Since the 1980s in the industrialised countries in Europe and North America, a systematic characterisation at contaminated sites has been carried out. This is predominantly associated with risk assessment in relation to human health and environmental conditions. Investigation and assessment are based on different phases, the preliminary, the oriented and the detailed investigation. In the case of proven site contamination, which can cover soil, groundwater and soil vapour, a remediation plan is developed and ultimately the remediation measures are executed. The subsequent containment and decontamination procedures should achieve the main target to exclude hazards to human health and to assure environmentally acceptable conditions. Thus, in the course of time, while the systematic investigation programmes took place, technically ambitious containment and decontamination approaches were developed and continuously improved. Accordingly, most of the remediation techniques were invented and engineered in the well-developed industrialised countries where the contamination became more obvious and important, for example, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Scandinavian countries, the United Kingdom and the USA. In relation to soil but also to the treatment of soil vapour and, in particular, groundwater, a remediation market came into existence which treated an increasing quantity of contaminated soil and groundwater.
KeywordsUrban Agglomeration Soil Vapour Remediation Technique Remediation Measure Disturbed Land
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