Rebuttals to Climate Myths

  • G. Thomas Farmer
  • John Cook
Chapter

Abstract

Virtually all climate misinformation can be divided into five categories: fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies, impossible expectations and conspiracy theories. The most common climate myths are grouped into these five categories, examining the rhetorical techniques employed to mislead and explaining the science that puts the myths in proper context.

Keywords

Climate denial Fake experts Petition Project Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine Scientific consensus Climate sensitivity Richard Lindzen Cherry picking Total heat content Planetary energy imbalance 1998 HadCRUT Hockey stick Paleoclimate Solar activity Atmospheric CO2 Carbon cycle Ice age Non sequitor Past climate change CO2 lag Ice cores Feedback False dilemma 1970s Trace gas Greenhouse effect Climate ­models James Hansen Settled science Uncertainty Conspiracy theories Climategate Mike’s trick Hide the decline Kevin Trenberth Missing heat 

Additional Readings

  1. Chung, E.-S., Soden, B. J., & Sohn, B.-J. (2010). Revisiting the determination of climate sensitivity from relationships between surface temperature and radiative fluxes. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L10703. doi:10.1029/2010GL043051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Church, J. A., White, N. J., Konikow, L. F., Domingues, C. M., Cogley, J. G., Rignot, E., Gregory, J. M., van den Broeke, M. R., Monaghan, A. J., & Velicogna, I. (2011). Revisiting the Earth’s sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L18601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Frohlich, C. (2006). Solar irradiance variability since 1978: Revision of the PMOD composite during solar cycle 21. Space Science Reviews, 125, 53–65. ftp://ftp.pmodwrc.ch/pub/data/irradiance/composite/DataPlots/composite_d41_62_0906.dat
  4. Hansen, J., et al. (1988). Global climate changes as forecast by Goddard Institute for space studies 3-dimensional model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 93, 934–9364.Google Scholar
  5. Hansen, J, et al. (2007). Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS Model E. Clim. Dyn , 29, 661–696.Google Scholar
  6. Jacoby, G., & D’Arrigo, R. (1995). Tree ring width and density evidence of climatic and potential forest change in Alaska. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 227–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Krivova, N., Balmaceda, L., & Solanki, S. (2007). Reconstruction of solar total irradiance since 1700 from the surface magnetic flux. Astronomy & Astrophysics, AA 467, 335–346. http://www.mps.mpg.de/projects/sun-climate/data/tsi_1611.txt
  8. Lindzen, R. S., & Choi, Y.-S. (2009). On the determination of climate feedbacks from ERBE data. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L16705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lockwood, M. (2008). Recent changes in solar output and the global mean surface temperature. III. Analysis of the contributions to global mean air surface temperature rise. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 464, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mann, M., Bradley, R., & Hughes, M. (1998). Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries. Nature, 392, 779–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mann, M., Bradley, R., & Hughes, M. (1999). Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(6), 759–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mann, M., Zhang, Z., Hughes, M., Bradley, R., Miller, S., Rutherford, S., & Ni, F. (2008). Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(36), 13252–13257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McIntyre, S., & McKitrick, R. (2005). Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(3), L03710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Murphy, D. M. (2010). Constraining climate sensitivity with linear fits to outgoing radiation. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L09704. doi:10.1029/2010GL042911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. NASA GISS Temperature Index. (2012). GLOBAL land-ocean temperature index by the Goddard Institute of Space Studies at NASA. Captured on 15 June 2012 from http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs_v3/Fig.A2.txt
  16. OISM. (2008). Petition project. Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine. http://www.petitionproject.org/ Accessed on 14 June 2012.
  17. Peterson, T. C., Connolley, W. M., & Fleck, J. (2008). The myth of the 1970s global cooling scientific consensus. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89(9), 1325–1337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Roe, G. H., & Armour, K. C. (2011). How sensitive is climate sensitivity? Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L14708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M., & Miller, H.L. (2007) The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge UK.Google Scholar
  20. Trenberth, K. (2009). An imperative for climate change planning: Tracking Earth’s global energy. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 1(1), 19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Trenberth, K. E., Fasullo, J. T., O’Dell, C., & Wong, T. (2010). Relationships between tropical sea surface temperature and top-of-atmosphere radiation. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L03702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Usoskin, I., Schüssler, M., Solanki, S., & Mursula, K. (2005). Solar activity over the last 1150 years: Does it correlate with climate? In F. Favata, G. Hussain, & B. Battrick (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th Cambridge workshop on cool stars, stellar systems and the sun, ESA SP-560. Paris: European Space Agency.Google Scholar
  23. Wahl, E., & Ammann, C. (2007). Robustness of the Mann, Bradley, Hughes reconstruction of northern hemisphere surface temperatures: Examination of criticisms based on the nature and processing of proxy climate evidence. Climatic Change, 85(85), 33–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Thomas Farmer
    • 1
  • John Cook
    • 2
  1. 1.Farmer EnterprisesLas CrucesUSA
  2. 2.School of PsychologyThe University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations