Advertisement

Demographics of Gay and Lesbian Adoption and Family Policies

  • Mary Ann Davis
Chapter
Part of the International Handbooks of Population book series (IHOP, volume 5)

Abstract

This chapter explores demographic factors related to gay male and lesbian adoptions, and corresponding family policies. First, I provide background on adoption law and policy. This history and background will summarize the current state of law in the U.S., with a comparison to gay and lesbian adoption policy elsewhere in the world. The second half of the chapter draws on both survey and census data to examine policy issues surrounding same-sex adoption. I first examine the prevalence of adopted children in same-sex households in the United States, using census data. Next, I present survey data exploring the acceptance of same-sex adoptions, using two national surveys: The National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle 6 (2002) and the Evan Donaldson National Survey. These surveys sampled the informal acceptance of adoption for both placing agencies and the general female population of child-bearing age in the U.S.

Keywords

Sexual Orientation Foster Parent Parent Adoption Unmarried Partner American Civil Liberty Union 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1999). Gay, lesbian and bisexual parents polic statement. Retrieved on May 30, 2009, from http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Policy+Statements&name=Gay%2C+Lesbian+and+Bisexual+Parents+Policy+Statement
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2002). Coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents. Retrieved on May 30, 2009, from http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics%3b109/2/339
  3. American Bar Association. (1999, 2003). Retrieved on May 30, 2009, from http://www.abanet.org/child/foster-adopt.shtml
  4. American Psychoanalytic Association. (2002). American Psychoanalytic Association position statements. Retrieved on May 30, 2009, from http://www.apsa.org/AboutAPSAA/PositionStatements/tabid/191/Default.aspx
  5. American Psychological Association. (1973). Homosexuality and sexual orientation disturbance: Proposed change in DSM-II document reference no. 730008. Retrieved on February 2, 2010, from http://www.psychiatryonline.com/DSMPDF/DSM-II_Homosexuality_Revision.pdf
  6. American Psychological Association. (2004). APA policy statement: Sexual orientation, parents and children. Retrieved on May 30, 2009, from http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/policy/parents.html
  7. Amnesty International. (2010). Argentina legalizes same sex marriages. Retrieved on July 26, 2010, from http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/argentina-legalizes-same-sex-marriage-2010-07-15
  8. Andersson, G., Noack, T., Seierstad, A., & Weedon-Fekjær, H. (2006). The demographics of same-sex marriages in Norway and Sweden. Demography, 43(1), 79–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Appell, A. R. (2001). Legal intersections: Lesbian and gay adoption. Adoption Quarterly, 4(3), 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Appell, A. R. (2003). Recent developments in lesbian and gay adoption law. Adoption Quarterly, 7(1), 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baumle, A. K., & Compton, D. R. (2007). Legislating the Family: The effect of state family laws on the presence of children in same-sex households. Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, July 25, 2007. 2009-05-24 http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p181709_index.html
  12. Baumle, A. K., Compton, D. R., & Poston, D. L., Jr. (2009). Same-sex partners: The demography of sexual orientation. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  13. BBC News. (2006). Timeline: 25 years of HIV/Aids. June 4, 2006 Retrieved on January 26, 2010, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5033810.stm
  14. Black, D., Gates, G., Sanders, S., & Lowell, T. (2000). Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources. Demography, 37, 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bramlett, M. D., Foster, E. B., Frasier, A. M. et al. (2010). Design and operation of the national adoptive parents. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Statistics 1(50). Retrieved on August 31, 2010, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_01/sr01_050.pdf
  16. Brodzinsky, D. M., & the staff of the Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute. (2006). Adoption by lesbians and gays: A national survey of adoption agency policies, practices, and attitudes. Retrieved on May 30, 2009, from http://www.adoptioninstitute.org/whowe/Gay%20and%20Lesbian%20Adoption1.html
  17. Brodzinsky, D. M., Patterson, C. J., & Vaziri, M. (2002). Adoption agency perspectives on lesbian and gay prospective parents: A national study. Adoption Quarterly, 5(3), 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brooks, D., & Goldberg, S. (2001). Gay and lesbian adoptive and foster care placements: Can they meet the needs of waiting children? Social Work, 46(2), 147–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bumpass, L. L., & Lu, H. H. (2000). Trends in cohabitation and implications for children’s family contexts in the United States. Population Studies, 54(1), 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007–2008). National survey of adoptive parents [Online Data]. Retrieved on October 31, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/slaits/nsap.htm
  21. Chauncey, G. (2005). Why marriage?: The history shaping today’s debate over gay equality. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  22. Child Welfare League of America (2006). Who may adopt, be adopted, or place a child for adoption? Summary of state laws. Retrieved on January 9, 2009, from http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/partiesall.pdf
  23. Connolly, C. (2002). The voice of the petitioner: The experiences of gay and lesbian parents in successful second-parent adoption proceedings. Law & Society Review, 36(2), 325–346. Special issue on nonbiological parentingGoogle Scholar
  24. Cooper, L. P. (2006). Too high a price: The case against restricting gay parenting (2nd ed.). New York: Child Welfare League of America; American Civil Liberties Union Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.aclu.org/images/asset_upload_file480_27496.pdf
  25. Dalton, S. E., & Bielby, D. D. (2000). “THAT’S OUR KIND OF CONSTELLATION” lesbian mothers negotiate institutionalized understandings of gender within the family. Gender & Society, 14(1), 36–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dethloff, N. (2005). Same-sex parents in a comparative perspective. International Law FORUM du Droit International, 7(3), 195–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Embry vs. Ryan. (2009). In the district court of appeal of Florida second district. Retrieved on June 16, 2009, from http://www.nclrights.org/site/DocServer/Embry_Opinion_05_13_2009.pdf?docID=5761
  28. Eng, D. L. (2003). Transnational adoption and queer diasporas. Social Text, 21(3), 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Erich, S., Kanenberga, H., Casea, K., Theresa, A., & Bogdanosa, T. (2009). An empirical analysis of factors affecting adolescent attachment in adoptive families with homosexual and straight parents. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(3), 398–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute. (2006). Expanding resources for children: Is adoption by gays and lesbians part of the answer for boys and girls who need homes? http://www.adoptioninstitute.org/publications/2006_Expanding_Resources_for_Children%20_March_.pdf.
  31. Family Law. (1993). Adoption. Massachusetts allows biological mother and her lesbian partner jointly to adopt child. Adoption of Tammy, 619 N. E.2d 315 (Mass.). Harvard Law Review, 107(3), 751–756.Google Scholar
  32. Festy, P. (2006). Legal recognition of same-sex couples in Europe. Population, 61, 417–453.Google Scholar
  33. Florida Supreme Court Ruling Florida department of children and families vs. In re: Matter of adoption of X.X.G. and N.R.G. (2010). Retrieved on September 22, 2010, http://www.3dca.flcourts.org/Opinions/3D08-3044.pdf9/22/2010
  34. Gates, G., Badgett, M. V. L., Macomber, J. E., & Chambers, K. (2007). Adoption and foster care by lesbian and gay parents in the United States. -1-37. Retrieved on May 30, 2009, from http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=411437
  35. Goode, W. J. (1964). The family. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  36. Hobbs, F., & Stoops, N. (2002). U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special reports, series CENSR-4, demographic trends in the 20th century. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  37. Human Rights Campaign. (2008). Parenting laws in the U.S. Retrieved on May 26, 2009, from http://www.hrc.org/documents/parenting_laws_maps.pdf
  38. Human Rights Campaign. (2009). State laws and legislation. Retrieved on July 26, 2010, from http://www.hrc.org/laws-and-legislation/state
  39. Ireland, J. (2007). 50 ways to adopt a baby. Advocate, 991, 39–41.Google Scholar
