given in tables and the revised designations of species as contained in the harmonized taxon list of the European Water Framework Directive lists is provided. In this transitional phase from an artificial to a more natural systematics of algae, field biologists and ecologists as well as molecular biologists must strengthen their interdisciplinary cooperation. The alignment of eco-functional groups of algae with true species identities using the barcoding conception will provide a better understanding of the interaction between organisms and their environment.

Keywords

Coccoid green algae Chlorophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Systematics Genus and species concept Barcodes Functional groups 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. An, S. S., T. Friedl & E. Hegewald, 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Scenedesmus and Scenedesmus-like coccoid green algae as inferred from ITS-2 rDNA sequence comparisons. Plant Biology 1: 418–428.Google Scholar
  2. Anneville, O., C. Kaiblinger, R. D. Tadonléké, J.-C. Druart & M. T. Dokulil, 2008. Contribution of long-term monitoring to the European Water Framework Directive implementation. In Sengupta, M. & R. Dalwani (eds), Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, Jaipur: 1122–1131.Google Scholar
  3. Aslam, Z., W. Shin, M. K. Kim, W.-T. Im & S.-T. Lee, 2007. Marinichlorella kaistiae gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on polyphasic taxonomy. Journal of Phycology 43: 576–584.Google Scholar
  4. Auinger, B. M., K. Pfandl & J. Boenigk, 2008. An improved methodology for the identification of protists and microalgae from plankton samples preserved in Lugol’s iodine solution: combining microscopic analysis with single cell PCR. Applied Environmental Microbiology 74: 2505–2510.Google Scholar
  5. Ballot, A., K. Kotut, E. Novelo & L. Krienitz, 2009. Changes of phytoplankton communities in Lakes Naivasha and Oloidien, examples of degradation and salinization of lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley. Hydrobiologia 632: 359–363.Google Scholar
  6. Barone, R. & L. Naselli Flores, 1994. Phytoplankton dynamics in a shallow, hypertrophic reservoir (Lake Arancio, Sicily). Hydrobiologia 289: 199–214.Google Scholar
  7. Behnke, A., T. Friedl, V. A. Chepurnov & D. G. Mann, 2004. Reproductive compatibility and rDNA sequence analyses in the Sellaphora pupula species complex (Bacillariophyta). Journal of Phycology 40: 193–208.Google Scholar
  8. Beijerinck, M. W., 1890. Culturversuche mit Zoochlorellen, Lichenengoniden und anderen niederen Algen I-III. Botanische Zeitung 48: 726–740.Google Scholar
  9. Bock, C., T. Pröschold & L. Krienitz, 2010. Two new Dictyosphaerium-morphotype lineages of the Chlorellaceae (Trebouxiophyceae): Heynigia gen. nov. and Hindakia gen. nov. European Journal of Phycology 45: 267–277.Google Scholar
  10. Bock, C., L. Krienitz & T. Pröschold, 2011a. Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae) using molecular signatures (barcodes), including description of seven new species. Fottea 11: 293–312.Google Scholar
  11. Bock, C., M. Pažoutová & L. Krienitz, 2011b. Phylogenetic relationship of Coronastrum ellipsoideum and description of Parachlorella hussii sp. nov. Biologia 66: 585–594.Google Scholar
  12. Bock, C., T. Pröschold & L. Krienitz, 2011c. Updating the genus Dictyosphaerium and description of Mucidosphaera gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae) based on morphological and molecular data. Journal of Phycology 47: 638–652.Google Scholar
  13. Boney, A. D., 1981. Mucilage: the ubiquitous algal attribute. British Phycological Journal 16: 115–132.Google Scholar
  14. Booton, G. C., G. L. Floyd & P. A. Fuerst, 1998. Polyphyly of tetrasporalean green algae inferred from nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA. Journal of Phycology 34: 306–311.Google Scholar
  15. Bremer, K., C. J. Humphries, B. D. Mishler & S. P. Churchill, 1987. On cladistic relationships in green plants. Taxon 36: 339–349.Google Scholar
  16. Buchheim, M. A., E. A. Michalopulos & J. A. Buchheim, 2001. Phylogeny of the Chlorophyceae with special reference to the Sphaeropleales: a study of 18S and 26S rDNA data. Journal of Phycology 37: 819–835.Google Scholar
  17. Buchheim, M. A., J. Buchheim, T. Carlson, A. Braband, D. Hepperle, L. Krienitz, M. Wolf & E. Hegewald, 2005. Phylogeny of the Hydrodictyaceae (Chlorophyceae): inferences from rDNA data. Journal of Phycology 41: 1039–1054.Google Scholar
  18. Buchheim, M. A., A. Keller, C. Koetschan, F. Förster, B. Merget & M. Wolf, 2011. Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (nu ITS2 rRNA) sequence-structure phylogenetics: towards an automated reconstruction of the green algal tree of life. PLoS ONE 6: e16931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cavalier-Smith, T., 1993. The origin, losses and gains of chloroplasts. In Lewin, R. A. (ed.), Origin of Plastids: Symbiogenesis, Prochlorophytes and the Origins of Chloroplasts. Chapman and Hall, New York: 291–348.Google Scholar
  20. Cepák, V., 1993. Scenedesmus obliquus zoospores in outdoor mass culture – reality or artefact? Algological Studies 71: 37–42.Google Scholar
  21. Chapman, R. L., M. A. Buchheim, C. F. Delwiche, T. Friedl, V. A. R. Huss, K. G. Karol, L. A. Lewis, J. Manhart, R. M. McCourt, J. L. Olsen & D. A. Waters, 1998. Molecular systematics of the green algae. In Soltis, D. E., P. S. Soltis & J. J. Doyle (eds), Molecular Systematics of Plants II. DNA Sequencing. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Dordrecht, London: 508–540.Google Scholar
  22. Cole, J. J., 1982. Interactions between bacteria and algae in aquatic ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 13: 291–314.Google Scholar
