We want to stress at the outset of this chapter that the task of representing the transsexual and transgender population is nothing if not daunting. The difficulties, as we see them, stem from two main sources: (1) though a general “trans” sensibility exists in both the United States and worldwide, there are currently few measurable and/or standardized criteria (e.g. physical, social, political, etc.) regarding what might or should constitute a transgender person; and (2) problems with locating and accounting for this population are compounded by the relative invisibility through which many transgender individuals exist in their daily lives. Marginalized by political, religious, legal, medical, and other cultural institutions, transgender persons encounter levels of discrimination that range from simple misapprehension and/or exclusion by an uneducated public, to explicit acts of sexual and physical violence. Indeed, many in what is often referred to as the mainstream, including transgender individuals, are first exposed to the idea of “transgender” through media that often sensationalize and misrepresent the issues most salient for this population.
- Gender Identity
- Gender Dysphoria
- Gender Identity Disorder
- Gender Identity Disorder
- Trans People
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
To this end, the American Psychological Association is set to release its fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013, in which the diagnosis Gender Identity Disorder will more than likely be renamed Gender Dysphoria. See the Mental Health section for further discussion of this issue.
http://www.truecolours.org.au/publications/ypwts.html. See also: http://www.annelawrence.com/brain-sex_critique.html for a critique of the brain-sex theory.
Though perhaps the first to go public, Beatie was not the first trans man to become pregnant. Beatie has since had his second and third babies and is in the process of divorcing his ex-partner who is a cis woman. See: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2197581/Worlds-pregnant-man-Thomas-Beatie-finds-love-prepared-conceive-FOURTH-time-new-lover-cant.html
Appointed by Barack Obama in January, 2010.
Crossing: A Memoir, University of Chicago Press.
http://www.truecolours.org.au/publications/ypwts.html#15. Paper presented at the WPATH 20th International Symposium, Chicago, Illinois, September 5–8, 2007.
The latest DSM will be its 5th revision, and a new name for gender dysphoria will constitute the “condition’s” 3rd revision. It is worth noting here that homosexuality was a DSM-certified disorder until 1973 (Drescher 2009).
J Cantor, 2009, personal communication.
See especially Valentine (2007) for an excellent history of this episode. Though beyond the scope of the chapter, it is worth noting that some of the discourse surrounding this decision was related to the (formal) LGB political community’s desire to appear to be as “normal” as possible, a move that some argue sacrificed allegiance with the trans community for mainstream social acceptability.
Based on the FBI’s “Uniform Crimes Reports, Crime in the United States 2000,” showing the murder rate of 5.5 people per 100,000.
Indeed, two recent developments regarding U.S. military veterans demonstrate the degree to which trans concerns have entered the “mainstream” of health care: the Department of Veterans Affairs’ decision to cover the cost of transition-related counseling and hormones for eligible veterans (Department of Veterans Affairs 2011), and research finding the rate of trans veterans is higher than the general public (Shipherd et al. 2012).
Information about Eads sometimes reports his cancer as ovarian and sometimes as cervical; it is unclear which was the primary cancer and if the other was a metastasis but regardless of which, the issues that his story raises (e.g. appropriately targeted screening and prevention efforts) remain the same.
In the film, Eads movingly describes the difficulties that several physicians and their staff had with accommodating him as a patient; he was told, among other things, that other patients (in the waiting room) would be offended or made uncomfortable.
For the vast majority of trans men, this will not satisfy their desire (if they have it) to remove their breasts. Testosterone cannot eradicate breast tissue; only a mastectomy can do that. Some trans men may lose enough mass with testosterone that binding can be enough for them, however.
Interested providers can access primary care protocols and provider trainings from: www.transhealth.ucsf.edu
Interested readers can contact Division 44 of the American Psychological Association for an updated list of resources and contacts.
Interview with Cristan Williams, director of the Transgender Foundation of America; Laura Richardson, SWGS conference 3/26/10 at Rice University. “Displacing and Distancing Myra Ical.”
Ahmadzad-Asl, M., Jalali, A., Alavi, K., Naserbakht, M., Taban, M., Mohseninia-Omrani, K., & Eftekhar, M. (2011). The epidemiology of transsexualism in Iran. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health, 15, 83–93.
ALGBTIC: Association of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in Counseling. (2009). Compe-tencies for counseling with transgender clients. Alexandria: Author.
Alizadeh, H. (2010). Iran: Transgender people no longer classified as “mentally sick”. (translation of Fars news agency report). http://iglhrc.wordpress.com/2010/01/07/iran-transgender-people-no-longer-classified-as-mentally-sick/. Accessed 15 Jan 2013.
American Psychological Association, Task Force on Gender Identity and Gender Variance. (2009). Report of the task force on gender identity and gender variance. Washington, DC: Author.
APA: American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistics manual of mental disorders (4th ed., rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Asscheman, H., Gooren, L., & Eklund, P. (1989). Mortality and morbidity in transsexual patients with cross-gender hormone treatment. Metabolism, 38(9), 869–873.
Baba, T., Endo, T., Honnma, H., Kitajima, Y., Hayashi, T., Ikeda, H., Masumori, N., Kamiya, H., Moriwaka, O., & Saito, T. (2006). Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and female-to-male transsexuality. Human Reproduction, doi:10.1093/humrep/del474. http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/del474v1
Bakker, A., Van Kesteren, P. J. M., Gooren, L. J. G., & Bezemer, P. D. (1993). The prevalence of transsexualism in the Netherlands. Acta Psychiatria Scandinavia, 87, 237–238.
Bauer, G. (2012). Trans Ontarians’ sex designations on federal and provincial identity documents. Trans Pulse. http://transpulseproject.ca/research-type/project-report/. Accessed 13 Jan 2013.
Bauer, G., Redman, N., & Bradley, K. (2012). Gay, bisexual, and MSM trans guys: No assumptions! Trans Pulse. http://transpulseproject.ca/research-type/project-report/. Accessed 13 Jan 2013.
Baumle, A., Compton, D. R., & Poston, D. L., Jr. (2009). Same-sex partners: The social demography of sexual orientation. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Bockting, W., & Coleman, E. (1991). A comment on the concept of transhomosexuality, or the dissociation of the meaning. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20, 419–420.
Bockting, W. O., & Goldberg, J. M. (2006). Guidelines for transgender care. Binghamton: Haworth Medical Press.
Bockting, W. O., Robinson, B. E., & Rosser, B. R. S. (1998). Transgender HIV prevention: A qualitative needs assessment. AIDS Care, 10(4), 505–525.
Bockting, W., Robinson, B., Forberg, J., & Scheltema, K. (2005). Evaluation of a sexual health approach to reducing HIV/STD risk in the transgender community. AIDS Care, 17(3), 289–303.
Bockting, W., Benner, A., & Coleman, E. (2009). Gay and bisexual identity development among female-to-male transsexuals in North America: Emergence of a transgender sexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(5), 688–701.
Boehmer, U. (2002). Twenty years of public health research: Inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. American Journal of Public Health, 92(7), 1125–1130.
Bolin, A. (1988). In search of Eve: Transsexual rites of passage. South Hadley: Bergin and Harvey.
Bornstein, K. (1994). Gender outlaw: On men, women, and the rest of us. New York: Routledge.
Bradford, J., Reisner, S. L., Honnold, J., & Xavier, J. (2012). Experiences of transgender-related discrimination and implications for health: Results from the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Study (THIS). American Journal of Public Health (epub ahead of print).
Bratter, J. & Schilt, K. (2009). From the blood of race to the chromosomes of gender: The legal criteria for race and sex in cases of “fraud.” Paper presented to the Feminist Research Group, Rice University, Houston.
Brill, S., & Pepper, R. (2008). The transgender child: A handbook for families and professionals. San Francisco: Cleis Press.
Brown, K. (1999, December 10). 20th century transgender history and experience. Washington Blade.
Brown, N. (2009). The sexual relationships of sexual-minority women partnered with trans men: A qualitative study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(2), 561–572.
Chase, C. (1998). Hermaphrodites with attitude: Mapping the emergence of intersex political activism. GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 4(2), 189–211.