  40. Kenyon, G. L., Chong, K.-A., Enkoff-Sage, M., Hill, C., Mays, C., & Rochelle, L. (2003). Public adoption by gay and lesbian parents in North Carolina: Policy and practice. Families in Society, 84, 571–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lavely, V. A. (2007). The path to recognition of same-sex marriage: Reconciling the inconsistencies between marriage and adoption cases. UCLA Law Review, 55(1), 247–291.Google Scholar
  42. Lobaugh, E. R., Clements, P. T., Averill, J. B., & Olguin, D. L. (2006). Gay-male couples who adopt: Challenging historical and contemporary social trends toward becoming a family. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 42(3), 184–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martinez, G. M., Chandra, A., Abma, J. C., Jones, J., & Mosher, W. D. (2006). Fertility, contraception, and fatherhood: Data on men and women from Cycle 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 23(26).Google Scholar
  44. McVeigh, R., & Diaz, M.-E. D. (2009). Voting to Ban same-sex marriage: Interests, values, and communities. American Sociological Review, 74(6), 891–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Meezan, W., & Rauch, J. (2005). Gay marriage, same-sex parenting, and America’s children gay marriage, same-sex parenting, and America’s children. Marriage and Child Wellbeing: The Future of Children, 15(2), 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Merin, Y. (2002). Equality for same-sex couples: The legal recognition of gay partnerships in Europe and the United States. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. National Association of Social Workers. (2003). Social work speaks: National association of social workers policy statements, 2003–2006. Washington, DC: NASW Press.Google Scholar
  48. North American Council on Adoptable Children. (2005). NACAC position statements: Gay and lesbian adoptions and foster care. Retrieved on May 26, 2009, from http://www.nacac.org/policy/positions.html#Gay
  49. O’Halloran, K. (2009). The poliltics of adoption: International perspectives on law, policy and practice (2nd ed.). Dordrecht/London: Springer.Google Scholar
  50. Patterson, C. J. (1992). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Child Development, 63(5), 1025–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Patterson, C. J., & Friel, L. V. (2000). Sexual orientation and fertility. In G. Bentley & N. Mascie-Taylor (Eds.), Infertility in the modern world: Biosocial perspectives (pp. 238–260). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ruggles, S., Sobek, M., Alexander, T., Fitch, C. A., Goeken, R., Kelly Hall, P., King, M., & Ronnander, C. (2008). IPUMS-USA database: Integrated public use microdata series: Version 4.0 [Machine-readable ­database]. Minneapolis: Minnesota Population Center [producer and distributor].Google Scholar
  53. Ryan, S. D., Pearlmutter, S., & Groza, V. (2004). Coming out of the closet: Opening agencies to gay and lesbian adoptive parents. Social Work, 49(1), 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Simmons, T., & O’Connell, M. (2003). Census 2000 special reports: Married-couple and unmarried-partner households: 2000. Retrieved on May 23, 2009, from http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-5.pdf
  55. Stacey, J., & Biblarz, T. J. (2001). (How) does the sexual orientation of parents matter? American Sociological Review, 66(2), 159–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Statistics/Data Analysis:10.1 Special Edition. Copyright STATA (1984-2009). College Station: StataCorp.Google Scholar
  57. The CQ Researcher (2009). The chronology. The CQ Researcher May 2009: 459.Google Scholar
  58. U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Census of population and housing, public use microdata sample, United States: Technical documentation, 2003. Retrieved on June 10, 2009, from http://usa.ipums.org/usa/codebooks/2000_PUMS_codebook.pdf
  59. U.S. Congressional Record. (2009). Statement of Congressman Pete Stark Introducing HR 3827: The Every Child Deserves a Family Act.Google Scholar
  60. U.S. Department of State. (2008). Intercountry Adoption by Country. Retrieved on June 19, 2009, from http://adoption.state.gov/
  61. Vandivere, S., Malm, K., & Radel, L. (2009). Adoption USA: A chartbook based on the 2007 national survey of adoptive parents. Washington, DC: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.Google Scholar
  62. Walther, C. S., & Poston, D. L., Jr. (2004). Patterns of gay and lesbian partnering in the larger metropolitan areas of the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sociology DepartmentSam Houston State UniversityHuntsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations