Soils pp 17-30 | Cite as

Factors and Processes of Soil Formation

  • Khan Towhid Osman


Comprehensive field studies were carried out in Russia in the latter part of the nineteenth century by Dokuchaev (Trav Soc Nat St Petersb 10:64–67 (in Russian), 1879; Russian Chernozems (Russkii Chernozems). Israel Prog Sci Trans, Jerusalem, 1967. Translated from Russian by N. Kaner. Available from U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, 1883) and his followers who described the occurrence of different kinds of soils thoroughly using soil morphological and environmental features. They noticed that different environmental conditions were responsible for the development of different kinds of soils. Dokuchaev pointed out close relationship of soil properties with climate and vegetation of Russia. In the United States, Hilgard (Weather Bull 3: 1–59, 1892) also emphasized the relationship between soil properties and climate. Latter, Jenny (Factors of soil formation a system of quantitative pedology. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1941) explained that any soil property is the function of five soil-forming factors such as climate, organism, relief, parent material, and time. Meanwhile, it was also established that the soil is a three-dimensional body. The vertical dimension which represents the soil profile is differentiated into several horizons by pedogenic processes. There are some basic and some specific soil-forming processes. Simonson (Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 23:152–156, 1959) stressed that many genetic processes are simultaneously and/or sequentially active in the genesis of a soil.


Soil Profile Parent Material Soil Formation Soil Material Soil Development 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh

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