Chase, C. (2003). What is the Agenda of the intersex patient advocacy movement? Endocrinology, 13(3), 240–242.
Chi, X. L. (in preparation). Sex education of adolescents: A comprehensive study on sex attitude, sex moral value and desire of sex education among college students in China.
Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2000). Sexual orientation of female-to-male transsexuals: A comparison of homosexual and nonhomosexual types. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 259–278.
Clements, K., Wilkinson, W., Kitano, K., & Marx, R. (1999). HIV prevention and health service needs of the transgender community in San Francisco. International Journal of Transgenderism, 3, 1–2.
Clements-Nolle, K., Marx, R., & Katz, M. (2006). Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization. Journal of Homosexuality, 51, 53–69.
Cohen, L., de Ruiter, C., Ringelberg, H., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. (1997). Psychological functioning of adolescent transsexuals: Personality and psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53(2), 187–196.
Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., & van Goozen, S. H. M. (1998). Pubertal delay as an aid in diagnosis and treatment of a transsexual adolescent. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7, 246–248.
Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., & Gooren, L. J. G. (1999). Transsexualism: A review of etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46(4), 315–333.
Cole, C. M., O’Boyle, M., Emory, L. E., & Meyer, W. J. (1997). Comorbidity of gender dysphoria and other major psychiatric diagnoses. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26, 13–26.
Coleman, E., Bockting, W. O., & Gooren, L. (1993). Homosexual and bisexual identity in sex-reassigned female-to-male transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22, 37–50.
Conron, J., Scott, G., Stowell, G. S., & Landers, S. (2012). Transgender health in Massachusetts: Results from a household probability sample of adults. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 118–122.
Conway. (2002). How frequently does transsexualism occur? http://ai.eecs.umich.edu/people/conway/TS/TSprevalence.html
Courvant, D., & Cook-Daniels, L. (1998). Transgender and intersex survivors of domestic violence: Defining terms, barriers and responsibilities. In National coalition against domestic violence, Conference manual. Available from PO Box 18749, Denver, CO 80218-0749; (303) 839–1852.
Currah, P., Juang, R. M., & Minter, S. P. (2006). Transgender rights. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Dahl, M., Feldman, J., Goldberg, J., & Jaberi, A. (2006). Physical aspects of transgender endocrine therapy. In Endocrine therapy for transgender adults in British Columbia: Suggested guidelines. Retrieved from http://transhealth.vch.ca/resources/careguidelines.html
Davis, S. (2006). Mental health differences between female-to-male transgender/gender-variant people receiving testosterone treatment compared to untreated. Unpublished thesis manuscript.
De Gascun, C., Kelly, J., Salter, N., Lucey, J., & O’Shea, D. (2006). Gender identity disorder. Irish Medical Journal, 99(5), 146–148.
De Cuypere, G., Van Hemelrijck, M., Michel, A., Carael, B., Heylens, G., Rubens, R., et al. (2007). Prevalence and demography of transsexualism in Belgium. European Psychiatry, 22, 137–141.
De Cuypere, G., Knudson G., & Bockting, W. (2010). Response of the world professional association for transgender health to the proposed DSM 5 criteria for gender incongruence. Retrieved from http://www.wpath.org/publications_public_policy.cfm
Delemarre-van de Waal, H., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. (2006). Clinical management of gender identity disorder in adolescents: A protocol on psychological and pediatric endocrinology aspects. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, S131–S137.
Denny, D., & Green, J. (1996). Gender identity and bissexuality. In B. Firestein (Ed.), Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp. 84–102). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Department of Veterans Affairs. (2011). Providing health care for transgender and intersex veterans. VHA Directive. http://www.va.gov/vhapublications/ViewPublication.asp?pub_ID=2416. Accessed 14 Jan 2013.
Devor, H. (1993). Sexual orientation identities, attractions and practices of female-to-male transsexuals. Journal of Sex Research, 30, 303–315.
Diamond, L. M. (2001). What does sexual orientation orient? A biobehavioral model distinguishing romantic love and sexual desire. Psychological Review, 110(1), 173–192.
Diamond, M. (2002). Sex and gender are different: Sexual identity and gender identity are different. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7(3), 320–334.
