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Oral and Maxillo-facial

  • Kristina Arvidson
  • Michele Cottler-Fox
  • Sølve Hellem
  • Kamal Mustafa
Chapter

Abstract

Regenerative medicine and dentistry are two rapidly growing fields of research with important clinical implications. Recent advances in cell biology, biotechnology, material science and tissue transplantation have been translated into new approaches to clinical repair and replacement of tissues and organs. In dentistry, a number of regenerative therapies and materials have been in clinical use for many years, to repair small and large defects involving multiple tissue types. Currently, various strategies are applied to stimulate healing of bone defects and to restore lost maxillofacial bone and periodontal support following traumatic insult, tumor ablation, disease or congenital deformities.

Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field using bone-forming cells seeded onto synthetic scaffolds to form hybrid constructs that can be used to regenerate tissues. There are numerous published case reports of the application of bone tissue engineering for oral and maxillofacial surgical reconstruction, periodontal tissue regeneration and sinus floor augmentation.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently the cells of choice for bone tissue engineering and can be isolated from many different tissues such as bone marrow, periosteum, and trabecular bone as well as from muscle, adipose tissue and synovial membrane. MSC have also been found among the cells derived from human ­umbilical cord: in vivo, these cells have demonstrated that they are capable of osteogenic differentiation, leading to bone formation and in vitro have shown adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. Further, MSC have been identified in periodontal ligament, deciduous and permanent molar teeth. Recent research has shown that these cells have promising regenerative potential. Thus stem cell-based bone tissue engineering is a promising concept for reconstruction/regeneration of craniofacial defects but much work remains before this approach becomes a routine part of clinical practice.

Keywords

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Alveolar Bone Deciduous Tooth Periodontal Ligament Dental Pulp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristina Arvidson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michele Cottler-Fox
    • 1
  • Sølve Hellem
    • 3
  • Kamal Mustafa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Dentistry – Centre for Clinical Dental ResearchUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.SolnaSweden
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Dentistry – Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

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