Advertisement

Past and Current Climate Changes in the Mediterranean Region

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Global Change Research book series (AGLO, volume 50)

Abstract

Mediterranean climate change during the last 60 years is based on homogenized daily temperature and quality controlled precipitation observational data and gridded products. The estimated changes indicate statistically significant Mediterranean summer temperature increase and a reduction in winter precipitation in specific areas. Reconstructions of Mediterranean sea level suggest a rise of some 150 mm since the beginning of the nineteenth century. A 20 years long reanalysis (1985–2007) was produced, showing long term temperature variability and a positive salinity trend in the ocean layers from the surface to 1,500 m depth. A prominent increase in summer temperature extremes is found in the whole Mediterranean region, while warm bias in the mid twentieth century station data is removed by homogenization. No basin-wide trends in precipitation and droughts are found for the second half of the twentieth century, while trends in extreme winds are largely negative, as are those of the related cyclones and cut-off-lows. The role of large scale pressure patterns like the NAO for variabilities and trends is discussed for the different parameters considered.

Keywords

Station time series Meteorological Extremes Weather patterns Water mass characteristics Sea level 

References

  1. Adani M, Dobricic S, Pinardi N (2011) Quality assessment of a Mediterranean Sea 1985–2007 re-analysis. J Atmos Ocean Technol 28:569–589. doi: 10.1175/2010JTECHO798.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilar E, Auer I, Brunet M, Peterson TC, Wieringa J (2003) Guidance on metadata and homogenization, Report WMO-TD 1186, World Meteorological Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, 51 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander LV, Zhang X, Peterson TC, Caesar J, Gleason B, Klein Tank AMG, Haylock M, Collins D, Trewin B, Rahimzadeh F, Tagipour A, Rupa Kumar K, Revadekar J, Griffiths G, Vincent L, Stephenson DB, Burn J, Aguilar E, Brunet M, Taylor M, New M, Zhai P, Rusticucci M, Vazquez-Aguirre JL (2006) Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J Geophys Res 111:D05109. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexandersson H, Moberg A (1997) Homogenization of Swedish temperature data. Part 1: Homogeneity test for linear trends. Int J Climatol 17:25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allan R, Ansell TJ (2006) A new globally-complete monthly historical gridded mean sea level pressure data set (HadSLP2): 1850–2004. J Climate 19:5816–5842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alpert P, Ben-Gai T, Baharad A et al (2002) The paradoxical increase of Mediterranean extreme daily rainfall in spite of decrease in total values. Geophys Res Lett 29:1536–1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alpert P, Baldi M, Ilani R et al (2006) Relations between climate variability in the Mediterranean region and the tropics: ENSO, South Asian and African monsoons, hurricanes and Saharan dust. In: Lionello P, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Boscolo R (eds) Mediterranean climate variability. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 149–177Google Scholar
  8. Ansell TJ, Jones PD, Allan RJ et al (2006) Daily mean sea level pressure reconstructions for the European – North Atlantic region for the period 1850–2003. J Climate 19:2717–2742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baldi M, Dalu G, Maracchi G, Pasqui M, Cesarone F (2006) Heat waves in the Mediterranean: a local feature or a larger-scale effect? Int J Climatol 26(11):1477–1487. doi: 10.1002/joc.1389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnston AG, Livezey RE (1987) Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon Weather Rev 115:1083–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barriopedro D, Fisher E, Luterbacher J, Trigo RM, García-Herrera R (2011) The hot summer of 2010: redrawing the temperature record map of Europe. Science 322:220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barry RG, Carleton AM (2001) Synoptic and dynamic climatology. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Barry RG, Chorley RJ (2003) Atmosphere, weather and climate. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Bethoux JP (1979) Budgets of the Mediterranean Sea. Their dependence on the local climate and on the characteristics of the Atlantic waters. Oceanologica Acta 2:157–163Google Scholar
  15. Bethoux JP, Gentili B, Raunet J, Tailiez D (1990) Warming trend in the western Mediterranean deep water. Nature 347:660–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brázdil R, Pfister C, Wanner H et al (2005) Historical climatology in Europe-the state of the art. Clim Chang 70:363–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brohan P, Kennedy JJ, Harris I et al (2006) Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new dataset from 1850. J Geophys Res Atmos 111:D12106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brönimann S, Xoplaki E, Casty C et al (2007) ENSO influence on Europe during the last centuries. Clim Dyn 28:181–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brunet M, Kuglitsch FG (eds) (2008) Proceedings of the international workshop on rescue and digitization of climate records in the Mediterranean Basin. WMO-TD 1432, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  20. Brunet M, Jones PD, Sigró J, Saladié O, Aguilar E, Moberg A, Della-Marta PM, Lister D, Walther A, López D (2007) Temporal and spatial temperature variability and change over Spain during 1850–2005. J Geophys Res 112:D12117. doi: 10.1029/2006JD008249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Castellari S, Pinardi N, Leaman K (1998) A model study of air-sea interactions in the Mediterranean Sea. J Mar Syst 14:89–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caussinus H, Mestre O (2004) Detection and correction of artificial shifts in climate series. Appl Stat J Roy Stat C 53:405–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cazenave A, Cabanes C, Dominh K, Mangiarotti S (2001) Recent sea level changes in the Mediterranean Sea revealed by TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimetry. Geophys Res Lett 28(8):1607–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cazenave A, Bonnefond P, Mercier F, Dominh K, Tomazou V (2002) Sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea from satellite altimetry and tide gauges. Glob Planet Change 34:59–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Church JA, White NJ, Coleman R, Lambeck K, Mitrovika JX (2004) Estimates of the regional distribution of sea level rise over the 1950–2000 period. J Climate 17:2609–2625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coles S (2001) An introduction to statistical modeling of extreme values. Springer, London, 228 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Compo GP, Whitaker JS, Sardeshmukh PD et al (2011) The twentieth century reanalysis project. Q J R Meteorol Soc 37:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Corte-Real J, Zhang X, Wang X (1995) Large-scale circulation regimes and surface climatic anomalies over the Mediterranean. Int J Climatol 15:1135–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Della-Marta PM, Wanner H (2006) A method of homogenizing the extremes and mean of daily temperature measurements. J Climate 19:4179–4197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Della-Marta PM, Haylock MR, Luterbacher J, Wanner H (2007) Doubled length of western European summer heat waves since 1880. J Geophys Res 12:D15103. doi: 10.1029/2007JD008510 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Demirov E, Pinardi N (2002) Simulation of the Mediterranean Sea circulation from 1979 to 1993: Part I: The interannual variability. J Mar Syst 33–34:23–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dünkeloh A, Jacobeit J (2003) Circulation dynamics of Mediterranean precipitation variability 1948–98. Int J Climatol 23:1843–1866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Efthymiadis D, Goodess CM, Jones PD (2011) Trends in Mediterranean gridded temperature extremes and large-scale circulation influences. Nat Hazard Earth Syst Sci 11:2199–2214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fan Y, Van den Dool H (2008) A global monthly land surface air temperature analysis for 1948–present. J Geophys Res 113:D01103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fenoglio-Marc L (2001) Analysis and representation of regional sea-level variability from altimetry and atmospheric–oceanic data. Geophys J Int 145:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fenoglio-Marc L (2002) Long-term sea level change in the Mediterranean Sea from multi-satellite altimetry and tide gauges. Phys Chem Earth 27:1419–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frich P, Alexander LV, Della-Marta P, Gleason B, Haylock M, Klein-Tank AMG, Peterson T (2002) Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during second half of the twentieth century. Clim Res 19(3):193–212. doi: 10.3354/cr019193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gimeno L, Trigo RM, Ribera P, García JA (2007) Editorial: special issue on cut-off low systems (COL). Meteorol Atmos Phys 96:1–2. doi: 10.1007/s00703-006-0216-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Giorgi F (2006) Climate change hot-spots. Geophys Res Lett 33:L08707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giorgi F, Lionello P (2008) Climate change projections for the Mediterranean region. Glob Planet Change 63:90–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gomis D, Ruiz S, Sotillo MG, Álvarez-Fanjul E, Terradas J (2008) Low frequency Mediterranean sea level variability: the contribution of atmospheric pressure and wind. Glob Planet Change. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.06.005