Diamond, L. M. (2008). Sexual fluidity: Understanding women’s love and desire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Dickey, L. M. (2007). Support group effectiveness for transsexual female-to-male persons. Unpublished thesis manuscript.
Dickey, L. M. (2010). Self-injurious behavior in the trans-gender community. Unpublished dissertation manuscript.
Dreger, A. (2000). Hermaphrodites and the medical invention of sex. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Dreger, A. (2008). Gender identity in childhood: Inconclusive advice to parents. Hastings Center Report 39, no. 1 (2009): 26–29.
Dreger, A., Chase, C., Sousa, A., Gruppuso, P., & Frader, J. (2005). Changing the nomenclature/taxonomy for intersex: A scientific and clinical rationale. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, 18, 729–733.
Drescher, J. (2002). Ethical issues in treating gay and lesbian patients. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 25(30), 605–621.
Drescher, J. (2009). Queer diagnoses: Parallels and contrasts in the history of homosexuality, gender variance, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9531-5.
Dulko, S., & Imielinskia, C. (2004). The epidemiology of transsexualism in Poland. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56(6), 637.
Ehrbar, R. (2010, August). Clinical issues in working with transgender adults. Symposium presented at the Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association, San Diego, CA.
Erich, S., Tittsworth, J., Meier, S. C., & Lerman, T. (2010). Transsexuals of color: Perceptions of discrimination based on transsexual status and race/ethnicity status. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6, 294–314.
Esteva, I., Gonzalo, M., Yahyaoui, R., Domínguez, M., Bergero, T., Giraldo, F., et al. (2006). Epidemiología de la transexualidad en Andalucía, atención especial al grupo de adolescentes. Cuad Med Psicosom, 78, 65–70.
Ewert, M. (2008). 10,000 dresses. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Fausto-Sterling, A. (1993). The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough. The Sciences, 20–24
FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2009). Table 1: Crime in the United States, by volume and rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 1990–2009. Retrieved from http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/data/table_01.html
Feinberg, L. (1997). Transgender warriors: Making history from Joan of arc to Dennis Rodman. Boston: Beacon.
Feldman, J., & Goldberg, J. (Eds.). (2006). Transgender primary medical care: Suggested guidelines for clinicians in British Columbia. Vancouver: Vancouver Coastal Health, Transcend Transgender Support & Education Society, and the Canadian Rainbow Health Coalition.
Fenway Health: Glossary of Gender and Transgender Terms. Retrieved from http://www.fenwayhealth.org/site/PageServer?pagename=FCHC_srv_services_trans
Fleming, M., MacGowan, B. R., & Salt, P. (1984). Female-to-male transsexualism and sex roles: Self and spouse ratings on the PAQ. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 13(1), 51–57.
Fleming, M., Costos, D., & MacGowan, B. (1985). The dyadic adjustment of female-to-male transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 47–55.
Flynn, T. (2001). “Transforming” the debate: Why we need to include transgender rights in the struggles for sex and sexual orientation equality. Columbia Law Review, 101(2), 392–420.
Frankowski, B. (2004). Sexual orientation and adolescents. Pediatrics, 113(6), 1827–1832.
Freedman, D., Tasker, F., & Di Ceglie, D. (2002). Children and adolescents with transsexual parents referred to a specialist gender identity development service: A brief report of key developmental features. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7, 423–432.
Garofalo, R., Deleon, J., Osmer, E., Doll, M., & Harper, G. (2006). Overlooked, misunderstood and at-risk: Exploring the lives and HIV risk of ethnic minority male-to-female transgender youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(3), 230–236.
Gates, G. (2011). How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Gates-How-Many-People-LGBT-Apr-2011.pdf. Accessed 13 Jan 2013.
Glassgold, J., Beckstead, L., Drescher, J., Greene, B., Miller, R. L., & Worthington, R. (2009). Insufficient evidence that sexual orientation change efforts work, says APA. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2009/08/therapeutic.aspx
Goldblum, P., Testa, R., Pflum, S., Hendricks, M., Bradford, J., & Bongar, B. (2012). The relationship between gender-based victimization and suicide attempts in transgender people. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43, 468–475.
