Advertisement

Pedodiversity

  • Edoardo A. C. CostantiniEmail author
  • Roberto Barbetti
  • Maria Fantappiè
  • Giovanni L’Abate
  • Romina Lorenzetti
  • Simona Magini
Chapter
Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)

Abstract

Pedodiversity of Italy, that is, the diversity of soil genetic types, their geographic distribution, and the statistical variability of their properties, is depicted by means of maps and information stored in the national soil database. Soil regions on hills are the most lithologically and climatically variable environments, and host the greatest soil variability and endemisms. A vast majority of the WRB reference soil groups (25 out of 32), as well as soil orders of Soil Taxonomy (10 out of 12), are represented in the main Italian soil typological units (STUs), but the clear skewness and lognormal distribution of STUs demonstrate the utmost endemic nature of many Italian soils. In particular, more than a fourth of STUs belongs to Cambisols, more than a half to only four reference soil groups, and 88 % to nine RSGs, while the remaining 16 RSGs are represented in 12 % of STUs. A similar trend is depicted by considering single soil profile classification, although a larger number of main soil types are represented as soil profiles than as STUs. Ferralsols (Oxisols for Soil Taxonomy) and Durisols are the only main kind of soils that have not yet been found in Italy. Likewise RSGs, the distribution of WRB qualifiers shows an evident concentration in relatively few cases, followed by a long tail. In particular, 138 out of the 180 types foreseen by WRB are represented in Italy. Thus, it is possible to say that in Italy, there is about three quarters of the global pedodiversity. Although the most common qualifiers (that is, Calcaric, Haplic, Skeletic, Eutric) are all related to the nature of parent material and to incipient pedogenesis, a second group (namely Chromic, Calcic, Stagnic, and Luvic) indicates the main soil-forming mechanisms that typify current Italian pedogenesis.

Keywords

Soil Organic Carbon Soil Taxonomy Soil Organic Carbon Density Sodic Soil Main Soil Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Authors acknowledge the contribution of the participant to the project “soil database of Italy”, financed by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry Policies, and in particular all the regional soil services, and the soil chairs of the Universities of Perugia, Sassari, Venice, and Palermo. A special thank is for prof. Carmelo Dazzi, University of Palermo, for the useful comments and information, in particular on soils of Sicily.

References

  1. Ajmone-Marsan F, Pagliai M, Pini R (1994) Identification and properties of fragipan soils in the Piemonte region of Italy. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58(3):891–900Google Scholar
  2. Ajmone-Marsan F, Torrent J (1989) Fragipan bonding by silica and iron oxides in soils from northwestern Italy. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53:1140–1145Google Scholar
  3. Alexander D (1982) Difference between ‘calanchi’ and ‘biancane’ badlands in Italy. Badland Geomorphology Piping, pp 71–87Google Scholar
  4. Antonellini M, Mollema PN (2010) Impact of groundwater salinity on vegetation species richness in the coastal pine forests and wetlands of Ravenna. Italy Ecol Eng 36(9):1201–1211Google Scholar
  5. Baize D, Girard MC (1998) A sound reference base for soils: the “Re’férentiel pédologique”. INRA, ParisGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbera V, Raimondi S, Egli M, Plötze M (2008) The influence of weathering processes on labile and stable organic matter in Mediterranean volcanic soils. Geoderma 143(1–2):191–205Google Scholar
  7. Basile A, Mele G, Terribile F (2003) Soil hydraulic behaviour of a selected benchmark soil involved in the landslide of Sarno 1998. Geoderma 117(3–4):331–346Google Scholar
  8. Bazzoffi P, Abbattista F, Vanino S, Pellegrini S (2006) Impact of land levelling for vineyard plantation on soil degradation in Italy Bollettino della Societa Geologica Italiana. Supplemento 6:191–199Google Scholar
  9. Bini C, Gaballo S (2006) Pedogenic trends in anthrosols developed in sulfidic mine spoils: A case study in the Temperino mine archaeological area (Campiglia Marittima, Tuscany, Italy). Quatern Int 156–157 (Special Issue):70–78Google Scholar
  10. Bini C, Garlato A (1999) Advance in the mineralogy and geochemistry of Italian Terra Rossa. In: 6th international meeting on soils with mediterranean type of climate. Extended abstracts. Barcelona, pp 694–697Google Scholar
  11. Bini C, Mondini C (1992) Deep weathering features in paleosols from alluvial deposits (“Terra Rossa”—like) in the Friuli piedmont area (Italy). Mineral Petrogr Acta 35:1–21Google Scholar
  12. Bini C, De Siena C (1995) Evolution of the soil cover of the central Italy ophiolite belt. Eurasian Soil Sci 27(4):24–28Google Scholar
  13. Boero V, Schwertmann U (1989) Iron oxide mineralogy of Terra Rossa and its genetic implications. Geoderma 44:319–327Google Scholar
  14. Boero V, Premoli A, Melis P, Barberis E, Arduino E (1992) Influence o f climate on the iron oxide mineralogy o f Terra Rossa. Clays Clay Miner 40(1):8–13Google Scholar
  15. Bonifacio E, Zanini E, Boero V, Franchini AM (1997) Pedogenesis in a soil catena on serpentinite in north-western Italy. Geoderma 75(1–2):33–51Google Scholar
  16. Bronger A, Bruhn-Lobin N (1997) Paleopedology of Terra Rossa-Rhodoxeralfs from quaternary calcarenites in NW Morocco. Catena 28:279–296Google Scholar
  17. Buondonno C, Ermice A, Buondonno A, Murolo M, Pugliano ML (1998) Human-influenced soils from an iron and steel works in Naples, Italy. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62(3):694–700Google Scholar
  18. Busoni E, Salvador Sanchis P, Calzolari C, Romagnoli A (1995) Mass movement and erosion hazard patterns by multivariate analysis of landscape integrated data: the Upper Orcia River Valley (Siena, Italy) case. Catena 25(1–4):169–185Google Scholar
  19. Calzolari C, Ungaro F (1998) Geomorphic features of a badland (biancane) area (Central Italy): Characterisation, distribution and quantitative spatial analysis. Catena 31(4):237–256Google Scholar
  20. Calzolari C, Ungaro F (2012) Predicting shallow water table depth at regional scale from rainfall and soil data. J Hydrol 414–415:374–387Google Scholar
  21. Camporese M, Ferraris S, Putti M, Salandin P, Teatini P (2006) Hydrological modeling in swelling/shrinking peat soils. Water Resour Res 42(6):1–15Google Scholar
  22. Camporese M, Putti M, Salandin P, Teatini P (2008) Spatial variability of CO2 efflux in a drained cropped peatland south of Venice, Italy. J Geophys Res G: Biogeosciences 113(4):G04018Google Scholar
  23. Capolongo D, Pennetta L, Piccarreta M, Fallacara G, Boenzi F (2008) Spatial and temporal variations in soil erosion and deposition due to land-levelling in a semi-arid area of Basilicata (Southern Italy). Earth Surf Proc Land 33(3):364–379Google Scholar
  24. Capotorti G, Guida D, Siervo V, Smiraglia D, Blasi C (2011) Ecological classification of land and conservation of biodiversity at the national level: The case of Italy. Biol Conserv 147(1):174–183 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.12.028
  25. Carbognin L, Gambolati G, Putti M, Rizzetto F, Teatini P, Tosi L (2006) Soil contamination and land subsidence raise concern in the Venice watershed, Italy. WIT Trans Ecol Environ 99:691–700Google Scholar
  26. Carnicelli S (1989) Calcrete accumulation in the soils and superficial formations of southern Italy. Mediterranee 68:51–59Google Scholar
  27. Carnicelli S, Mirabella A, Cecchini G, Sanesi G (1997) Weathering of chlorite to a low-charge expandable mineral in a spodosol on the apennine mountains, Italy. Clays Clay Miner 45(1):28–41Google Scholar
  28. Castrignanò A, Buttafuoco G, Puddu R (2008) Multi-scale assessment of the risk of soil salinization in an area of south-eastern Sardinia (Italy). Precis Agric 9(1–2):17–31Google Scholar
  29. Cecchini G, Carnicelli S, Mirabella A, Mantelli F, Sanesi G (2003) Soil conditions under a fagus sylvatica CONECOFOR stand in central Italy: an integrated assessment through combined solid phase and solution studies. J Limnol 61(1):36–45Google Scholar
  30. Certini G, Fernández Sanjurjo MJ, Corti G, Ugolini FC (2001) The contrasting effect of broom and pine on pedogenic processes in volcanic soils (Mt. Etna, Italy). Geoderma 102(3–4):239–254Google Scholar
  31. Certini G, Ugolini F, Taina I, Bolla G, Corti G, Tescari F (2007) Clues to the genesis of a discontinuously distributed fragipan in the northern Apennines, Italy. Catena 69(2):161–169Google Scholar
  32. Chiarucci A, De Dominicis V, Ristori J, Calzolari C (1995) Biancana badland vegetation in relation to morphology and soil in Orcia valley, central Italy. Phytocoenologia 25:69–87Google Scholar
  33. Colombo C, Torrent J (1991) Relationships between aggregation and iron oxides in Terra Rossa soils from southern Italy. Catena 18(1):51–59Google Scholar
  34. Costantini EAC (1993) Surface morphology and thinning grade effect on soils of a Calabrian Pine in the Sila mountain (Calabria, Italy). Geografia Fisica e Dinamica del Quaternario 16(1):29–35Google Scholar
  35. Costantini EAC (2007) Linee guida dei metodi di rilevamento e informatizzazione dei dati pedologici. CRA_ABP, Firenze, Italia, p 296 (In Italian, with English summary) (On-line http://abp.entecra.it/soilmaps/en/downloads.html)
  36. Costantini EAC (2009) Manual of methods for soil and land evaluation. Science Publisher, Enfield (NH), p 549Google Scholar
  37. Costantini EAC, Barbetti R, L’Abate G (2007) Soils of Italy: status, problems and solutions. In: Zdruli P, Trisorio Liuzzi G (eds) Status of mediterranean soil resources: actions needed to support their sustainable use. Mediterranean Conference Proceedings, Tunis, Tunisia, pp 165–186Google Scholar
  38. Costantini EAC, Damiani D (2004) Clay minerals and the development of quaternary soils in central Italy. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas 21:144–159Google Scholar
  39. Costantini EAC, Gardin L, Pagliai M (1999) Advances in soil survey, monitoring and applications in Italy. In: Bullock P, Jones RJA, Montanarella L (eds) Soil resources of Europe. JRC, Ispra (VA), pp 103–109Google Scholar
  40. Costantini EAC, Barbetti R (2008) Environmental and visual impact analysis of viticulture and Olive Tree cultivation in the province of Siena (Italy). Eur J Agron 28:412–426Google Scholar
  41. Costantini EAC, Bucelli P, Priori S (2011) Quaternary landscape history determines the soil functional characters of terroir. Quatern Int. doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2011.08.021 Google Scholar
  42. Costantini EAC, L’Abate G (2009) The soil cultural heritage of Italy: geodatabase, maps, and pedodiversity evaluation. Quatern Int 209:142–153Google Scholar
  43. Costantini EAC, Lulli L, Bidini D, Napoli R, Castellani F (1992) Karst landforms and soils of the Poggio del Comune relief (central Italy). In: 2nd International conference geomorphology, 1989, proceeding of the karst-symposium—Blaubeuren. Tuebingen Geo. Studien vol 109. pp 83–130Google Scholar
  44. Costantini EAC, Napoli R, Bragato G (1996) Properties and geographic relevance of fragipan and other close-packed horizons in a non-glaciated Mediterranean region. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria 19(1):29–45Google Scholar
  45. Costantini EAC, Pellegrini S, Bucelli P, Barbetti R, Campagnolo S, Storchi P, Magini S, Perria R (2010) Mapping suitability for Sangiovese wine by means of δ13C and geophysical sensors in soils with moderate salinity. Eur J Agron 33:208–217Google Scholar
  46. Costantini EAC, Priori S (2007) Pedogenesis of plinthite during early Pliocene in the Mediterranean environment. Case study of a buried paleosol at Podere Renieri, central Italy. Catena 71(3):425–443Google Scholar
  47. Cremaschi M, Busacca A (1994) Deep soils on stable or slowly aggrading surfaces: time versus climate as soil-forming factors. The Ferretto-type paleosol, a case study: the Crocetta profile (Gazzola, Piacenza, northern Italy). Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria 17(1):19–28Google Scholar
  48. Cremaschi M, Van Vliet-Lanoë B (1990) Traces of frost activity and ice segregation in Pleistocene loess deposits of northern Italy. Deep seasonal freezing or permafrost? Quat Int 5:39–48Google Scholar
  49. Crescimanno G, De Santis A, Provenzano G (2007) Soil structure and bypass flow processes in a Vertisol under sprinkler and drip irrigation. Geoderma 138(1–2):110–118Google Scholar
  50. Crescimanno G, Marcum KB, Reina C, Versaci A (2009) Investigating soil-plant relationships for sustainable management of irrigation with saline water in a Sicilian vineyard. In: 5th International conference on sustainable water resources management. doi: 10.2495/WRM090471
  51. Cumer A (1994) Il progetto CORINE Land Cover in Italia: un modello da seguire. Documenti del Territorio. Anno VIII N. 28/29 giugno/dicembre 1994Google Scholar
  52. D’Amico M, Julitta F, Previtali F, Cantelli D (2008) Podzolization over ophiolitic materials in the western Alps (Natural Park of Mont Avic, Aosta Valley, Italy). Geoderma 146(1–2):129–137Google Scholar
  53. Dazzi C (2006) Acque saline e qualità del suolo. Ital J Agron 1(3):467–474Google Scholar
  54. Dazzi C, Fierotti G, Lombardo V, Monteleone S, Raimondi S, Scalenghe R, Bambina A, Caniglia K, Dolce F, Indorante A, Lo Papa G, Laudicina VA, Paladino V, Tusa D (2002) Un prodotto multimediale per il trasferimento delle conoscenze nel progetto POM—OTRIS: il CD-Rom sui Suoli Salini, pp 275–282Google Scholar
  55. Dazzi C, Laudicina VA, Lo Papa G, Monteleone S, Scalenghe R (2005) Soils with Gypsic Horizons in Southern Sicily, Italy. In: Faz Cano A, Ortiz R, Mermut AR (eds) Sustainable use and management of soils—Arid and Semiarid Regions, Advances in GeoEcology, vol 36. Catena, Germany pp 13–22Google Scholar
  56. Dazzi C, Papa G, Palermo V (2009) Proposal for a new diagnostic horizon for WRB Anthrosols. Geoderma 151(1–2):16–21Google Scholar
  57. Dazzi C, Monteleone S (2002) Soils and soil-landform relationships along an elevational transect in a gypsiferous hilly area in central Sicily, Italy. Acts 7° international meeting on soil with mediterranean type of climate. BARI. 50. pp 73–86Google Scholar
  58. Dazzi C, Monteleone S (2007) Anthropogenic processes in the evolution of a soil chronosequence on marly-limestone substrata in an Italian Mediterranean environment. Geoderma 141(3–4):201–209Google Scholar
  59. Dell’Abate MT, Benedetti A, Trinchera A, Dazzi C (2002) Humic substances along the profile of two Typic Haploxerert. Geoderma 107(3–4):281–296Google Scholar
  60. Douchafour P (1970) Precis de pedologie. Masson, Paris, p 438Google Scholar
  61. Durn G, Ottner F, Slovenec D (1999) Mineralogical and geochemical indicators of the polygenetic nature of Terra Rossa in Istria, Croazia. Geoderma 91:125–150Google Scholar
  62. Egli M, Alioth L, Mirabella A, Raimondi S, Nater M, Verel R (2007) Effect of climate and vegetation on soil organic carbon, humus fractions, allophanes, imogolite, kaolinite, and oxyhydroxides in volcanic soils of Etna (Sicily). Soil Sci 172(9):673–691Google Scholar
  63. Egli M, Mastrolonardo G, Seiler R, Raimondi S, Favilli F, Crimi V, Krebs R, Cherubini P, Certini G (2012) Charcoal and stable soil organic matter as indicators of fire frequency, climate and past vegetation in volcanic soils of Mt. Etna, Sicily. Catena 88(1):14–26Google Scholar
  64. Egli M, Mirabella A, Mancabelli A, Sartori G (2004) Weathering of soils in Alpine areas as influenced by climate and parent material. Clays Clay Miner 52(3):287–303Google Scholar
  65. Egli M, Nater M, Mirabella A, Raimondi S, Plötze M, Alioth L (2008) Clay minerals, oxyhydroxide formation, element leaching and humus development in volcanic soils. Geoderma 143(1–2):101–114Google Scholar
  66. Egli M, Sartori G, Mirabella A, Favilli F, Giaccai D, Delbos E (2009) Effect of north and south exposure on organic matter in high Alpine soils. Geoderma 149(1–2):124–136Google Scholar
  67. Eppes MC, Bierma R, Vinson D, Pazzaglia F (2008) A soil chronosequence study of the Reno valley, Italy: Insights into the relative role of climate versus anthropogenic forcing on hillslope processes during the mid-Holocene. Geoderma 147(3–4):97–107Google Scholar
  68. Ermice A, Murolo M, Pugliano ML, Buondonno C (2002) Vertic soils in alluvion-reclaimed areas, Volturno River Plain, Italy. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66(6):1882–1888Google Scholar
  69. European Soil Bureau (1999) The European Soil Database, version 1.0. CD-ROM. Ispra, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  70. Falsone G, Bonifacio E (2009) Pore-size distribution and particle arrangement in fragipan and nonfragipan horizons. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 172(5):696–703Google Scholar
  71. Falsone G, Bonifacio E (2006) Destabilization of aggregates in some typic Fragiudalfs. Soil Sci 171(3):272–281Google Scholar
  72. FAO—Unesco (1974) Soil map of the world, vol 1 Legend. FAO, Rome, p 59Google Scholar
  73. FAO (1995) Global and national soils terrain digital databases (SOTER) 74 Rev. 1. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  74. FAO/ISRIC/ISSS (1998) World reference base for soil resources. World Soil Resources Report, #84. FAO, Rome, p 88Google Scholar
  75. Fedoroff N (1997) Clay illuviation in red mediterranean soils. Catena 28:171–191Google Scholar
  76. Ferraro F, Terhorst B, Ottner F, Cremaschi M (2004) Val Sorda: an upper Pleistocene loess-paleosol sequence in northeastern Italy. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas 21(1):30–47Google Scholar
  77. Fornasiero A, Putti M, Teatini P, Ferraris S, Rizzetto F, Tosi L (2003) Monitoring of hydrological parameters related to peat oxidation in a subsiding coastal basin south of Venice, Italy. IAHS–AISH Publ 278:458–462Google Scholar
  78. Finke P, Hartwich R, Dudal R, Ibanez J, Jamagne M, King D, Montanarella L, Yassoglu N (1998) Georeferenced soil database for Europe. EUR 18092, IspraGoogle Scholar
  79. Franzluebbers AJ (2002) Soil organic matter stratification ratio as an indicator of soil quality. Soil Tillage Res 66(2):95–106Google Scholar
  80. Freppaz M, Letey S, Francesconi R, Cat Berro D, Mercalli L, Zanini E (2009) Soil properties in the sorted patterned ground of Piata Lazin, NW Italy. Geophys Res Abstr 11:EGU2009–1374Google Scholar
  81. Frumkin A, Stein M (2004) The Sahara-East Mediterranean dust and climate connection revealed by strontium and uranium isotopes in a Gerusalem speleothem. Earth Planet Sci Lett 217:451–464Google Scholar
  82. Gambolati G, Putti M, Teatini P, Camporese M, Ferraris S, Gasparetto Stori G, Nicoletti V, Silvestri S, Rizzetto F, Tosi L (2005) Peat land oxidation enhances subsidence in the Venice watershed. Eos 86(23):217–224Google Scholar
  83. Guo Y, Gong P, Amundson R (2003) Pedodiversity in the United States of America. Geoderma 117(2003):99–115Google Scholar
  84. Iamarino M, Terribile F (2008) The importance of andic soils in mountain ecosystems: a pedological investigation in Italy. Eur J Soil Sci 59(6):1284–1292Google Scholar
  85. Ibáñez JJ, De-Alba S, Bermúdez FF, García-Álvarez A (1995) Pedodiversity: concepts and measures. Catena 24(3):215–232Google Scholar
  86. Ibáñez JJ, De-Alba S, Lobo A, Zucarello V, Yaalon DH (1998) Pedodiversity and global soil patterns at coarse scales (with discussion). Geoderma 83(3–4):171–214Google Scholar
  87. Ibáñez JJ, Ruiz-Ramos M, Tarquis AM (2006) Mathematical structures of biological and pedological taxonomies. Geoderma 134(3–4):360–372Google Scholar
  88. IUSS/ISRIC/FAO (2006) World Reference Base for Soil Resources. World Soil Resources Report 103 FAO, Rome, p 115Google Scholar
  89. Jackson ML, Clayton RN, Violante A, Violante P (1982) Aeolian influence on Terra Rossa soils of Italy traced by quartz oxygen isotopic ratio. Int Clay Conf 1981:293–301Google Scholar
  90. Jobbagy EG, Jackson RB (2000) The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation. Ecol Appl 10(2):423–436Google Scholar
  91. Lambert JJ, Daroussin J, Eimberck M, Le Bas C, Jamagne M, King D, Montanarella L (2002) Soil geographical database for Eurasia and the mediterranean: instructions guide for elaboration at scale 1:1,000,000 Version 4.0, EUR 20422 EN, European Commission JRCGoogle Scholar
  92. Laubenstein M, Magaldi D (2008) Natural radioactivity of some red Mediterranean soils. Catena 76(1):22–26Google Scholar
  93. Licciardello F, Antoci ML, Brugaletta L, Cirelli GL (2011) Evaluation of groundwater contamination in a coastal area of south-eastern Sicily. J Environ Sci Health: Part B Pesticides Food Contam Agricultural Wastes 46(6):498–508Google Scholar
  94. Lo Papa G, Palermo V, Dazzi C (2011) Is land-use change a cause of loss of pedodiversity? The case of the Mazzarrone study area, sicily. Geomorphology 135(3–4):332–342Google Scholar
  95. Lorè A, Magaldi D, Tallini M (2002) Morphology and morphometry of the Gran Sasso (Central Italy) surface karst. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria 25(2):123–134Google Scholar
  96. Lulli L (2007) Italian volcanic soils. In: Arnalds O, Bartoli F, Buurman P, Oskarsson H, Stoops G, Garcia-Rodeja E (eds) Soils of volcanic regions in Europe. Springer, Berlin, pp 51–67Google Scholar
  97. Lulli L, Bidini D (1980) A climosequence of soils from tuffs on slopes of an extinct volcano in southern Italy. Geoderma 24(2):129–142Google Scholar
  98. Lulli L, Bidini D, Quantin P (1988) A climo and litho soil-sequence on the Vico volcano (Italy). Cahiers—ORSTOM Serie Pedologie 24(1):49–60Google Scholar
  99. Kubïena WL (1953) The soil of the Europe. Thomas Murby and Company, London, p 145Google Scholar
  100. Magaldi D, Biagi B, Calzolari C, Mancini F (1992) The collection and the computerization of soil mapping data in Italy. Final report on the research convention between the EC DG Viand the Dipartment of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition of the University of Florence. Quaderni di scienza del suolo, vol IV, CNR, FirenzeGoogle Scholar
  101. Mancini F (1966) Short commentary on the soil map of Italy (scale 1:1.000.000) (Breve commento alla carta dei suoli d’Italia. In scala 1:1.000.000 con breve commento). (In Italian and English). Comitato per la Carta dei Suoli. Tipografia Coppini, FirenzeGoogle Scholar
  102. Marignani M, Rocchini D, Torri D, Chiarucci A, Maccherini S (2008) Planning restoration in a cultural landscape in Italy using an object-based approach and historical analysis. Landscape Urban Plan 84(1):28–37Google Scholar
  103. Marinari S, Dell’Abate MT, Brunetti G, Dazzi C (2010) Differences of stabilized organic carbon fractions and microbiological activity along Mediterranean Vertisols and Alfisols profiles. Geoderma 156(3–4):379–388Google Scholar
  104. McBratney AB (1995) Pedodiversity. Pedometron 3:1–3Google Scholar
  105. McBratney AB, Minasny B (2007) On measuring pedodiversity. Geoderma 141:149–154Google Scholar
  106. Mirabella A, Costantini EAC, Carnicelli S (1992) Genesis of a policyclic Terra Rossa (Chromic Cambisol on Rhodic Nitisol) at the Poggio del Comune in Central Italy. Zeitschrift für Planzenernahrung und Bodenkunde München 155:407–413Google Scholar
  107. Mirabella A, Egli M (2003) Structural transformations of clay minerals in soils of a climosequence in an Italian Alpine environment. Clays Clay Miner 51(3):264–278Google Scholar
  108. Mirabella A, Egli M, Carnicelli S, Sartori G (2002) Influence of parent material on clay minerals formation in Podzols of Trentino, Italy. Clay Miner 37(4):699–707Google Scholar
  109. Moreau E, Velde B, Terribile F (1999) Comparison of 2D and 3D images of fractures in a Vertisol. Geoderma 92(1–2):55–72Google Scholar
  110. Pagliai M, Pezzarossa B, Zerbi G, Alvino A, Pini R, Guidi GV (1989) Soil porosity in a peach orchard as influenced by water table depth. Agric Water Manag 16(1–2):63–73Google Scholar
  111. Panagos P, Van Liedekerke M, Jones A, Montanarella L (2012) European soil data centre: response to European policy support and public data requirements. Land Use Policy 29(2):329–338Google Scholar
  112. Pellegrini S, Vignozzi N, Costantini EAC, L’Abate G (2007) A new pedotransfer function for estimating soil bulk density. In: Carmelo D (ed) Changing soils in a changing wold: the soils of tomorrow. Book of abstracts. 5th International congress of European society for soil conservation, Palermo, pp 25–30Google Scholar
  113. Principi P (1943) I terreni d’Italia, terreni naturali e terreni agrari, con una grande carta pedologica d’Italia a colori. Società anonima editrice Dante Alighieri, p 242Google Scholar
  114. Priori S, Costantini EAC, Capezzuoli E, Protano G, Hilgers A, Sauer D, Sandrelli F (2008) Pedostratigraphy of Terra Rossa and Quaternary geological evolution of a lacustrine limestone plateau in central Italy. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 171(4):509–523Google Scholar
  115. Quantin P, Gautheyrou J, Lorenzoni P (1988) Halloysite formation through in situ weathering of volcanic glass from trachytic pumices, Vico’s volcano. Italy Clay Miner 23(4):423–437Google Scholar
  116. Raimondi S (2009) Il processo di lisciviazione dei sali solubili in relazione all’andamento climatico nella piana di Gela (Sicilia). http://www.agrometeorologia.it/documenti/Aiam2009/16Raimondi_formattato_lavoro_070509.pdf
  117. Raimondi S, Perrone E, Barbera V (2010) Pedogenesis and variability in soil properties in a floodplain of a semiarid environment in southwestern Sicily (Italy). Soil Sci 175(12):614–623Google Scholar
  118. Regione Emilia Romagna (1995) Carta dei suoli regionale scala1:50.000. Ufficio Pedologico, Servizio Cartografico, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  119. Righi D, Terribile F, Petit S (1999) Pedogenic formation of kaolinite-smectite mixed layers in a soil toposequence developed from basaltic parent material in Sardinia (Italy). Clays Clay Miner 47(4):505–514Google Scholar
  120. Righini G, Costantini EAC, Sulli L (2001) La banca dati delle regioni pedologiche italiane. Boll Soc It Sc Suolo 50:261–271Google Scholar
  121. Ristori GG, Sparvoli E, de Nobili M, D’Acqui LP (1992) Characterization of organic matter in particle-size fractions of Vertisols. Geoderma 54(1–4):295–305Google Scholar
  122. Royer DL (1999) Depth to pedogenic carbonate horizon as a paleoprecipitation indicator? Geology 27:1123–1126Google Scholar
  123. Sacco D, Offi M, De Maio M, Grignani C (2007) Groundwater nitrate contamination risk assessment: a comparison of parametric systems and simulation modelling. Am J Environ Sci 3(3):117–125Google Scholar
  124. Sanesi G, Certini G (2005) The umbric epipedon in the N Apennines, Italy—An example from the Vallombrosa Forest. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 168(3):392–398Google Scholar
  125. Scacco A, Verzera A, Lanza CM, Sparacio A, Genna G, Raimondi S, Tripodi G, Dima G (2010) Influence of soil salinity on sensory characteristics and Volatile Aroma compounds of Nero d’Avola Wine Am. J Enol Vitic 61:498–505Google Scholar
  126. Scalenghe R, Bonifacio E, Celi L, Ugolini FC, Zanini E (2002) Pedogenesis in disturbed alpine soils (NW Italy). Geoderma 109(3–4):207–224Google Scholar
  127. Scalenghe R, Certini G, Corti G, Zanini E, Ugolini FC (2004) Segregated ice and liquefaction effects on compaction of fragipans. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:204–214Google Scholar
  128. Servizio Geologico d’Italia (1978) Carta geologica d’Italia al 500.000. RomeGoogle Scholar
  129. Soil Survey Staff (2006) Keys to soil taxonomy, 10th edn. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  130. Tedeschi A, Menenti M (2002) Simulation studies of long-term saline water use: model validation and evaluation of schedules. Agric Water Manag 54(2):123–157Google Scholar
  131. Terribile F, Basile A, De Mascellis R, Iamarino M, Magliulo P, Pepe S (2007) Landslide processes and Andosols: the case study of the Campania region, Italy. Soils of Volcanic Regions in Europe, pp 545–563Google Scholar
  132. Tóth et al (2008) Updated map of salt affected soils in the European Union In: Tóth G, Montanarella L, Rusco E (eds) Threats to soil quality in Europe EUR 23438—Scientific and technical research series Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, pp 61–74Google Scholar
  133. Ungaro F, Calzolari C, Tarocco P, Giapponesi A, Sarno G (2005) Quantifying spatial uncertainty of soil organic matter content using conditional sequential simulations: a case study in Emilia Romagna Plain (Northern Italy). Can J Soil Sci 85(4):499–510Google Scholar
  134. United States Department of Agriculture—Natural Resources Conservation Service (2007) Hydrology National Engineering Handbook, Chapter 7Google Scholar
  135. Vacca A, Adamo P, Pigna M, Violante P (2003) Genesis of tephra-derived soils from the Roccamonfina volcano. S Central Italy Soil Sci Soc Am J 67(1):198–207Google Scholar
  136. Vignozzi N, Pellegrini S, Batistoni E, Rocchini A, L’Abate G, Costantini EAC (2007) Suscettibilità al compattamento di inceptisuoli vertici: messa a punto di un nuovo indice di stima. In: Il suolo: sistema centrale nell’ambiente e nell’agricoltura. Atti del convegno nazionale della Società Italiana della Scienza del Suolo, Bari 21–24 giugno 2005:203–210. Nicola Senesi e Teodoro Miano edGoogle Scholar
  137. Violante P, Wilson MJ (1983) Mineralogy of some Italian andosols with special reference to the origin of the clay fraction. Geoderma 29(2):157–174Google Scholar
  138. Vingiani S, Righi D, Petit S, Terribile F (2004) Mixed-layer kaolinite-smectite minerals in a red-black soil sequence from basalt in Sardinia (Italy). Clays Clay Miner 52(4):473–483Google Scholar
  139. Zanini E, Bonifacio E, Alliani N, Boero V (1995) The origin and chemical, mineralogical and structural character of the marginal soils of the Apennines in the Basilicata region. Mineral Petrogr Acta 38:177–188Google Scholar
  140. Zilioli D, Bini C, Whasha M, Ciotoli G (2011) The pedological heritage of the Dolomites (Northern Italy): features, distribution and evolution of the soils, with some implications for land management. Geomorphology 135:232–247Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edoardo A. C. Costantini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Roberto Barbetti
    • 1
  • Maria Fantappiè
    • 1
  • Giovanni L’Abate
    • 1
  • Romina Lorenzetti
    • 1
  • Simona Magini
    • 1
  1. 1.Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura (CRA-ABP), Research Centre for Agrobiology and PedologyFirenzeItaly

Personalised recommendations