  23. Coleman, A. W., 2000. The significance of a coincidence between evolutionary landmarks found in mating affinity and a DNA sequence. Protist 151: 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Coleman, A. W., 2003. ITS2 is a double-edged tool for eukaryote evolutionary comparisons. Trends in Genetics 19: 370–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Coleman, A. W., 2007. Pan-eukaryote ITS2 homologies revealed by RNA secondary structure. Nucleic Acids Research 35(10): 3322–3329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Coleman, A. W., 2009. Is there a molecular key to the level of “biological species” in eukaryotes? A DNA guide. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50: 197–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cracraft, J., 1989. Speciation and its ontology: the empirical consequences of alternative species concepts for understanding patterns and processes of differentiation. In Otte, D. & J. Endler (eds), Speciation and Its Consequences. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA: 28–59.Google Scholar
  28. Crawford, R. M., 1978. A new forma and a new species of the genera Scenedesmus and Siderocelis (Chlorophyceae) from the nannoplankton of a brackish-water coastal pool. Protoplasma 96: 351–360.Google Scholar
  29. Crawford, R. M. & P. F. Heap, 1978. Transmission electron microscopy X-ray microanalysis of two algae of the genera Scenedesmus and Siderocelis. Protoplasma 96: 361–367.Google Scholar
  30. Darienko, T., L. Gustavs, O. Mudimu, C. Rad Menendez, R. Schumann, U. Karsten, T. Friedl & T. Pröschold, 2010. Chloroidium, a common terrestrial coccoid green alga previously assigned to Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology 45: 79–95.Google Scholar
  31. Day, J. G., J. Lukavský, M. Lorenz, T. Friedl, J. Elster, C. N. Cambell & J. J. Brand, 2004. Pringsheim’s living legacy: CAUP, CCALA, CCAP, SAG and UTEX culture collections of algae. Nova Hedwigia 79: 27–37.Google Scholar
  32. de Queiroz, K., 1998. The general lineage concept of species, species criteria, and the process of speciation: a conceptual unification and terminological recommendations. In Howard, D. J. & S. H. Berlocher (eds), Endless Forms: Species and Speciation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England: 57–75.Google Scholar
  33. Decho, A. W., 1990. Microbial exopolymer secretions in ocean environments – their role(s) in food webs and marine processes. Oceanography and Marine Biology 28: 73–153.Google Scholar
  34. Denboh, T., T. Ichimura, D. Hendrayanti & A. W. Coleman, 2003. Closterium moniliferum-ehrenbergii (Charophyceae; Chorophyta) Specie complex viewed from 1506 group I intron and nuclear rDNA. Journal of Phycology 39: 960–977.Google Scholar
  35. Eliáš, M., Y. Němková, P. Škaloud, J. Neustupa, V. Kaufnerová & L. Šejnohová, 2010. Hylodesmus singaporensis gen. et sp. nov., a new autosporic subaerial green alga (Scenedesmaceae, Chlorophyta) from Singapore. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 60: 1224–1235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Eloranta, V., 1979. The compound internal pyrenoid in cultured cells of the green alga Monoraphidium griffithii (Berkel.) Komár.-Legner. Protoplasma 99: 229–235.Google Scholar
  37. Ettl, H. & G. Gärtner, 1995. Syllabus der Boden-, Luft- und Flechtenalgen. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  38. Evans, K. M., A. H. Wortley & D. G. Mann, 2007. An assessment of potential diatom “barcode” genes (cox1, rbcL, 18S and ITS rDNA) and their effectiveness in determining relationships in Sellaphora (Bacillariophyta). Protist 158: 349–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fanés Treviño, I., P. Sánchez-Castillo & A. Comas González, 2009. Contribution to the taxonomic study of the family Botryococcaceae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) in southern Spain. Cryptogamie, Algologie 30: 17–30.Google Scholar
  40. Fawley, M. W., Y. Yun & M. Qin, 2000. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA sequences reveal a new coccoid lineage of the Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 36: 387–393.Google Scholar
  41. Fawley, M. W., K. P. Fawley & M. A. Buchheim, 2004. Molecular diversity among communities of freshwater microchlorophytes. Microbial Ecology 48: 489–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fawley, M. W., M. L. Dean, S. K. Dimmer & K. P. Fawley, 2005a. Evaluating the morphospecies concept in the Selenastraceae (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 42: 142–154.Google Scholar
  43. Fawley, M. W., K. P. Fawley & H. A. Owen, 2005b. Diversity and ecology of small coccoid green algae from Lake Itasca, Minnesota, USA, including Meyerella planktonica, gen. et sp. nov. Phycologia 44: 35–48.Google Scholar
  44. Fott, B., 1971. Algenkunde. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena: 581 pp.Google Scholar
  45. Friedl, T., 1995. Inferring taxonomic positions and testing genus level assignments in coccoid green lichen algae: a phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from Dictyochloropsis reticulata and from members of the genus Myrmecia (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae cl. nov.). Journal of Phycology 31: 630–637.Google Scholar
  46. Friedl, T., 1996. Systematik und Phylogenie terrestrischer Grünalgen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Flechtenalgen: molekulare und morphologische Merkmalsanalysen. University of Bayreuth, Habilitation: 122 pp.Google Scholar
  47. Friedl, T., 1997. The evolution of the green algae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 11: 87–101.Google Scholar
  48. Guillou, L., W. Eikrem, M.-J. Chrétiennot-Dinet, F. Le Gall, R. Massana, K. Romari, C. Pedrós-Alió & D. Vaulot, 2004. Diversity of picoplanktonic prasinophytes assessed by direct nuclear SSU rDNA sequencing of environmental samples and novel isolates retrieved from oceanic and coastal marine ecosystems. Protist 155: 193–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Guiry, M. D. & G. M. Guiry, 2011. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway [available on internet at http://www.algaebase.org]; searched on 28 June 2011.
  50. Gutell, R. R., 1994. Collection of small-subunit (16S- and 16S-like) ribosomal-RNA structures. Nucleic Acids Research 22: 3502–3507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hajibabaei, M., G. A. C. Singer, P. D. N. Hebert & D. A. Hickey, 2007. DNA barcoding: how it complements taxonomy, molecular phylogenetics and population genetics. Trends in Genetics 23: 167–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Happy-Wood, C. M., 1988. Ecology of freshwater planktonic green algae. In Sandgren, C. D. (ed.), Growth and Reproductive Strategies of Freshwater Phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 175–226.Google Scholar
  53. Hartmann, H. J. & D. D. Kunkel, 1991. Mechanisms of food selection in Daphnia. Hydrobiologia 225: 129–154.Google Scholar
  54. Hayes, P. K., G. L. A. Barker, J. Batley, S. J. Beard, B. A. Handley, P. Vacharapiyasophon & A. E. Walsby, 2002. Genetic diversity within populations of cyanobacteria assessed by analysis of single filaments. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 81: 197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hebert, P. D. N., A. Cywinska, S. L. Ball & J. R. DeWaard, 2003. Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 270: 313–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hegewald, E., 1989. The Scenedesmus strains of the culture collection at Austin, Texas (UTEX). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement 82, Algological Studies 55: 153–189.Google Scholar
  57. Hegewald, E., 1997. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Scenedesmus. Algae (The Korean Journal of Phycology) 12: 235–246.Google Scholar
  58. Hegewald, E., 2000. New combinations in the genus Desmodesmus (Chlorophyceae, Scenedesmaceae). Algological Studies 96: 1–18.Google Scholar
  59. Hegewald, E. & N. Hanagata, 2000. Phylogenetic studies on Scenedesmaceae (Chlorophyta). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement 136, Algological Studies 100: 29–49.Google Scholar
  60. Hegewald, E. & E. Schnepf, 1984. Zur Struktur und Taxonomie bestachelter Chlorococcales (Micractiniaceae, Golenkiniaceae, Siderocystopsis). Nova Hedwigia 39: 297–383.Google Scholar
  61. Hegewald, E. & E. Schnepf, 1986. Zur Struktur und Taxonomie spindelförmiger Chlorellales (Chlorophyta): Schroederia, Pseudoschroederia gen. nov., Closteriopsis. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement 73, 1, Algological Studies 42: 21–48.Google Scholar
  62. Hegewald, E. & P. C. Silva, 1988. Annotated Catalogue of Scenedesmus and nomenclaturally related genera, including original descriptions and figures. Bibliotheca Phycologica 80: 1–587.Google Scholar
  63. Hegewald, E. & M. Wolf, 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Scenedesmus and Acutodesmus (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae) as inferred from 18S rDNA and ITS-2 sequence comparisons. Plant Systematics and Evolution 241: 185–191.Google Scholar
  64. Hegewald, E., D. Hepperle, M. Wolf & L. Krienitz, 2001. Phylogenetic placement of Chlorotetraedron incus, C. polymorphum and Polyedriopsis spinulosa (Neochloridaceae, Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 40: 399–402.Google Scholar
  65. Hegewald, E., P. F. M. Coesel & P. Hegewald, 2002. A phytoplankton collection from Bali, with the description of a new Desmodesmus species (Chlorophyta, Scenedesmaceae). Algological Studies 105: 51–78.Google Scholar
  66. Hegewald, E., A. Schmidt, A. Braband & P. Tsarenko, 2005. Revision of the Desmodesmus (Sphaeropleales, Scenedesmaceae) species with lateral spines. 2. The multi-spined to spineless taxa. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement 157, Algological Studies 116: 1–38.Google Scholar
  67. Hegewald, E., M. Wolf, A. Keller, T. Friedl & L. Krienitz, 2010. ITS2 sequence-structure phylogeny in the Scenedesmaceae with special reference to Coelastrum (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae), including the new genera Comasiella and Pectinodesmus. Phycologia 49: 325–335.Google Scholar
  68. Hehmann, A., L. Krienitz & R. Koschel, 2001. Long-term phytoplankton changes in an artificially divided top-down manipulated humic lake. Hydrobiologia 448: 83–96.Google Scholar
  69. Henley, W. J., J. L. Hironaka, L. Guillou, M. A. Buchheim, J. A. Buchheim, M. W. Fawley & K. P. Fawley, 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the ‘Nannochloris-like’ algae and diagnoses of Picochlorum oklahomensis gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 43: 641–652.Google Scholar
  70. Henning, W., 1966. Phylogenetic Systematics. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
  71. Hepperle, D. & L. Krienitz, 2001. Systematics and ecology of chlorophyte picoplankton in German inland waters along a nutrient gradient. International Revue of Hydrobiology 86: 269–284.Google Scholar
  72. Hepperle, D., E. Hegewald & L. Krienitz, 2000. Phylogenetic position of the Oocystaceae (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 36: 590–595.Google Scholar
  73. Heynig, H., 1980. Interessante Phytoplankter aus Gewässern des Bezirks Halle (DDR). III. Archiv für Protistenkunde 123: 349–357.Google Scholar
  74. Heynig, H. & L. Krienitz, 1982. Monoraphidium neglectum n.sp. sowie einige Bemerkungen zu den Gattungen Monoraphidium, Chlorolobion und Keratoccus (Chlorococclaes). Archiv für Protistenkunde 125: 335–344.Google Scholar
  75. Hindák, F., 1976. Marvania geminata gen. nov. et sp. nov., a new green alga. Algological Studies 16: 261–270.Google Scholar
  76. Hindák, F., 1977. Studies on the chlorococcal algae (Chlorophyceae). I. Biologické Práce 28(4): 1–263.Google Scholar
  77. Hindák, F., 1978a. New taxa and reclassifications in the Chlorococcales (Chlorophyceae). Preslia 50: 97–109.Google Scholar
  78. Hindák, F., 1978b. The genus Lagerheimia Chod. and Lagerheimia-like unicells in the genus Scenedesmus Meyen (Chlorophyceae). Biológia 33: 795–808.Google Scholar
  79. Hindák, F., 1980. Studies on the chlorococcal algae (Chlorophyceae). II. Biologické Práce 26(6): 1–195.Google Scholar
  80. Hindák, F., 1984. Studies on the chlorococcal algae (Chlorophyceae). III. Biologické Práce 30(1): 1–308.Google Scholar
  81. Hindák, F., 1988. Studies on the chlorococcal algae (Chlorophyceae). IV. Biologické Práce 34: 1–263.Google Scholar
  82. Hindák, F., 1990. Studies on the chlorococcal algae (Chlorophyceae). V. Biologické Práce 36: 1–225.Google Scholar
  83. Hoef-Emden, K., 2007. Revision of the genus Cryptomonas (Cryptophyceae) II: incongruences between the classical morphospecies concept and molecular phylogeny in smaller pyrenoid-less cells. Phycologia 46: 402–428.Google Scholar
  84. Hoffman, L. R., 1983. Atractomorpha echinata gen. et sp. nov., a new anisogamous member of the Sphaeropleaceae (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 19: 76–86.Google Scholar
  85. Hollibaugh, J. T., P. S. Wong, N. Bano, S. K. Pak, E. M. Prager & C. Orrego, 2001. Stratification of microbial assemblages in Mono Lake, California, and response to a mixing event. Hydrobiologia 466: 45–60.Google Scholar
  86. Huss, V. A. R., C. Frank, E. C. Hartmann, M. Hirmer, A. Kloboucek, B. M. Seidel, P. Wenzeler & E. Kessler, 1999. Biochemical taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of the genus Chlorella sensu lato (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 35: 587–598.Google Scholar
  87. Jahn, R. & W. H. Kusber (eds), 2006. AlgaTerra Information System (online). Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, FU-Berlin [available on internet at http://www.algaterra.orgS].