Goldfried, M. (2001). Integrating gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues into mainstream psychology. American Psychologist, 56, 975–988.
Gómez-Gil, E., Trilla García, A., Godás Sieso, T., Halperin Rabinovich, I., Puig Domingo, M., Vidal Hagemeijer, A., et al. (2006). Estimación de la prevalencia, incidencia y razón de sexos del transexualismo en Cataluña según la demanda asistencial. Actas Esp Psiquiatr, 34, 295–302.
Gómez-Gil, E., Vidal-Hagemeijer, A., & Salamero, M. (2008). MMPI-2 characteristics of transsexuals requesting sex reassignment: Comparison of patients in prehormonal and presurgical phases. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 368–374.
Goodman, A. (2006). Two questions about race. Is race real: A social forum organized by the Social Science Research Council. Retrieved from http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Goodman/
Gooren, L. (2005). Hormone treatment of the adult transsexual patient. Hormone Research, 64(2), 31–36.
Gooren, L. (2006). The biology of human psychosexual differentiation. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 589–601.
Gooren, L., Giltay, E., & Bunck, M. (2007). Long-term treatment of transsexuals with cross-sex hormones: Extensive personal experience. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93, 19–25.
Gorton, R. N., Buth, J., & Spade, D. (2005). Medical therapy & Health maintenance for transgender men: A guide for health care providers. San Francisco: Lyon-Martin Women’s Health Services.
Grant, J., Mottet, L., Tanis, J., Herman, J., Harrison, J., & Keisling, M. (2010). National transgender discrimination survey report on health and health care. transequality.org/PDFs/NTDSReportonHealth_final.pdf. Accessed 13 Jan 2013.
Green, R. (1978). Sexual identity of thirty-seven children raised by homosexual or transsexual parents. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 692–697.
Green, J. (2004). Becoming a visible man. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Grossman, A. H., & D’Augelli, A. R. (2007). Transgender youth and life-threatening behaviors. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 37(5), 527–537.
Halberstam, J. (1998). Female masculinity. Durham: Duke University Press.
Hembree, W., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Delemarre, H., Gooren, L., Meyer, W., Spack, N., Tangpricha, V., & Montori, V. (2009). Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94(9), 3132–3154.
Hendricks, M. & Testa, R. (2012). A conceptual framework for clinical work with transgender and gender nonconforming clients: An adaptation of the minority stress model. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/a0029597
Herman-Jeglinska, A., Grabowska, A., & Dulko, S. (2002). Masculinity, feminity, and transsexualism. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31(6), 527–534.
Herrn, R. (1995). On the history of biological theories of homosexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 28, 31–56.
Hines, M. (2004). Brain gender. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hoenig, J., & Kenna, J. C. (1974). The nosological position of transsexualism. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 3, 273–287.
Horton, M. (2008). The incidence and prevalence of SRS among U.S. residents, Austin, TX. Retrieved on March 29, 2010, from http://www.tgender.net/taw/thbcost.html#prevalence
Hoshiai, M., Matsumoto, Y., Sato, T., Ohnishi, M., Okabe, N., Kishimoto, Y., Terada, S., & Kuroda, S. (2010). Psychiatric comorbidity among patients with gender identity disorder. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 64, 514–519.
Huxley, P. J., Kenna, J. C., & Brandon, S. (1981a). Partnership in transsexualism. Part I. The nature of the partnership. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 133–143.
Huxley, P. J., Kenna, J. C., & Brandon, S. (1981b). Partnership in transsexualism. Part II. The nature of the partnership. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 143–160.
Institute of Medicine (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13128. Accessed 13 Jan 2013.
Jamaludin, F. (2001, January 21). Transsexuals: Declare us as women. Originally published in The Star Newspaper. Archived at http://ai.eecs.umich.edu/people/conway/TS/MalaysianTS.html. Accessed 8 June 2011.
Karkazis, K. (2008). Fixing sex: Intersex, medical authority, and lived experience. Durham: Duke University Press.
Kenagy, G. (2005). Transgender health: Findings from two needs assessment studies in Philadelphia. Health and Social Work, 30(1), 19+.
