Groundwater Composition and Geochemical Controls in Small Tropical Islands of Malaysia: A Comparative Study

  • Ahmad Zaharin ArisEmail author
  • Sarva Mangala Praveena
  • Noorain Mohd Isa
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 7)


Water usage for domestic and irrigation purposes differ greatly from country to country. Roughly, water use per capita increases with the increase of gross national income per capita. As speaking on national incomes, ecotourism activities in tropical countries play an important role in this field. Authorities on finance management focus on small islands as their greater contribution in ecotourism activities. Maintenance of small island ecology especially on groundwater has to be considered otherwise it hinders the growth of ecotourism development when it comes to overexploitation. Kapas Island and Manukan Island in Malaysia are among the islands that are highly developed for the ecotourism. Hence, unintentionally the groundwater in small islands is exposed to natural and manmade interference. A comparative study of these islands was done to clarify the sources of interference in the groundwater aquifer. An attempt to identify the hydrogeochemical processes in these small islands that accompany with current and past intrusion of seawater was made using the analyses on groundwater chemistry, saturation indices and ionic ratios. In addition of the major chemical compositions, analyses gives two different types of water, saturation index also indicates two different processes (saturation and dissolution) happened in the islands. Manukan Island tends to have Na-Cl water type and most of the groundwater samples were in precipitation condition with respect to carbonate minerals. Disparate to Kapas Island, it has Ca-HCO3 water type and experienced dissolution process in most groundwater samples. The results using ionic ratios were demonstrated to delineate the seawater intrusion process, which includes of Mg/Ca, Na/Cl, Na/K, SO4/Cl, Cl/HCO3 and Ca/(HCO3 + SO4). Comparison of ions derivation also shows two different major groups representing the islands. Other processes that related in this study were the ions exchanges and mineralization.


Total Dissolve Solid Groundwater Sample Small Island Seawater Intrusion Saturation Index 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Zaharin Aris
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sarva Mangala Praveena
    • 2
  • Noorain Mohd Isa
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Forensics Research Centre, Faculty of Environmental StudiesUniversiti Putra Malaysia, UPMSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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