  42. Haylock MR, Goodess CM (2004) Interannual variability of European extreme winter rainfall and links with mean large-scale circulation. Int J Climatol 24:759–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Haylock MR, Hofstra N, Klein Tank AMG, Klok EJ, Jones PD, New M (2008) A European daily high-resolution gridded data set of surface temperature and precipitation for 1950–2006. J Geophys Res 113:D20119. doi: 10.1029/2008JD010201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hurrell JW, van Loon H (1997) Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Clim Chang 36:301–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hurrell JW, Kushnir Y, Visbeck M (2001) The North Atlantic Oscillation. Science 291:603–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Iglesias A, Garrote L, Quiroga S et al (2009) Impacts of climate change in agriculture in Europe. PESETA-Agriculture study. Joint Research Centre EUR- Scientific and Technical Report series:doi 10.2791/33218Google Scholar
  47. Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Briffa KR (2003) Pressure-based measures of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): a comparison and an assessment of changes in the strength of the NAO and in its influence on surface climate parameters. In: Hurrell JW, Kushnir Y, Ottersen G et al (eds) The North Atlantic Oscillation: climatic significance and environmental impact, vol 134, Geophysical monograph. AGU, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  48. Kadioglu M, Tulunay Y, Borhan Y (1999) Variability of Turkish precipitation compared to El Nino events. Geophys Res Lett 26. doi: 10.1029/1999GL900305
  49. Khaliq MN, Ouarda TBMJ (2007) On the critical values of the standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT). Int J Climatol 27:681–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kistler R, Kalnay E, Collins W et al (2001) The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-Rom and documentation. B Am Meteorol Soc 82:247–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Klein Tank AMG, Können GP (2003) Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe, 1946–99. J Climate 16:3665–3680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Klein Tank AMG, Wijngaard JB, Konnen GP et al (2002) Daily dataset of 20th-century surface air temperature and precipitation series for the European Climate Assessment. Int J Climatol 22:1441–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kostopoulou E, Jones PD (2005) Assessment of climate extremes in the eastern Mediterranean. Meteorol Atmos Phys 89(1–4):69–85. doi: 10.1007/s00703-005-0122-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kotroni V, Lagouvardos K, Defer E et al (2006) The Antalya 5 December 2002storm: observations and model analysis. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 45:576–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Krahmann G, Schott F (1998) Longterm increases in Western Mediterranean salinities and temperatures: anthropogenic and climatic sources. Geophys Res Lett 25:4209–4212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kuglitsch FG, Toreti A, Xoplaki E, Della-Marta PM, Luterbacher J, Wanner H (2009) Homogenization of daily maximum temperature series in the Mediterranean. J Geophys Res 114:D15108. doi: 10.1029/2008JD011606 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kuglitsch FG, Toreti A, Xoplaki E, Della-Marta PM, Zerefos CS, Türkeş M, Luterbacher J (2010) Heat wave changes in the eastern Mediterranean. Geophys Res Lett 37:L04802. doi: 10.1029/2009GL041841 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Large WG, Yeager SG (2008) The global climatology of an interannually varying air-sea flux data set. Clim Dyn 33:341–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Leckebusch GC, Renggli D, Ulbrich U (2008) Development and application of an objective storm severity measure for the northeast Atlantic region. Meteorol Z 17:575–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lionello P, Galati MB (2008) Links of the significant wave height distribution in the Mediterranean Sea with the North Hemisphere teleconnection patterns. Adv Geosci 17:13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lionello P, Sanna A (2005) Mediterranean wave climate variability and its links with NAO and Indian Monsoon. Clim Dyn 25:611–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lionello P, Mufato R, Tomasin A (2005) Sensitivity of free and forced oscillations of the Adriatic Sea to sea level rise. Clim Res 29:23–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lionello P, Bhend J, Buzzi A, Della-Marta P, Krichak S, Jansà A, Maheras P, Sanna A, Trigo I, Trigo R (2006) Cyclones in the Mediterranean region: climatology and effects of the environment. In: Lionello P, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Boscolo R (eds) Mediterranean climate variability. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 325–372Google Scholar
  64. Lionello P, Cogo S, Galati MB et al (2008) The Mediterranean surface wave climate inferred from future scenario simulations. Glob Planet Change 63:152–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lionello P, Galati MB, Elvini E (2010) Extreme storm surge and wind wave climate scenario simulations at the Venetian littoral. Phys Chem Earth 40:86–92. doi: 10.1016/j.pce.2010.04.001 Google Scholar
  66. Luterbacher J, Xoplaki E, Casty C et al (2006) Mediterranean climate variability over the last centuries: a review. In: Lionello P, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Boscolo R (eds) Mediterranean climate variability. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 27–148Google Scholar
  67. Luterbacher J, García-Herrera R, Akcer-On S, Allan R, Alvarez-Castro MC, Benito G, Booth J, Büntgen U, Cagatay N, Colombaroli D, Davis B, Esper J, Felis T, Fleitmann D, Frank D, Gallego D, Garcia-Bustamante E, Glaser R, González-Rouco JF, Goosse H, Kiefer T, Macklin MG, Manning S, Montagna P, Newman L, Power MJ, Rath V, Ribera P, Riemann D, Roberts N, Sicre M, Silenzi S, Tinner W, Valero-Garces B, van der Schrier G, Tzedakis G, Vannière B, Vogt S, Wanner H, Werner JP, Willett G, Williams MH, Xoplaki E, Zerefos CS, Zorita E (2012) A review of 2000 years of paleoclimatic evidence in the Mediterranean. In: Lionello P (ed) The climate of the Mediterranean region: from the past to the future. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 87–185Google Scholar
  68. Manca B, Budillon G, Scarazzato P, Orsella L (2003) Evolution of dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean affecting water structures and properties in the Ionian and Adriatic Seas. J Geophys Res 108:101029–101046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marcos M, Tsimplis MN, Shaw AGP (2009) Sea level extremes in southern Europe. J Geophys Res 114:C01007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mariotti A, Zeng N, Lau K-M (2002) Euro-Mediterranean rainfall and ENSO-a seasonally varying relationship. Geophys Res Lett 29. doi: 10.1029/2001GL014248
  71. Mariotti A (2010) Recent changes in Mediterranean water cycle: a pathway toward long-term regional hydroclimatic change? J Clim 23:1513–1525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. MEDAR Group (2002) Mediterranean and Black Sea database of temperature, salinity and biochemical parameters and climatological atlas (4 CD-ROMs), Ifremer Ed. Plouzane, France. Available at http://www.ifremer.fr/sismer/program/medar
  73. Mitchell TD, Jones PD (2005) An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. Int J Climatol 25:693–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moberg A, Jones PD, Lister D et al (2006) Indices for daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe analyzed for the period 1901–2000. J Geophys Res 111:D22106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Murray RJ, Simmonds I (1991) A numerical scheme for tracking cyclone centres from digital data. Part I: Development and operation of the scheme. Aust Meteorol Mag 39:155–166Google Scholar
  76. Nerem RS, Leuliette E, Cazenave A (2006) Present-day sea-level change: a review. C R Geoscience 338:1077–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nieto R, Gimeno L, de la Torre L, Ribera P, Gallego D, García-Herrera R, García JA, Núñez M, Redaño A, Lorente J (2005) Climatological features of cut-off low systems in the Northern Hemisphere. J Climate 18:3085–3113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nissen KM, Leckebusch GC, Pinto JG, Renggli D, Ulbrich S, Ulbrich U (2010) Cyclones causing wind storms in the Mediterranean: characteristics, trends and links to large-scale patterns. Nat Hazard Earth Syst Sci 10:1379–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Onogi K, Tsutsui J, Koide H et al (2007) The JRA-25 reanalysis. J Meteorol Soc Japan 85:369–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Orlic M, Pasaric M (2000) Sea-level changes and crustal movements recorded along the east Adriatic coast. Nuovo Cim C 23:351–364Google Scholar
  81. Palmer WC (1965) Meteorological drought. Office of Climatology. US Weather Bureau Research paper no 45Google Scholar
  82. Peterson TC, Vose RS (1997) An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network temperature data base. B Am Meteorol Soc 78:2837–2849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pettenuzzo D, Large WG, Pinardi N (2010) On the corrections of ERA-40 surface flux products consistent with the Mediterranean heat and water budgets and the connection between basin surface total heat flux and NAO. J Geophys Res 115:C06022. doi: 10.1029/2009JC005631 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pinardi N, Masetti E (2000) Variability from the large-scale general circulation of the Mediterranean Sea from observations and modeling: a review. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 158:153–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pinardi N, Coppini G, Grezio A, Oddo P (2005) Ocean climate variability in the Mediterranean Sea: climate events and marine forecasting activities. In: Flooding and environmental challenges for Venice and its lagoon: state of knowledge. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  86. Porcù F, Carrassi A, Medaglia CM et al (2007) A study on cut-off low vertical structure and precipitation in the Mediterranean region. Meteorol Atmos Phys 96:121–140. doi:10.1007/s00703-006-0224- 5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Price C, Stone L, Rajagopalan B et al (1998) A possible link between El Nino and precipitation in Israel. Geophys Res Lett 25. doi: 10.1029/1998GL900098
  88. Pujol M-I, Larnicol G (2005) Mediterranean Sea eddy kinetic energy variability from 11 years of altimetric data. J Mar Sys 58:121–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Quadrelli R, Pavan V, Molteni F (2001) Wintertime variability of Mediterranean precipitation and its links with large-scale circulation anomalies. Clim Dyn 17:457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Raicich F (2007) A study of early Trieste sea level data (1875–1914). J Coast Res 23(4):1067–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rayner NA, Parker DE, Horton EB et al (2003) Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J Geophys Res 108:4407. doi: 10.1029/2002JD002670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rixen M et al (2005) The western Mediterranean deep water: a proxy for climate change. Geophys Res Lett 32:LI2608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Robinson A, Leslie W, Theocharis A, Lascaratos A (2001) Mediterranean Sea circulation. In: Encyclopedia of ocean sciences, vol 3. Elsevier, New York, pp 1689–1705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rodwell MJ, Hoskins BJ (1996) Monsoons and the dynamics of deserts. Q J R Meteorol Soc 122:1385–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roether W, Manca BB, Klein B, Bregant D, Georgopoulos D, Beitzel V, Kovacevic V, Lucchetta A (1996) Recent changes in eastern Mediterranean deep waters. Science 271:333–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rohling E, Bryden H (1992) Man-induced salinity and temperature increases in the western Mediterranean deep water. J Geophys Res 97:11191–11198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schneider U, Fuchs T, Meyer-Christoffer A et al (2008) Global precipitation analysis products of the GPCC. Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). DWD. Internet Publication. 1–12. Updated version of Rudolf B (2005) Global Precipitation Analysis Products of the GPCC. DWD, Klimastatusbericht 2004. 163–170. ISSN 1437-7691. ISSN 1616-5063 (Internet www.ksb.dwd.de). ISBN 3-88148-402-7
  98. Schrier G, Briffa KR, Jones PD et al (2006) Summer moisture variability across Europe. J Climate 19:2818–2834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Semenza JC, Menne B (2009) Climate change and infectious diseases in Europe. Lancet ID 9:365–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sen PK (1968) Estimates of the regression coefficient based on Kendall’s tau. J Am Stat Assoc 63:1379–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Simmons A, Uppala S, Dee D, Kobayashi S (2006) ERA-Interim: new ECMWF reanalysis products from 1989 onwards. ECMWF Newsletter 110:25–35, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading, Berkshire RG2 9AX, UKGoogle Scholar
  102. Soares CG, Weisse R, Carretero JC et al (2002) A 40 years hindcast of wind, sea level and waves in European waters. In: Proceedings of the 21st international conference on offshore mechanics and arctic engineering, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  103. Sousa P, Trigo RM, Aizpurua P, Nieto R, Gimeno L, Garcia-Herrera R (2011) Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean. Nat Hazard Earth Sys Sci 11:33–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Theocharis A, Nittis K, Kontoyiannis H, Papageorgiou E, Balopoulos E (1999) Climatic changes in the Aegean Sea influence the eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (1986–1997). Geophys Res Lett 26:1617–1620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Theocharis A, Klein B, Nittis K, Roether W (2002) Evolution and status of the Eastern Mediterra-nean transient (1997–1999). J Marine Syst 33–34:91–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tolika K, Anagnostopoulou Chr, Maheras P, Kutiel H (2007) Extreme precipitations related to circulation types for four case studies over the Eastern Mediterranean. Adv Geosci 12:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Toreti A (2010) Extreme events in the Mediterranean: analysis and dynamics. PhD thesis, University of Bern, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  108. Toreti A, Kuglitsch FG, Xoplaki E et al (2010a) A novel method for the homogenization of daily temperature series and its relevance for climate change analysis. J Climate 23:5325–5331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Toreti A, Kuglitsch FG, Xoplaki E et al (2010) Characterization of extreme winter precipitation in the Mediterranean and associated anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns. Nat Hazard Earth Sys 10:1037–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Trenberth KE, Paolino DA (1980) The Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure data set: trends, errors, and discontinuities. Mon Weather Rev 108:855–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Trenberth KE, Jones PD, Ambenje P et al (2007) Observations: surface and atmospheric climate change. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M et al (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of WG 1 to the fourth assessment report of IPCC. Cambridge University Press, UK/USAGoogle Scholar
  112. Trigo RM, Pozo-Vázquez D, Osborn TJ et al (2004) North Atlantic Oscillation influence on precipitation, river flow and water resources in the Iberian Peninsula. Int J Climatol 24:925–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Trigo R, Xoplaki E, Zorita E et al (2006) Relations between variability in the Mediterranean region and mid-latitude variability. In: Lionello P, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Boscolo R (eds) Mediterranean climate variability. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 179–226Google Scholar
  114. Tsimplis MN (1997) Tides and sea level variability at the strait of Euripus. Estuar Coast Shelf S 44:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tsimplis MN, Spencer NE (1997) Collection and analysis of monthly mean sea level data in the Mediterranean and Black Sea. J Coast Res 13(2):534–544Google Scholar
  116. Tsimplis MN, Baker TF (2000) Sea level drop in the Mediterranean Sea: an indicator of deep water salinity and temperature changes? Geophys Res Lett 27(12):1731–1734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tsimplis MN, Josey SA (2001) Forcing of the Mediterranean Sea by atmospheric oscillations over the North Atlantic. Geophys Res Lett 28:803–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tsimplis MN, Rixen M (2002) Sea level in the Mediterranean Sea: the contribution of temperature and salinity changes. Geophys Res Lett 29(23):2136. doi: 10.1029/2002GL015870 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tsimplis MN, Shaw AGP (2010) Seasonal sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and at the Atlantic European coasts. Nat Hazard Earth Sys 10:1457–1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tsimplis MN, Álvarez-Fanjul E, Gomis D, Fenoglio-Marc L, Pérez B (2005) Mediterranean Sea level trends: separating the meteorological and steric effects. Geophys Res Lett 32:L20602. doi: 10.1029/2005GL023867 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tsimplis M, Marcos M, Somot S, Barnier B (2008) Sea level forcing in the Mediterranean Sea between 1960 and 2000. Glob Planet Change 63:325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tyrlis E, Lelieveld J, Steil B (2012) The summer circulation over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East, influence of the South Asian monsoon. Clim Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1528-4
  123. Ulbrich U, Christoph M, Pinto JG, Corte-Real J (1999) Dependence of winter precipitation over Portugal on NAO and baroclinic wave activity. Int J Climatol 19:379–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Uppala SM, Kållberg PW, Simmons AJ, Andrae U, da Costa Bechtold V, Fiorino M, Gibson JK, Haseler J, Hernandez A, Kelly GA, Li X, Onogi K, Saarinen S, Sokka N, Allan RP, Andersson E, Arpe K, Balmaseda MA, Beljaars ACM, van de Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Caires S, Chevallier F, Dethof A, Dragosavac M, Fisher M, Fuentes M, Hagemann S, Hólm E, Hoskins BJ, Isaksen L, Janssen PAEM, Jenne R, McNally AP, Mahfouf J-F, Morcrette J-J, Rayner NA, Saunders RW, Simon P, Sterl A, Trenberth KE, Untch A, Vasiljevic D, Viterbo P, Woollen J (2005) The ERA-40 reanalysis. Q J R Meteorol Soc 131:2961–3012. doi: 10.1256/qj.04.176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Vigo I, García D, Chao BF (2005) Change of sea level trend in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. J Mar Res 63(6):1085–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vincent LA, Zhang X, Bonsal BR et al (2002) Homogenization of daily temperatures over Canada. J Climate 15:1322–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. WAMDI Group (1988) The WAM model – a third generation ocean wave prediction model. J Phys Oceanogr 18:1776–1810Google Scholar
  128. Wang XL (2008) Penalized maximal F test for detecting undocumented mean shift without trend change. J Atmos Ocean Technol 25:368–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wells N, Goddard S, Hayes MJ (2004) A self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index. J Climate 17:2335–2351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wilks DS (2006) Statistical methods in the atmospheric sciences, International Geophysics series. Academic Press, San Diego, 648 ppGoogle Scholar
  131. Woodworth P (2003) Some comments on the long sea level records from the northern Mediterranean. J Coast Res 19(1):212–217Google Scholar
  132. Woolf DK, Shaw AGP, Tsimplis MN (2003) The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on sea-level variability in the North Atlantic region. Glob Atmos Ocean Syst 9(4):145–167. doi:10.1080/10236730310001633803Google Scholar
  133. Xie P, Arkin PA (1997) Global precipitation: a 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. B A Meteorol Soc 78:2539–2558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Xoplaki E (2002) Climate variability over the Mediterranean. PhD thesis, University of Bern, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  135. Xoplaki E, González-Rouco JF, Luterbacher J et al (2003) Mediterranean summer air temperature variability and its connection to the large-scale atmospheric circulation and SSTs. Clim Dyn 20:723–739Google Scholar
  136. Xoplaki E, González-Rouco JF, Luterbacher J et al (2004) Wet season Mediterranean precipitation variability: influence of large-scale dynamics and trends. Clim Dyn 23:63–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Yakir D, Lev-Yadun S, Zangvil A (1996) El Nino and tree growth near Jerusalem over the last 20 years. Glob Change Biol 2:97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Yatagai A, Alpert P, Xie P (2008) Development of a daily gridded precipitation data set for the Middle East. Adv Geosci 12:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Yiou P, Goubanova K, Li ZX et al (2008) Weather regime dependence of extreme value statistics for summer temperature and precipitation. Nonlinear Processes Geophys 15:365–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Yue S, Pilon P, Cavadias G (2002) Power of the Mann-Kendall and Spearman’s rho tests for detecting monotonic trends in hydrological series. J Hydrol 259:254–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Zhang Z, Chan JCL, Ding Y (2004) Characteristics, evolution and mechanisms of the summer monsoon onset over Southeast Asia. Int J Climatol 24:1461–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Ziv B, Saaroni H, Alpert P (2004) The factors governing the summer regime of the eastern Mediterranean. Int J Climatol 24:1859–1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für MeteorologieFreie Universität (FU) BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate ChangeJustus-Liebig University of GiessenGiessenGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change ResearchUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  4. 4.Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti ClimaticiBolognaItaly
  5. 5.Universidad Complutense de Madrid/ IGEO (UCM-CISC)MadridSpain
  6. 6.Department of Material ScienceUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly
  7. 7.Centro Euro Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici CMCCBolognaItaly
  8. 8.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, INGVBolognaItaly
  9. 9.Institute of BiometeorologyNational Research Council, (CNR–IBIMET)RomeItaly
  10. 10.Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental SciencesUniversity of East Anglia UEANorwichUK
  11. 11.Centre for Climate Change, Geography DepartmentUniversity Rovira i Virgili (URV)TortosaSpain
  12. 12.EPhysLabUniversity of VigoOurenseSpain
  13. 13.IUGG Secretariat, GFZ-PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  14. 14.School of Geography, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of BirminghamEdgbaston, BirminghamUK
  15. 15.Ecología y Recursos Marinos, Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB)MallorcaSpain
  16. 16.Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA)RomeItaly
  17. 17.Earth System Science Interdisciplinary CenterUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  18. 18.James Rennell Division for Ocean CirculationNational Oceanography Centre, Southampton Empress DockSouthamptonUK
  19. 19.University of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  20. 20.Instituto Dom LuizUniversity of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  21. 21.National Oceanography CentreSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations