Oral and Maxillo-facial

  • Kristina Arvidson
  • Michele Cottler-Fox
  • Sølve Hellem
  • Kamal Mustafa


Regenerative medicine and dentistry are two rapidly growing fields of research with important clinical implications. Recent advances in cell biology, biotechnology, material science and tissue transplantation have been translated into new approaches to clinical repair and replacement of tissues and organs. In dentistry, a number of regenerative therapies and materials have been in clinical use for many years, to repair small and large defects involving multiple tissue types. Currently, various strategies are applied to stimulate healing of bone defects and to restore lost maxillofacial bone and periodontal support following traumatic insult, tumor ablation, disease or congenital deformities.

Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field using bone-forming cells seeded onto synthetic scaffolds to form hybrid constructs that can be used to regenerate tissues. There are numerous published case reports of the application of bone tissue engineering for oral and maxillofacial surgical reconstruction, periodontal tissue regeneration and sinus floor augmentation.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently the cells of choice for bone tissue engineering and can be isolated from many different tissues such as bone marrow, periosteum, and trabecular bone as well as from muscle, adipose tissue and synovial membrane. MSC have also been found among the cells derived from human ­umbilical cord: in vivo, these cells have demonstrated that they are capable of osteogenic differentiation, leading to bone formation and in vitro have shown adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. Further, MSC have been identified in periodontal ligament, deciduous and permanent molar teeth. Recent research has shown that these cells have promising regenerative potential. Thus stem cell-based bone tissue engineering is a promising concept for reconstruction/regeneration of craniofacial defects but much work remains before this approach becomes a routine part of clinical practice.


Mesenchymal Stem Cell Alveolar Bone Deciduous Tooth Periodontal Ligament Dental Pulp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. About I, Bottero MJ, de Denato DP, Camps J, Franquin JC, Mitsiadis TA (2000) Human dentin production in vitro. Exp Cell Res 10:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adell R, Lekholm U, Rockler B, Brånemark P-I (1981) A 15-year study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw. Int J Oral Surg 10:387–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albrektsson T, Brånemark P-I, Hansson HA, Lindström J (1981) Osseointegrated titanium implants. Requirements for ensuring a long-lasting, direct bone-to-implant anchorage in man. Acta Orthop Scand 52:155–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albrektsson T, Johansson C, Lundgren AK, Sul YT, Gottlow J (2000) Experimental studies on oxidized implants. A histomorphometrical and biomechanical analysis. Appl Osseointegr Res 1:21–24Google Scholar
  5. Arvidson K (1998) A subsequent two-stage dental implant system and its clinical application. Periodontol 2000 2000(17):96–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arvidson K, Bystedt H, Frykholm A, von Konow L, Lothigius E (1998) Five-year prospective follow-up report of the Astra Tech Dental Implant System in the treatment of edentulous mandibles. Clin Oral Implants Res 9:225–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arvidson K, Esselin O, Felle-Persson E, Jonsson G, Smedberg JI, Soderstrom U (2008) Early loading of mandibular full-arch bridges screw retained after 1 week to four to five Monotype implants: 3-year results from a prospective multicentre study. Clin Oral Implants Res 19:693–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arvidson K, Abdallah BM, Applegate LA, Baldini N, Cenni E, Gomez-Barrena E, Granchi D, Kassem M, Konttinen YT, Mustafa K, Pioletti DP, Sillat T, Finne-Wistrand A (2011) Bone regeneration and stem cells. Regenerative medicine review series. J Cell Mol Med 15:718–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barcelos LS, Duplaa C, Kränkel N, Graiani G, Invernici G, Katare R, Siragusa M, Meloni M, Campesi I, Monica M, Simm A, Campagnolo P, Mangialardi G, Stevanato L, Alessandri G, Emanueli C, Madeddu P (2009) Human CD133+ progenitor cells promote the healing of diabetic ischemic ulcers by paracrine stimulation of angiogenesis and activation of Wnt signaling. Circ Res 104:1095–1102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Batouli S, Miura M, Brahim J, Tsutsui TW, Fisher LW, Gronthos S, Robey PG, Shi S (2003) Comparison of stem-cell-mediated osteogenesis and dentinogenesis. J Dent Res 82:976–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertelè G, Mercanti M, Stella F, Albanese M, De Santis D (2005) Osteodistraction in the craniofacial region. Minerva Stomatio 54:179–198Google Scholar
  12. Bianco P, Riminucci M, Gronthos S, Robey PG (2001) Bone marrow stromal stem cells: nature, biology, and potential applications. Stem Cells 19:180–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bosshardt DD (2008) Biological mediators and periodontal regeneration: a review of enamel matrix proteins at the cellular and molecular levels. J Clin Periodontol 35:87–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brånemark P-I, Adell R, Breine U, Hansson BO, Lindström J, Ohlsson A (1969) Intra-osseeous anchorage of dental prostheses. I. Experimental studies. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 3:81–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brånemark P-I, Hansson BO, Adell R, Breine U, Lindström J, Hallen O, Öhman A (1977) Osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw. Experience from a 10-year period. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Suppl 16:1–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Buhlin K, Gustafsson A, Hakansson J, Klinge B (2002) Oral health and cardiovascular disease in Sweden. J Clin Periodontol 29:254–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buhlin K, Gustafsson A, Pockley AG, Frostegard J, Klinge B (2003) Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with periodontitis. Eur Heart J 24:2099–2107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buser D, Schenk RK, Steinemann S, Fiorellini J, Fox C, Stich H (1991) Influence of surface characteristics on bone integration of titanium implants. A histomorphometric study in miniature pigs. J Biomed Mater Res 25:889–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buser D, Nydegger T, Oxland T, Cochran DL, Schenk RK, Hirt HP, Snetivy D, Nolte LP (1999) Interface shear strength of titanium implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface: a biomechanical study in the maxilla of miniature pigs. J Biomed Mater Res 45:75–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cai L, Johnstone BH, Cook TG, Tan J, Fishbein MC, Chen PS, March KL (2009) IFATS collection: human adipose tissue-derived stem cells induce angiogenesis and nerve sprouting following myocardial infarction, in conjunction with potent preservation of cardiac function. Stem Cells 27:230–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheng PH, Snyder B, Fillos D, Ibegbu CC, Huang AH, Chan AW (2008) Postnatal stem/progenitor cells derived from the dental pulp of adult chimpanzee. BMC Cell Biol 9:20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chepeha DB, Teknos TN, Fung K, Shargordosky J, Sacco AG, Nussenbaum B, Jones L, Eisbruch A, Bradford CR, Prince ME, Moyer JS, Lee LS, Wolf GT (2008) Lateral oromandibular defect: when is it appropriate to use a bridging reconstruction plate combined with a soft tissue revascularized flap? Head Neck 30:709–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chiapasco M, Biglioli F, Autelitano L, Romeo E, Bursati R (2006) Clinical outcome of dental implants placed in fibula-free flaps used for the reconstruction of maxillo-mandibular defects following ablation for tumors and osteoradionecrosis. Clin Oral Implants Res 17:220–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chiapasco M, Colletti G, Romeo E, Zaniboni M, Brusati R (2008) Long-term results of mandibular reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts and oral implants after tumor resection. Clin Oral Implants Res 19:1074–1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cho YJ, Song HS, Bhang S, Lee S, Kang BG, Lee JC, An J, Cha CI, Nam DH, Kim BS, Joo KM (2012) Therapeutic effects of human adipose stem cell-conditioned medium on stroke. J Neurosci Res 90(9):1794–1802, Apr 26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. d’Aquino R, Graziano A, Sampaolesi M, Laino G, Pirozzi G, De Rosa A, Papaccio G (2007) Human postnatal dental pulp cells co-differentiate into osteoblasts and endotheliocytes: a pivotal synergy leading to adult bone tissue formation. Cell Death Differ 14:1162–1171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dånmark S (2011) Designing biodegradable polymer scaffolds aimed for tissue engineering. Ph.D. thesis. Department of Clinical Dentistry, University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  28. Dånmark S, Wistrand A, Albertsson A-C, Wendel M, Arvidson K, Mustafa K (2010) Osteogenic differentiation in rat bone marrow derived stromal cells on refined biodegradable polymer scaffolds. J Bioact Compat Polym 25:207–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dånmark S, Finne-Wistrand A, Schander K, Hakkarainen M, Arvidson K, Mustafa K, Albertsson AC (2011) In vitro and in vivo degradation profile of aliphatic polyesters subjected to electron beam sterilization. Acta Biomater 7:2035–2046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Diep L, Matalova E, Mitsiadis TA, Tucker AS (2009) Contribution of the tooth bud mesenchyme to alveolar bone. J Exp Zoolog B Mol Dev Evol 15:510–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eickholz P, Krigar DM, Pretzl B, Steinbrenner H, Dorfer C, Kim TS (2004) Guided tissue regeneration with bioabsorbable barriers. II. Long-term results in infrabony defects. J Periodontol 75:957–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ellegaard B, Karring T, Listgarten M, Löe H (1973) New attachment after treatment of interradicular lesions. J Periodontol 44:209–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ellegaard B, Karring T, Davies R, Löe H (1974) New attachment after treatment of intrabony defects in monkeys. J Periodontol 45:368–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Emerick KS, Teknos TN (2007) State-of-the-art mandible reconstruction using revascularized free-tissue transfer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 7:1781–1788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Esposito M, Worthington HV, Thomsen P, Coulthard P (2004) Interventions for replacing missing teeth: different times for loading dental implants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3). Art. No.: CD003878.pub2. DOI:  10.1002/14651858.CD003878.pub2
  36. Esposito M, Murray-Curtis L, Grusovin MG, Coulthard P, Worthington HV (2007a) Interventions for replacing missing teeth: different types of dental implants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4). Art. No.: CD003815. DOI:  10.1002/14651858.CD003815.pub3
  37. Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Maghaireh H, Coulthard P, Worthington HV (2007b) Interventions for replacing missing teeth: management of soft tissues for dental implants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3). Art. No.: CD006697. DOI:  10.1002/14651858.CD006697
  38. Fischer K, Stenberg T, Hedin M, Sennerby L (2008) Five-year results from a randomized, controlled trial on early and delayed loading of implants supporting full-arch prosthesis in the edentulous maxilla. Clin Oral Implants Res 19:433–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Friedenstein AJ (1976) Precursor cells of mechanocytes. Int Rev Cytol 47:327–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gronthos S, Mankani M, Brahim J, Robey PG, Shi S (2000) Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 5:13625–13630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gronthos S, Brahim J, Li W, Fisher LW, Cherman N, Boyde A, Denbesten P, Robey PG, Shi S (2002) Stem cell properties of human dental pulp stem cells. J Dent Res 81:531–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hallman M, Thor A (2008) Bone substitutes and growth factors as an alternative/complement to autogenous bone for grafting in implant dentistry. Periodontol 2000 2000(47):172–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hallman M, Mordenfeld A, Strandkvist T (2009) Bone replacement following dental trauma prior to implant surgery – present status. Review article. Dent Traumatol 25:2–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hammerle CHF, Jung RE (2003) Bone augmentation by means of barrier membranes. Periodontol 2000 2000(33):36–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hellem S, Åstrand P, Stenstrom B, Engquist B, Bengtsson M, Dahlgren S (2003) Implant treatment in combination with lateral augmentation of the alveolar process: a 3-year prospective study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 5:233–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Huang GT, Sonoyama W, Liu Y, Liu H, Wang S, Shi S (2008) The hidden treasure in apical papilla: the potential role in pulp/dentin regeneration and bioroot engineering. J Endod 34:645–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Idris S (2010) Biological responses to aliphatic polyester scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Ph.D. thesis. Department of Clinical Dentistry, University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  48. Ikeda E, Hirose M, Kotobuki N, Shimaoka H, Tadokoro M, Maeda M, Hayashi Y, Kirita T, Ohgushi H (2006) Osteogenic differentiation of human dental papilla mesenchymal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 342:1257–1262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Inanc B, Elcin YM (2011) Stem cells in tooth tissue regeneration-challenges and limitations. Stem Cell Rev 7:683–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Johansson C (1991) On tissue reactions to metal implants. Ph.D. thesis. Biomaterials Group, Department of Handicap Research, University of Gothenburg, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  51. Jung RE, Thoma DS, Hammerle CHP (2008) Assessment of the potential of growth factors for localized alveolar ridge augmentation: a systematic review. J Clin Periodontol 35:255–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jung RE, Windisch SI, Eggenschwiler AM, Thoma DS, Weber FE, Hammerle CHF (2009) A randomized-controlled clinical trial evaluating clinical and radiological outcomes after 3 and 5 years of dental implants placed in bone regenerated by means of GBR techniques with or without the addition of BMP-2. Clin Oral Implants Res 20:660–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Karring T, Nyman S, Gottlow J, Laurell L (1993) Development of the biological concept of guided tissue regeneration-animal and human studies. Periodontol 2000 2000(1):26–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kim HS, Lee DS, Lee JH, Kang MS, Lee NR, Kim HJ, Ko JS, Cho MI, Park JC (2009) The effect of odontoblast conditioned media and dentin non-collagenous proteins on the differentiation and mineralization of cementoblasts in vitro. Arch Oral Biol 54:71–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kim JY, Xin X, Moioli EK, Chung J, Lee CH, Chen M, Fu SY, Koch PD, Mao JJ (2010) Regeneration of dental-pulp-like tissue by chemotaxis-induced cell homing. Tissue Eng Part A 16:3023–3031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kinnaird T, Stabile E, Burnett MS, Lee CW, Barr S, Fuchs S, Epstein SE (2004) Marrow-derived stromal cells express genes encoding a broad spectrum of arteriogenic cytokines and promote in vitro and in vivo arteriogenesis through paracrine mechanisms. Circ Res 94:678–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kretlow JD, Young S, Klouda L, Wong M, Mikos AG (2009) Injectable biomaterials for regenerating complex craniofacial tissues. Adv Mater 21:3368–3393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Laino G, d’Aquino R, Graziano A, Lanza V, Carinci F, Naro F, Pirozzi G, Papaccio G (2005) A new population of human adult dental pulp stem cells: a useful source of living autologous fibrous bone tissue (LAB). J Bone Miner Res 20:1394–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Laino G, Carinci F, Graziano A, d’Aquino R, Lanza V, De Rosa A, Gombos F, Caruso F, Guida L, Rullo R, Menditti D, Papaccio G (2006a) In vitro bone production using stem cells derived from human dental pulp. J Craniofac Surg 17:511–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Laino G, Graziano A, d’Aquino R, Pirozzi G, Lanza V, Valiante S, De Rosa RA, Naro F, Vivarelli E, Papaccio G (2006b) An approachable human adult stem cell source for hardtissue engineering. J Cell Physiol 206:693–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Laurell L, Bose M, Graziani F, Tonetti M, Berglundh T (2006) The structure of periodontal tissue formed following guided tissue regeneration therapy of intra-bony defects in the monkey. J Clin Periodontal 33:596–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Louis PJ, Gutta R, Said-Al-Naief N, Bartolucci AA (2008) Reconstruction of the maxilla and mandible with particulate bone graft and titanium mesh for implant placement. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 66:235–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lundgren S, Sennerby L (2008) Bone reformation. Contemporary bone augmentation procedures in oral and maxillofacial implant surgery. Quintessence Publishing, London, pp 74–80Google Scholar
  64. Matsubara T, Suardita K, Ishii M, Sugiyama M, Igarashi A, Oda R, Nishimura M, Saito M, Nakagawa K, Yamanaka K, Miyazaki K, Shimizu M, Bhawal UK, Tsuji K, Nakamura K, Kato Y (2005) Alveolar bone marrow as a cell source for regenerative medicine: differences between alveolar and iliac bone marrow stromal cells. J Bone Miner Res 20:399–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Miura M, Gronthos S, Zhao M, Lu B, Fisher LW, Robey PG, Shi S (2003) SHED: stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 13:5807–5812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nowjack-Raymer RE, Sheiham A (2003) Association of edentulism and diet and nutrition in US adults. J Dent Res 82:123–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Osugi M, Katagiri W, Yoshimi R, Inukai T, Hibi Dds Phd H, Ueda M (2012) Conditioned media from mesenchymal stem cells enhanced bone regeneration in rat calvarial bone defects. Tissue Eng Part A 18(13–14):1479–1489, Mar 23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pereira MA, Luiz de Freitas PH, da Rosa TF, Xavier CB (2007) Understanding distraction osteogenesis on the maxillofacial complex: a literature review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 65:2518–2523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Perin EC, Silva GV (2009) Autologous cell-based therapy for ischemic heart disease: clinical evidence, proposed mechanisms of action, and current limitations. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 73:281–288, ReviewPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pierdomenico L, Bonsi L, Calvitti M, Rondelli D, Arpinati M, Chirumbolo G, Becchetti E, Marchionni C, Alviano F, Fossati V, Staffolani N, Franchina M, Grossi A, Bagnara GP (2005) Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with immunosuppressive activity can be easily isolated from dental pulp. Transplantation 27:836–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Raveh J, Sutter F, Hellem S (1987) Surgical procedures for reconstruction of the lower jaw using the titanium-coated hollow-screw reconstruction plate system: bridging of defects. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 20:535–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Schroeder A, van der Zypen E, Stich H, Sutter F (1981) The reaction of bone, connective tissue and epithelium to endosteal implants with sprayed titanium surfaces. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 9:15–25Google Scholar
  73. Sculean A, Nikolidakis D, Schwarz F (2008) Regeneration of periodontal tissues: combination of barrier membranes and grafting materials – biological foundation and preclinical evidence. A systematic review. J Clin Periodontol 35:106–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Seo BM, Miura M, Gronthos S, Bartold PM, Batouli S, Brahim J, Young M, Robey PG, Wang CY, Shi S (2004) Investigation of multipotent postnatal stem cells from human periodontal ligament. Lancet 364:149–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sheiham A, Steele J (2001) Does the condition of the mouth and teeth affect the ability to eat certain foods, nutrient and dietary intake and nutritional status amongst older people? Public Health Nutr 4:797–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shi S, Gronthos S (2003) Perivascular niche of postnatal mesenchymal stem cells in human bone marrow and dental pulp. J Bone Miner Res 8:696–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shi S, Bartold PM, Miura M, Seo BM, Robey PG, Gronthos S (2005) The efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate and repair dental structures. Orthod Craniofac Res 8:191–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smolka W, Iizuka T (2005) Surgical reconstruction of maxilla and midface; Clinical outcome and factors relating to postoperative complications. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 33:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Stewart K, Walsh S, Screen J, Jefferiss CM, Chaainey J, Jordan GR, Beresford JN (1999) Further characterization of cells expressing STRO-1 in cultures of adult human bone marrow stromal cells. J Bone Miner Res 14:1345–1356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tamari M, Nishino Y, Yamamoto N, Ueda M (2011) Acceleration of wound healing with stem cell-derived growth factors. Oral Craniofac Tissue Eng 1:181–187Google Scholar
  81. The American Academy of Periodontology (1992) Glossary of periodontal terms 38Google Scholar
  82. Torroni A, Gennaro P, Aboh IV, Longo G, Valentini V, Iannetti G (2007) Microvascular reconstruction of the mandible in irradiated patients. J Craniofac Surg 18:1359–1369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Trombelli L, Farina R (2008) Clinical outcomes with bioactive agents alone or in combination with grafting or guided tissue regeneration. J Clin Periodontol 35:117–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Trulsson U, Engstrand P, Berggren U, Nannmark U, Brånemark P-I (2002) Edentulousness and oral rehabilitation: experiences from the patients’ perspective. Eur J Oral Sci 110:417–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ueda M, Nishino Y (2010) Cell-based cytokine therapy for skin rejuvenation. J Craniofac Surg 21:1861–1866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wennerberg A, Albrektsson T (2009) Effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration: a systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res 20:172–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Xing Z (2012) Bone tissue engineering: in vitro and in vivo studies of the role of endothelial cells and surface modification of copolymer scaffolds. Ph.D. thesis. Department of Clinical Dentistry, University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  88. Xue Y (2011) Interactions between endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells of relevance to bone tissue engineering. Ph.D. thesis. Department of Clinical Dentistry, University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  89. Yang ZH, Zhang XJ, Dang NN, Ma ZF, Xu L, Wu JJ, Sun YJ, Duan YZ, Lin Z, Jin Y (2009) Apical tooth germ cell-conditioned medium enhances the differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into cementum/periodontal ligament-like tissues. J Periodontal Res 44:199–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yildirim S, Fu SY, Kim K, Zhou H, Lee CH, Li A, Kim SG, Wang S, Mao JJ (2011) Tooth regeneration: a revolution in stomatology and evolution in regenerative medicine. Int J Oral Sci 3:107–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Young CS, Terada S, Vacanti JP, Honda M, Bartlett JD, Yelick PC (2002) Tissue engineering of complex tooth structures on biodegradable polymer scaffolds. J Dent Res 81:695–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristina Arvidson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michele Cottler-Fox
    • 1
  • Sølve Hellem
    • 3
  • Kamal Mustafa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Dentistry – Centre for Clinical Dental ResearchUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.SolnaSweden
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Dentistry – Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations