A Geochemical and Geophysical Assessment of Coastal Groundwater Discharge at Select Sites in Maui and O’ahu, Hawai’i

  • P. W. Swarzenski
  • H. Dulaiova
  • M. L. Dailer
  • C. R. Glenn
  • C. G. Smith
  • C. D. Storlazzi
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 7)

Abstract

This chapter summarizes fieldwork conducted to derive new estimates of coastal groundwater discharge and associated nutrient loadings at select coastal sites in Hawai’i, USA. Locations for this work were typically identified based on pronounced, recent ecosystem degradation that may at least partially be attributable to sustained coastal groundwater discharge. Our suite of tools used to evaluate groundwater discharge included select U/Th series radionuclides, a broad spectrum of geochemical analytes, multi-channel electrical resistivity, and in situ oceanographic observations.

Based on the submarine groundwater discharge tracer 222Rn, coastal groundwater discharge rates ranged from about 22–50 cm per day at Kahekili, a site in the Ka’anapali region north of Lahaina in west Maui, while at Black Point in Maunalua Bay along southern O’ahu, coastal groundwater discharge rates ranged up to 700 cm per day, although the mean discharge rate at this site was 60 cm per day. The water chemistry of the discharging groundwater can be dramatically different than ambient seawater at both coastal sites. For example, at Kahekili the average concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved silicate (DSi) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) were roughly 188-, 36-, and 106-times higher in the discharging groundwater relative to ambient seawater, respectively. Such data extend our basic understanding of the physical controls on coastal groundwater discharge and provide an estimate of the magnitude and physical forcings of submarine groundwater discharge and associated trace metal and nutrient loads conveyed by this submarine route.

References

  1. Bratton JF (2010) Three scales of submarine groundwater flow and discharge across passive continental margins. J Geol 118:565–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burnett WC, Dulaiova H (2003) Estimating the dynamics of groundwater input into the coastal zone via continuous radon-222 measurements. J Environ Radioact 69:21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burnett WC, Kim G, Lane-Smith D (2001) A continuous radon monitor for assessment of radon in coastal ocean waters. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 249:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burnett WC, Cable JE, Corbett DR (2003) Radon tracing of submarine groundwater discharge in coastal environments. In: Taniguchi M, Wang K, Gamo T (eds) Land and marine hydrogeology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 25–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burnett WC, Aggarwal PK et al (2006) Quantifying submarine groundwater discharge in the coastal zone via multiple methods. Sci Total Environ 367:498–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burnett WC, Santos I, Weinstein Y, Swarzenski PW, Herut B (2007) Remaining uncertainties in the use of Rn-222 as a quantitative tracer of submarine groundwater discharge. In: Sanford W, Langevin C, Polemio M, Povinec P (eds) A new focus on groundwater–seawater interactions, vol 312. IAHS, Wallingford, pp 109–118Google Scholar
  7. Dailer ML, Knox RS, Smith JE, Napier M, Smith CE (2010) Using δ15N values in algal tissue to map locations and potential sources of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on the island of Maui, Hawai’i, USA. Mar Pollut Bull 60:655–671. ISSN 0025-326X, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.12.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dailer ML, Ramey HL, Saephan S, Smith CM (2012) Algal δ15N values detect a wastewater effluent plume in nearshore and offshore surface waters and three-dimensionally model the plume across a coral reef on Maui, Hawai’i, USA. Mar Pollut Bull 64:207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Day-Lewis FD, White EA, Johnson CD, Lane JW Jr (2006) Continuous resistivity profiling to delineate submarine groundwater discharge – examples and limitations. The Lead Edge 25:724–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dimova NT, Swarzenski PW, Dulaiova H, Glenn C (2012) Utilizing multi-channel electrical resistivity methods to examine the dynamics of the freshwater – saltwater interface in two Hawaiian groundwater systems. J Geophys Res 117. doi: 10.1029/2011JC007509
  11. Dulaiova H, Burnett WC, Chanton JP, Moore WS, Bokuniewicz HJ, Charette MA, Sholkovitz E (2006) Assessment of groundwater discharges into West Neck Bay, New York, via natural tracers. Cont Shelf Res 26:1971–1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Garrison GH, Glenn CR, McMurtry GM (2003) Measurement of submarine groundwater discharge in Kahana Bay, O’ahu, Hawai’i. Limnol Oceanogr 48:920–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hitchcock CH (1905) Freshwater springs in the ocean. Pop Sci Mon 67:673–683Google Scholar
  14. Hunt CD Jr, Rosa SN (2009) A multi-tracer approach to detecting wastewater plumes from municipal injection wells in nearshore marine waters at Kihei and Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5253, 166pGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson AG, Glenn CR, Burnett WC, Peterson RN, Lucey PG (2008) Aerial infrared imaging reveals large nutrient-rich groundwater inputs to the ocean. Geophys Res Lett 35:L15606. doi: 10.1029/2008GL034574 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Knee KL, Street JH, Grossman EE, Boehm AB, Paytan A (2010) Nutrient inputs to the coastal ocean from submarine groundwater discharge in a groundwater-dominated system: relation to land use (Kona coast, Hawai’i, USA). Limnol Oceanogr 55(3):1105–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Manheim FT, Krantz DE, Bratton JF (2004) Studying groundwater under DELMARVA coastal bays using electrical resistivity. Groundwater 42:1052–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Peterson RN, Burnett WC, Glenn CR, Johnson AG (2009) Quantification of point-source groundwater discharges to the ocean from the shoreline of the Big Island, Hawai’i. Limnol Oceanogr 54:890–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Siegel DA, Kinlan BP, Gaines SD (2003) Lagrangian descriptions of marine larval dispersion. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 260:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith CG, Swarzenski PW (2012) An Investigation of submarine-groundwater-borne nutrient fluxes to the west Florida Shelf and recurrent harmful algal blooms. Limnol Oceanogr 57:471–485. doi: 10.4319/lo.2012.57.2.000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Storlazzi CD, Field ME (2008) Winds, waves, tides, and the resulting flow patterns and fluxes of water, sediment, and coral larvae off West Maui, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1215. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, 13p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1215/
  22. Storlazzi CD, Jaffe BE (2003) Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics along West Maui, Hawai’i, PART I: long-term measurements of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity off Kahana, West Maui: 2001-2003. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-482, 28p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-482/
  23. Storlazzi CD, Jaffe BE (2008) The relative contribution of processes driving variability in flow, shear, and turbidity over a fringing coral reef: West Maui, Hawai’i. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 77(4):549–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Storlazzi CD, Logan JB, McManus MA, McLaughlin BE (2003) Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics along West Maui, Hawai’i, PART II: hydrographic survey cruises A-3-03-HW and A-4-03-HW Report on the spatial structure of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity along Western Maui. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-430, 50p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-430/
  25. Storlazzi CD, Field ME, Ogston AS, Logan JB, Presto MK, Gonzales DG (2004) Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics along West Maui, Hawai’i, PART III: flow and particulate dynamics during the 2003 summer coral spawning season. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1287, 36p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1287/
  26. Storlazzi CD, McManus MA, Logan JB, McLaughlin BE (2006) Cross-shore velocity shear, eddies, and heterogeneity in water column properties over fringing coral reefs: West Maui, Hawai’i. Cont Shelf Res 26:401–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Swarzenski PW, Burnett B, Reich C, Dulaiova H, Peterson R, Meunier J (2004) Novel geophysical and geochemical techniques to study submarine groundwater discharge in Biscayne Bay, Fl. U.S. Geological Survey FS-2004-3117Google Scholar
  28. Swarzenski PW (2007) U/Th series radionuclides as tracers of coastal groundwater. Chem Rev 107(2):663–674. doi: 10.1021/cr0503761 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Swarzenski PW, Izbicki JA (2009) Examining coastal exchange processes within a sandy beach using geochemical tracers, seepage meters and electrical resistivity. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 83:77–89. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2009.03.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Swarzenski PW, Burnett WC, Weinstein Y, Greenwood WJ, Herut B, Peterson R, Dimova N (2006) Combined time-series resistivity and geochemical tracer techniques to examine submarine groundwater discharge at Dor Beach, Israel. Geophys Res Lett 33:L24405. doi: 10.1029/2006GL028282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Swarzenski PW, Simonds FW, Paulson T, Kruse S, Reich C (2007a) A geochemical and geophysical examination of submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient loading estimates into Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, WA. Environ Sci Technol 41:7022–7029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Swarzenski PW, Kruse S, Reich C, Swarzenski WV (2007b) Multi-channel resistivity investigations of the fresh water/saltwater interface: a new tool to study an old problem. In: Sanford W, Langevin C, Polemio M, Povinec P (eds) A new focus on groundwater–seawater interactions, vol 312. IAHS, Wallingford, pp 100–108Google Scholar
  33. Swarzenski PW, Izbicki JA, Grossman EE, Glenn CR, Plath CA, Kelly JL (2009) A multiproxy tracer approach to submarine groundwater discharge studies: examples from Santa Barbara, CA and Maunalua Bay, Oah’u, HI. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:A1299–A1299Google Scholar
  34. Swarzenski PW, Storlazzi CD, Presto MK, Gibbs AE, Smith CG, Dimova NT, Dailer ML, Logan JB (2012) Nearshore morphology, benthic structure, hydrodynamics, and coastal groundwater discharge near Kahekili Beach Park, Maui, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1166, 34p. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1166/
  35. Vecchi GA, Soden BJ, Wittenberg AT, Held IM, Leetmaa A, Harrison MJ (2006) Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing. Nature 441. doi: 10.1038/nature04744
  36. Wolanski E, Martinez JA, Richmond RH (2009) Quantifying the impact of watershed urbanization on a coral reef: Maunalua Bay, Hawai’i. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 84:259–268. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2009.06.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. W. Swarzenski
    • 1
  • H. Dulaiova
    • 2
  • M. L. Dailer
    • 3
  • C. R. Glenn
    • 2
  • C. G. Smith
    • 4
  • C. D. Storlazzi
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveySanta CruzUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geology and Geophysics, School of Ocean and Earth Science and TechnologyUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA
  3. 3.Department of BotanyUniversity of Hawaii, ManoaHonoluluUSA
  4. 4.U.S. Geological SurveySt. PetersburgUSA

Personalised recommendations