  88. Jobb, G., 2008. Treefinder, version of October 2008. Munich, Germany. Distributed by the author at www.treefinder.de.
  89. Johansen, J. R. & D. A. Casamatta, 2005. Recognizing cyanobacterial diversity through adoption of a new species paradigm. Algological Studies 116: 71–93.Google Scholar
  90. Jost, S., R. Medinger & J. Boenigk, 2010. Cultivation-independent species identification of Dinobryon species (Chrysophyceae) by means of multiplex single-cell PCR. Journal of Phycology 46: 901–906.Google Scholar
  91. Keller, A., T. Schleicher, F. Förster, B. Ruderisch, T. Dandekar, T. Müller & M. Wolf, 2008. ITS2 data corroborate a monophyletic chlorophycean DO-group (Sphaeropleales). BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kessler, E., M. Schäfer, C. Hümmer, A. Kloboucek & V.A.R. Huss, 1997. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular characters for the taxonomy of the subgenera of Scenedesmus (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta). Botanica Acta 110: 244–250Google Scholar
  93. Ki, J.-S. & M.-S. Han, 2005. Sequence-based diagnostics and phylogenetic approach of uncultured freshwater dinoflagellate Peridinium (Dinophyceae) species, based on single-cell sequencing of rDNA. Journal of Applied Phycology 17: 147–153.Google Scholar
  94. Komárek, J., 1979. Änderungen in der Taxonomie der chlorococcalen Algen. Algological Studies 24: 239–263.Google Scholar
  95. Komárek, J. & B. Fott, 1983. Chlorophyceae (Grünalgen) Ordnung: Chlorococcales. In: Huber-Pestalozzi, G. (ed.), Das Phytoplankton des Süßwassers 7. Teil, 1. Hälfte. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nägele u. Obermiller), Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  96. Komárek, J. & A. G. Comas, 1982. Taxonomical definition of the genera and several species of Ankistrodesmus and Selenastrum (Chlorococcales). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement 63.3, Algological Studies 32: 259–277.Google Scholar
  97. Komárek, J. & V. Jankovská, 2001. Review of the green algal genus Pediastrum; implication for pollen-analytical research. Bibliotheca Phycologica 108: 1–127.Google Scholar
  98. Komárek, J. & L. Kováčik, 1985. The genus Chlorotetraedron McEntee et al. (Protosiphonales, Chlorophyceae). Preslia 57: 289–297.Google Scholar
  99. Komárek, J. & P. Marvan, 1992. Morphological differences in natural populations of the genus Botryococcus (Chlorophyceae). Archiv für Protistenkunde 141: 65–100.Google Scholar
  100. Kostikov, I., T. Darienko, A. Lukešová & L. Hoffmann, 2002. Revision of the classification system of Radiococcaceae Fott ex Komárek (except the subfamily Dictyochlorelloideae) (Chlorophyta). Algological Studies 104: 23–58.Google Scholar
  101. Kotut, K. & L. Krienitz, 2011. Does the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis exist in the soda lakes of East Africa? Hydrobiologia 664: 219–225.Google Scholar
  102. Krienitz, L., 1986. Drei neue Arten coccaler Grünalgen (Chlorellales) aus dem Plankton der Elbe. Archiv für Protistenkunde 132: 299–311.Google Scholar
  103. Krienitz, L., 1990. Coccale Grünalgen der mittleren Elbe. Limnologica 21: 165–231.Google Scholar
  104. Krienitz, L., 1998. Amphikrikos variabilis sp. nov. (Chlorophyta), a common species of inland waters of Namibia. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement 126, Algological Studies 91: 1–10.Google Scholar
  105. Krienitz, L. & C. Bock, 2011. Elongatocystis ecballocystiformis gen. et comb. nov., and some reflections on systematics of Oocystaceae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Fottea 11: 271–278.Google Scholar
  106. Krienitz, L. & H. Heynig, 1982. Beobachtungen an Ankyra lanceolata (Kors. 1953) Fott 1957 und Ankyra spatulifera (Kors. 1953) Fott 1957 (Chlorococcales) im Freiland. Archiv für Protistenkunde 126: 265–271.Google Scholar
  107. Krienitz, L. & G. Klein, 1988. Morphologie und Ultrastruktur einiger Arten der Gattung Monoraphidium (Chlorellales) III. Monoraphidium terrestre (Bristol) nov. comb. Algological Studies 49: 447–463.Google Scholar
  108. Krienitz, L. & K. Kotut, 2010. Fluctuating algal food populations and the occurrence of Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in three Kenyan Rift Valley lakes. Journal of Phycology 46: 1088–1096.Google Scholar
  109. Krienitz, L. & W. Scheffler, 1994. The Selenastraceae of the oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (Brandenburg, Germany). Biologia 49: 463–471.Google Scholar
  110. Krienitz, L. & M. Wirth, 2006. The high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Nannochloropsis limnetica (Eustigmatophyceae) and its implication for food web interactions, freshwater aquaculture and biotechnology. Limnologica 36: 204–210.Google Scholar
  111. Krienitz, L., G. Klein & H. Böhm, 1985. Zur Morphologie und Ultrastruktur von Selenastrum gracile Reinsch 1867 (Chlorellales). Archiv für Protistenkunde 130: 79–92.Google Scholar
  112. Krienitz, L., V. A. R. Huss & C. Hümmer, 1996a. Picoplanktonic Choricystis species (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta) and problems surrounding the morphologically similar ‘Nannochloris-like algae’. Phycologia 35: 332–341.Google Scholar
  113. Krienitz, L., P. Kasprzak & R. Koschel, 1996b. Long term study on the influence of eutrophication, restoration and biomanipulation on the structure and development of phytoplankton communities in Feldberger Haussee (Baltic Lake District, Germany). Hydrobiologia 330: 89–110.Google Scholar
  114. Krienitz, L., A. Hehmann & S. J. Casper, 1997. The unique phytoplankton community of a highly acidic bog lake in Germany. Nova Hedwigia 65: 411–430.Google Scholar
  115. Krienitz, L., H. Takeda & D. Hepperle, 1999. Ultrastructure, cell wall composition, and phylogenetic position of Pseudodictyosphaerium jurisii (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta) including a comparison with other picoplanktonic green algae. Phycologia 38: 100–107.Google Scholar
  116. Krienitz, L., D. Hepperle, H.-B. Stich & W. Weiler, 2000. Nannochloropsis limnetica (Eustigmatophyceae), a new species of picoplankton from freshwater. Phycologia 39: 219–227.Google Scholar
  117. Krienitz, L., I. Ustinova, T. Friedl & V. A. R. Huss, 2001. Traditional generic concepts versus 18S rRNA gene phylogeny in the green algal family Selenastraceae (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 37: 852–865.Google Scholar
  118. Krienitz, L., E. Hegewald, D. Hepperle & M. Wolf, 2003. The systematics of coccoid green algae: 18S rRNA gene sequence data versus morphology. Biologia 58: 437–446.Google Scholar
  119. Krienitz, L., E. Hegewald, D. Hepperle, V. A. R. Huss, T. Rohr & M. Wolf, 2004. Phylogenetic relationship of Chlorella and Parachlorella gen. nov. (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Phycologia 43: 529–542.Google Scholar
  120. Krienitz, L., C. Bock, W. Luo & T. Pröschold, 2010. Polyphyletic origin of the Dictyosphaerium-morphotype within Chlorellaceae (Trebouxiophyceae). Journal of Phycology 46: 559–563.Google Scholar
  121. Krienitz, L., C. Bock, P. K. Dadheech & T. Pröschold, 2011a. Taxonomic reassessment of the genus Mychonastes (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) including the description of eight new species. Phycologia 50: 89–106.Google Scholar
  122. Krienitz, L., C. Bock, H. Nozaki & M. Wolf, 2011b. SSU rRNA gene phylogeny of morphospecies affiliated to the bioassay alga “Selenastrum capricornutum” recovered the polyphyletic origin of crescent-shaped chlorophyta. Journal of Phycology 47: 880–893.Google Scholar
  123. Krienitz, L., C. Bock, K. Kotut & W. Luo, 2012. Picocystis salinarum (Chlorophyta) in saline lakes and hot springs of East Africa. Phycologia 51: 22–32.Google Scholar
  124. Leliaert, F., D. R. Smith, H. Moreau, M. D. Herron, H. Verbruggen, C. F. Delwiche & O. De Clerck, 2012. Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the green algae. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 31: 1–46.Google Scholar
  125. Lemmermann, E., 1903. Brandenburgische Algen. Zeitschrift für Fischerei 11: 73–123.Google Scholar
  126. Lewin, R. A., L. Krienitz, R. Goericke, H. Takeda & D. Hepperle, 2000. Picocystis salinarum gen. et sp. nov. (Chlorophyta) – a new picoplanktonic green alga. Phycologia 39: 560–565.Google Scholar
  127. Lewis, L. A., 1997. Diversity and phylogenetic placement of Bracteacoccus Tereg (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence data. Journal of Phycology 33: 279–285.Google Scholar
  128. Lewis, L. A. & R. M. McCourt, 2004. Green algae and the origin of land plants. American Journal of Botany 91: 1535–1556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lewis, L. A., L. W. Wilcox, P. A. Fuerst & G. L. Floyd, 1992. Concordance of molecular and ultrastructural data in the study of zoosporic chlorococcalean green algae. Journal of Phycology 28: 375–380.Google Scholar
  130. Long, E. O. & I. B. David, 1980. Repeated genes in eukaryotes. Annual Review Biochemistry 49: 727–764.Google Scholar
  131. Lukavský, J., 1991. Motile cells in Scenedesmus obliquus in outdoor mass culture. Archiv für Protistenkunde 140: 345–348.Google Scholar
  132. Luo, W., S. Pflugmacher, T. Pröschold, N. Walz & L. Krienitz, 2006. Genotype versus phenotype variability in Chlorella and Micractinium (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Protist 157: 315–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Luo, W., T. Pröschold, C. Bock & L. Krienitz, 2010. Generic concept in Chlorella-related coccoid green algae (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Plant Biology 12: 545–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Luo, W., C. Bock, H. R. Li, J. Padisák & L. Krienitz, 2011. Molecular and microscopic diversity of planktonic eukaryotes in the oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (Germany). Hydrobiologia 661: 133–143.Google Scholar
  135. Lürling, M. & W. Beekman, 1999. Grazer induced defenses in Scenedesmus (Chlorococclaes; Chlorophyceae): coenobium and spine formation. Phycologia 38: 368–376.Google Scholar
  136. Lynch, M., W. Gabriel & A. M. Wood, 1991. Adaptive and demographic responses of plankton populations to environmental change. Limnology and Oceanography 36: 1301–1312.Google Scholar
  137. Mai, J. C. & A. W. Coleman, 1997. The internal transcribed spacer 2 exhibits a common secondary structure in green algae and flowering plants. Journal of Molecular Evolution 44: 258–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Mallet, J., 2006. Species concepts. In Fox, C. W. J. (ed.), Evolutionary Genetics: Concepts and Case Studies. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 367–373.Google Scholar
  139. Marin, B. & M. Melkonian, 2010. Molecular phylogeny and classification of the Mamiellophyceae class. nov. (Chlorophyta) based on sequence comparisons of the nuclear- and plastid-encoded rRNA operons. Protist 161: 304–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Marvan, P., J. Komárek & A. Comas, 1984. Weighting and scaling of features in numerical evaluation of coccal green algae (genera of the Selenastraceae). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement 67, Algological Studies 37: 363–399.Google Scholar
  141. Masjuk, N. P., 2006. Chlorodendrophyceae class nov. (Chlorophyta, Viridiplantae) in the Ukrainian flora: I. Phylogenetic relations and taxonomical status. Ukrainian Botanical Journal 63: 601–614. (in Ukrainian).Google Scholar
  142. Mattox, K. R. & K. D. Stewart, 1984. Classification of the green algae: a concept based on comparative cytology. In Irvine, D. E. G. & D. M. John (eds), Systematics of the green algae. The Systematics Association, Special Volumes, No. 27. Academic Press, London, Orlando: 29–72.Google Scholar
  143. Mayr, E., 1942. Systematics and the Origin of Species from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA: 1–372.Google Scholar
  144. McEntee, F. J., H. C. Bold & P. A. Archibald, 1977. Notes on some edaphic algae of the South Pacific and Malaysian areas, with special reference to Pseudotetraedron polymorphum gen. et spec. nov. Soil Science 124: 161–166.Google Scholar
  145. McManus, H. A. & L. A. Lewis, 2005. Molecular phylogenetics, morphological variation and colony-form evolution in the family Hydrodictyaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 44: 582–595.Google Scholar
  146. McManus, H. A. & L. A. Lewis, 2011. Molecular phylogenetic relationships in the freshwater family Hydrodictyaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae), with an emphasis on Pediastrum duplex. Journal of Phycology 47: 152–163.Google Scholar
  147. McManus, H. A., L. A. Lewis & E. T. Schultz, 2011. Distinguishing multiple lineages of Pediastrum duplex with morphometrics and a proposal for Lacunastrum gen. nov. Journal of Phycolgy 47: 123–130.Google Scholar
  148. Medinger, R., V. Nolte, R. V. Pandey, S. Jost, B. Ottenwaelder, C. Schlötterer & J. Boenigk, 2010. Diversity in a hidden world: potential and limitation of next generation sequencing for surveys of molecular diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms. Molecular Ecology 19: 32–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Melkonian, M., 1982. Structural and evolutionary aspects of the flagellar apparatus in green algae and land plants. Taxon 31: 255–265.Google Scholar
  150. Melkonian, M., 1984. Flagellar apparatus ultrastructure in relation to green algal classification. In Irvine, D. E. G. & D. M. John (eds), Systematics of the green algae. The Systematics Association, Special Volumes, No. 27. Academic Press, London, Orlando: 73–120.Google Scholar
  151. Melkonian, M., 1990a. Phylum Chlorophyta. Class Prasiniphyceae. In Margulis, L., et al. (eds), Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, MA: 600–607.Google Scholar
  152. Melkonian, M., 1990b. Phylum Chlorophyta. Class Chlorophyceae. In Margulis, L., et al. (eds), Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, MA: 608–616.Google Scholar
  153. Melkonian, M. & B. Surek, 1995. Phylogeny of the Chlorophyta – congruence between ultrastructural and molecular evidence. Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France 120: 191–208.Google Scholar
  154. Mischke, U., 2006. Downloads zum Bewertungsverfahren Phytoplankton nach WRRL. Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei [available on internet at http://www.igb-berlin.de/abt2/mitarbeiter/mischke/].
  155. Mischke, U. & B. Nixdorf (eds), 2008. Bewertung von Seen mittels Phytoplankton zur Umsetzung der EU-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie, BTUC-AR 2/2008: 266 pp. ISBN 978-3-940471-06-2 ISSN 1434-6834.Google Scholar
  156. Miyachi, S., M. Tsuzuki, I. Mruyama, M. Gantar, S. Miyachi & H. Matsushima, 1986. Effects of CO2 concentration during growth on the intracellular structure of Chlorella and Scenedesmus (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 22: 313–319.Google Scholar
  157. Moniz, M. B. J. & I. Kaczmarska, 2010. Barcoding of diatoms: nuclear encoded ITS revisited. Protist 161: 7–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Müller, T., N. Philippi, T. Dandekar, J. Schultz & M. Wolf, 2007. Distinguishing species. RNA 13: 1469–1472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Nakayama, T., S. Watanabe, K. Mitsui, H. Uchida & I. Inouye, 1996. The phylogenetic relationship between Chlamydomonadales and Chlorococcales inferred from 18S rDNA sequence data. Phycological Research 44: 47–55.Google Scholar
  160. Nemjova, K., J. Neustupa, J. St’astny, P. Škaloud & J. Vesela, 2011. Species concept and morphological differentiation of strains traditionally assigned to Micrasterias truncata. Phycological Research 59: 208–220.Google Scholar
  161. Neustupa, J., P. Škaloud & J. St’astny, 2010. The molecular phylogenetic and geometric morphometric evaluation of Micrasterias Crux-Melitensis/M-Radians species complex1. Journal of Phycology 46: 703–714.Google Scholar
  162. Padisák, J., L. Krienitz, R. Koschel & J. Nedoma, 1997. Deep layer autotrophic picophytoplankton maximum in the oligotrophic Stechlinsee, Germany: origin, activity, development and erosion. European Journal of Phycology 32: 403–416.Google Scholar
  163. Padisák, J., G. Borics, I. Grigorszky & E. Soroczki-Pinter, 2006. Use of phytoplankton assemblages for monitoring ecological status of lakes within the Water Framework Directive: the assemblage index. Hydrobiologia 553: 1–14.Google Scholar
  164. Padisák, J., L. O. Crossetti & L. Naselli-Flores, 2009. Use and misuse in the application of the phytoplankton functional classification: a critical review with updates. Hydrobiologia 621: 1–19.Google Scholar
  165. Padisák, J., É. Hajnal, L. Krienitz, J. Lakner & V. Üveges, 2010. Rarity, ecological memory, rate of floral change in phytoplankton – and the mystery of the Red Cock. Hydrobiologia 653: 45–64.Google Scholar
  166. Pascher, A., 1918. Von einer allen Algenreihen gemeinsamen Entwicklungsregel. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 36: 390–409.Google Scholar
  167. Pažoutová, M., P. Škaloud & K. Nemjová, 2010. Phylogenetic position of Ooplanctella planoconvexa, gen. et comb. nova and Echinocoleum elegans (Oocystaceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Fottea 10: 75–83.Google Scholar
  168. Pearl, H. W., L. M. Valdes, A. R. Joyner & V. Winkelmann, 2007. Phytoplankton indicators of ecological change in the eutrophying Pamlico Sound system, North Carolina. Ecological Applications 17: S88–S101.Google Scholar
  169. Plain, N., C. Largeau, S. Derenne & A. Couté, 1993. Variabilité morphologique de Botryococcus braunii (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta): corrélations avec les conditions de croissance et la teneur en lipides. Phycologia 32: 259–265.Google Scholar
  170. Porter, K. G., 1973. Selective grazing and differential digestion of algae by zooplankton. Nature 244: 179–180.Google Scholar
  171. Posada, D. & T. R. Buckley, 2004. Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian approaches over likelihood ratio tests. System Biology 53: 793–808.Google Scholar
  172. Potter, D., T. C. Lajeunesse, G. W. Saunders & R. A. Anderson, 1997. Convergent evolution masks extensive biodiversity among marine coccoid picoplankton. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 99–107.Google Scholar
  173. Pröschold, T. & F. Leliaert, 2007. Systematics of the green algae: conflict of classic and modern approaches. In Brodie, J. & J. Lewis (eds), Unravelling the Algae: The Past, Present, and Future of the Algae. Taylor and Francis, London: 123–153.Google Scholar
  174. Pröschold, T., B. Marin, U. G. Schlösser & M. Melkonian, 2001. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyta). I. Emendation of Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg and Chloromonas Gobi, and description of Oogamochlamys gen. nov. and Lobochlamys gen. nov. Protist 152: 265–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Pröschold, T., E. H. Harris & A. W. Coleman, 2005. Portrait of a species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Genetics 170: 1601–1610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Pröschold, T., C. Bock, W. Luo & L. Krienitz, 2010. Polyphyletic distribution of bristle formation in Chlorellaceae: Micractinium, Diacanthos, Didymogenes and Hegewaldia gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phycological Research 58: 1–8.Google Scholar
  177. Pröschold, T., T. Darienko, P. C. Silva, W. Reisser & L. Krienitz, 2011. The systematics of “Zoochlorella” revisited employing an integrative approach. Environmental Microbiology 13: 350–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Raven, J. A., 1999. Picophytoplankton. In Round, F. E. & D. J. Chapman (eds), Progress in phycological research, Vol. 13. Biopress Ltd, Bristol: 33–105.Google Scholar
  179. Reymond, O. L. & E. Hegewald, 1988. A morphological and cytological assessment of Paradoxia and Ankyra (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyceae). Archiv für Protistenkunde 135: 167–172.Google Scholar
  180. Reymond, O. L., F. Hindák & H. J. Sluiman, 1986. Morphologie cellulaire et cycle de développement chez l’algue verte Marvania geminata Hindák. Archives des Sciences, Genève 39: 243–255.Google Scholar
  181. Reynolds, C. S., 2007. Variability in the provision and function of mucilage in phytoplankton: facultative responses to the environment. Hydrobiologia 578: 37–45.Google Scholar
  182. Reynolds, C. S., V. Huszar, C. Kruk, L. Naselli-Flores & S. Melo, 2002. Towards a functional classification of the freshwater phytoplankton. Journal of Plankton Research 24: 417–428.Google Scholar
  183. Richards, T. A., A. A. Vepritskiy, D. E. Gouliamova & S. A. Nierzwicki-Bauer, 2005. The molecular diversity of freshwater picoeukaryotes from an oligotrophic lake reveals diverse, distinctive and globally dispersed lineages. Environmental Microbiology 7: 1413–1425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Rindi, F., D. W. Lam & J. M. Lopez-Bautista, 2009. Phylogenetic relationships and species circumscription in Trentepohlia and Printzina (Trentepohliales, Chlorophyta). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52: 329–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Rindi, F., H. A. Allali, D. W. Lam & J. M. López-Bautista, 2010. An overview of the biodiversity and biogeography of terrestrial green algae. In Rescigno, V. & S. Maletta (eds), Biodiversity Hotspots. Nova Science Publishers, New York: 105–122.Google Scholar
  186. Roesler, C. S., C. W. Culbertson, S. M. Etheridge, R. Goericke, R. P. Kiene, L. G. Miller & R. S. Oremland, 2002. Distribution, production, and ecophysiology of Picocystis strain ML in Mono Lake, California. Limnology and Oceanography 47: 440–452.Google Scholar
  187. Ronquist, F. & J. P. Huelsenbeck, 2003. MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572–1574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Rybalka, N., R. A. Andersen, I. Kostikov, K. I. Mohr, A. Massalski, M. Olech & T. Friedl, 2009. Testing for endemism, genotypic diversity and species concepts in Antarctic terrestrial microalgae of the Tribonemataceae (Stramenopiles, Xanthophyceae). Environmental Microbiology 11: 554–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Salman, V., R. Amann, A.-C. Girnth, L. Polerecky, J. V. Bailey, S. Hegslund, G. Jessen, S. Par & H. N. Schulz-Vogt, 2011. A single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 34: 243–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Salmaso, N., G. Morabito, F. Buzzi, L. Garibaldi, M. Simona & R. Mosello, 2006. Phytoplankton as an indicator of the water quality of the deep lakes south of the Alps. Hydrobiologia 563: 167–187.Google Scholar
  191. Schmidt, A. & G. Fehér, 1999–2000. Adatol dél-Magyarországi Vizek Algáinal ismeretéhez IV. Botanikai Közlemények 86–87: 95–105.Google Scholar
  192. Schnepf, E. & E. Hegewald, 1993. Didymogenes palatina Schmidle and Didymogenes anomala (G.M. Smith) Hind. (Chlorococcales): Taxonomy, ultrastructure, autosporogenesis and autospore wall assembly. Archiv für Protistenkunde 143: 41–53.Google Scholar
  193. Schnepf, E., G. Deichgräber, M. Glaab & E. Hegewald, 1980. Bristles and spikes in Chlorococcales: ultrastructural studies in Acanthosphaera, Micractinium, Pediastrum, Polyedriopsis, Scenedesmus, and Siderocystopsis. Journal of Ultrastructure Research 72: 367–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Schultz, J. & M. Wolf, 2009. ITS2 sequence-structure analysis in phylogenetics: a how-to manual for molecular systematics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52: 250–252.Google Scholar
  195. Schultz, J., S. Maisel, D. Gerlach, T. Müller & M. Wolf, 2005. A common core of secondary structure of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) throughout the Eukaryota. RNA 11: 361–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Senousy, H. H., G. W. Beakes & E. Hack, 2004. Phylogenetic placement of Botryococcus braunii (Trebouxiophyceae) and Botryococcus sudeticus isolate UTEX 1629 (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 40: 412–423.Google Scholar
  197. Shoup, S. & L. A. Lewis, 2003. Polyphyletic origin of parallel basal bodies in swimming cells of chlorophycean green algae (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 789–796.Google Scholar
  198. Simpson, P. D. & S. D. Van Valkenburg, 1978. The ultrastructure of Mychonastes ruminatus gen. et sp. nov., a new member of the Chlorophyceae isolated from brackish water. British Phycological Journal 13: 117–130.Google Scholar
  199. Škaloud, P. & O. Peksa, 2010. Evolutionary inferences based on ITS rDNA and actin sequences reveal extensive diversity of the common lichen alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54: 36–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Šlapeta, J., D. Moreira & P. Lopez-Garcia, 2005. The extent of protist diversity: insights from molecular ecology of freshwater eukaryotes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 272: 2073–2081.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Sogin, M. L., M. T. Swanton, J. H. Gunderson & H. J. Elwood, 1986. Sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene from the hypotrichous ciliate Euplotes aediculatus. Journal of Protozoology 33: 26–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Somogyi, B., T. Felföldi, K. Solymosi, J. Makk, Z. G. Homonnay, G. Horváth, E. Turcsi, B. Böddi, K. Márialigeti & L. Vörös, 2011. Chloroparva pannonica gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) – a new picoplanktonic green alga from a turbid, shallow soda pan. Phycologia 50: 1–10.Google Scholar
  203. Steinkötter, J., D. Bhattacharya, I. Semmelroth, C. Bibeau & M. Melkonian, 1994. Prasinophytes form independent lineages within the Chlorophyta: evidence from ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons. Journal of Phycology 30: 340–345.Google Scholar
  204. Stockner, J. G., 1991. Autotrophic picoplankton in freshwater ecosystems: the view from the summit. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 76: 483–492.Google Scholar
  205. Stockner, J. G. & N. J. Antia, 1986. Algal picoplankton from marine and freshwater ecosystems: a multidisciplinary perspective. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43: 2472–2503.Google Scholar
  206. Swofford, D. L., 2002. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (* and Other Methods), Version 4.0b 10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  207. Tavera, R. & B. Diéz, 2009. Multifaceted approach for the analysis of the phototrophic microbial community in a freshwater recreational area of Xochimilco, México. Hydrobiologia 636: 353–368.Google Scholar
  208. Trainor, F. R., 1963. Zoospores in Scenedesmus obliquus. Science 142: 1673–1674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Trainor, F. R., 1996. Reproduction in Scenedesmus. Algae (The Korean Journal of Phycology) 11: 183–201.Google Scholar
  210. Tsarenko, P. M. & O. A. Petlevanny, 2001. Addition to the diversity of algae of Ukraine. Algologia, Supplement: 1–130.Google Scholar
  211. Ustinova, I., L. Krienitz & V. A. R. Huss, 2000. Hyaloraphidium curvatum is not a green alga, but a lower fungus; Amoebidium parasiticum is not a fungus, but a member of the DRIPs. Protist 151: 253–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Ustinova, I., L. Krienitz & V. A. R. Huss, 2001. Closteriopsis acicularis (G.M. Smith) Belcher et Swale is a fusiform member of the genus Chlorella, closely related to C. kessleri (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 36: 341–351.Google Scholar
  213. Van den Hoek, C., D. G. Mann & H. G. Jahns, 1995. Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 627 pp.Google Scholar
  214. Van Donk, E., 2005. Planktonic interactions: developments and perspectives. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie 29: 61–72.Google Scholar
  215. Vanormelingen, P., E. Hegewald, A. Braband, M. Kitschke, T. Friedl, K. Sabbe & W. Vyverman, 2007. The systematics of a small spineless Desmodesmus taxon, D. costato-granulatus (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyceae), based on ITS2rDNA sequence analyses and cell wall morphology. Journal of Phycology 43: 378–396.Google Scholar
  216. Verschoor, A. M., I. Van Der Stap, N. R. Helmsing, M. Lürling & E. Van Donk, 2004. Inducible colony formation within the Scenedesmaceae: adaptive response to infochemicals from two different herbivore taxa. Journal of Phycology 40: 808–814.Google Scholar
  217. Weisse, T., 1993. Dynamics of autotrophic picoplankton in marine and freshwater ecosystems. In Jones, G. (ed.), Advances in Microbial Ecology, Vol. 13. Plenum Press, New York: 327–370.Google Scholar
  218. Weisse, T., 2004. Pelagic microbes – protozoa and the microbial food web. In O‘Sullivan, P. E. & C. S. Reynolds (eds), The Lakes Handbook, Vol. 1 Limnology and Limnetic Ecology. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Oxford, Carlton: 417–460.Google Scholar
  219. Wilcox, L. W. & G. L. Floyd, 1988. Ultrastructure of the gamete of Pediastrum duplex (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 24: 140–146.Google Scholar
  220. Wolf, M., M. Buchheim, E. Hegewald, L. Krienitz & D. Hepperle, 2002a. Phylogenetic position of the Sphaeropleaceae (Chlorophyta). Plant Systematic and Evolution 230: 161–171.Google Scholar
  221. Wolf, M., L. Krienitz, E. Hegewald & D. Hepperle, 2002b. Phylogenetic position of Actinastrum hantzschii (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Algological Studies 104: 59–67.Google Scholar
  222. Wolf, M., E. Hegewald, D. Hepperle & L. Krienitz, 2003a. Phylogenetic position of the Golenkiniaceae (Chlorophyta) as inferred from 18S rDNA sequence data. Biologia 58: 433–436.Google Scholar
  223. Wolf, M., D. Hepperle & L. Krienitz, 2003b. On the phylogeny of Radiococcus, Planktosphaeria and Schizochlamydella (Radiococcaceae, Chlorophyta). Biologia 58: 759–765.Google Scholar
  224. Wood, M. A. & T. Leatham, 1992. The species concept in phytoplankton ecology. Journal of Phycology 28: 723–729.Google Scholar
  225. Yamamoto, M., H. Nozaki, Y. Miyazawa, T. Koide & S. Kawano, 2003. Relationships between presence of a mother cell wall and speciation in the unicellular micro alga Nannochloris (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 172–284.Google Scholar
  226. Yoon, H. S., J. Hackett, C. Ciniglia, G. Pinto & D. Bhattacharya, 2004. A molecular timeline for the origin of phytosynthetic eukaryotes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 21: 809–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Zimmermann, J., R. Jahn & B. Gemeinholzer, 2011. Barcoding diatoms: evaluation of the V4 subregion on the 18S rRNA gene, including new primers and protocols. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 11: 173–192.Google Scholar
  228. Zuker, M., 2003. Mfold web server for nucleic acid folding and hybridization prediction. Nucleic Acids Research 31: 3406–3415.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland FisheriesStechlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of General Botany, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany

Personalised recommendations