Kessler, S. (1990). The medical construction of gender: Case management of intersexed infants. Signs, 16(1), 3–26.
Kessler, S. (1998). Lessons from the intersexed. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
King, M., Semlyen, J., Tai, S., Killaspy, H., Osborn, D., Populyuk, D., et al. (2008). A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate elf harm in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 70–87.
Kohler, B., Kleinemeier, A. L., Hiort, O., Gruters, A., & Thyen, U. (2012). Satisfaction with genital surgery and sexual life of adults with XY disorders of sex development: Results from the German clinical evaluation study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 97, 577–588.
Kraemer, B., Hobi, S., Rufer, M., Hepp, U., Büchi, S., & Schnyder, U. (2010). Partner relationship and sexuality of female-to-male transsexuals. Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie, 60(1), 25–30. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1103264.
Kruijver, F. P., Zhou, J. N., Pool, C. W., Hofman, M. A., Gooren, L. J., & Swaab, D. F. (2000). Male-to-female transsexuals have female neuron numbers in a limbic nucleus. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 2034–2041.
Kulick, D. (1998). Travesti: Sex, gender, and culture among Brazilian transgendered prostitutes. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Lambda Legal. (2010). Health Care Fairness. Retrieved from http://www.lambdalegal.org/issues/health-care-fairness
Landen, M., Walinder, J., & Lundstrom, B. (1996). Prevalence, incidence and sex ratio of transsexualism. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 221–223.
Laumann, E., Gagnon, J., Michael, R., & Michaels, R. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lawrence, A. A. (2010a). Sexual orientation versus age of onset as bases for typologies (subtypes) of gender identity disorder in adolescents and adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 514–545.
Lawrence, A. A. (2010b). Societal individualism predicts prevalence of nonhomosexual orientation in male-to-female transsexualism. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 573–583.
Leli, U., & Drescher, J. (Eds.). (2004). Transgender subjectivities: A clinician’s guide. Binghamton: Haworth Press.
Lev, A. (2004). Transgender emergence: Counseling gender-variant people and their families. Binghamton: Haworth Press.
Lev, A. I. (2005). Disordering gender identity: Gender identity disorder in the DSM-IV-TR. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 17, 35–69.
Levy, A., Crown, A., & Reid, R. (2003). Endocrine intervention for transsexuals. Clinical Endocrinology, 59, 409–418.
Lobato, M., Koff, W., Schestatsky, S., Chaves, C., Petry, A., Crestana, T., Amaral, J., Onofrio, F., Salvador, J., Silveira, E., & Henriques, A. (2002). Clinical characteristics, psychiatric comorbidities and sociodemographic profile of transsexual patients from an outpatient clinic in Brazil. International Journal of Transgenderism, 10(2), 69–77.
Lombardi, E. (2001). Enhancing transgender health care. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 869–872.
Lothstein, L. (1984). Psychological testing with transsexuals: A 30-year study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(5), 500–507.
Maguen, S., Shipherd, J., & Harris, H. (2005). Providing culturally sensitive care for transgender patients. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 12, 479–490.
Marshall, M. P., Bukstein, O. G., Miles, J., Morse, J. Q., Friedman, M., Stall, et al. (2008). Gay youth reports higher rates of drug and alcohol abuse. Addiction Journal. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from http://www.addiction-journal.org/viewpressrelease.asp?pr=74
Marzullo, M., & Libmn, A. (2009). Research overview: Hate crimes and violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. Human Rights Campaign. http://www.hrc.org/files/assets/resources/Hatecrimesandviolenceagainstlgbtpeople_2009.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2013
Meier, S. (2010, August). Predicting problematic substance use in female-to-male transsexuals. In M. Vaughan (Chair), Predictors of substance use and misuse in LGBTQ populations. Symposium presented at the Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association, San Diego, CA.
Meier, S. & Hughes, L. (2010, April). Investigating the role of parenting in the female to male transgender individuals. Poster presented at the annual conference of the South Western Psychological Association, Dallas, TX.
Meier, S., & Pardo, S. (2010, February). The effects of hormonal gender affirmation treatment on mental health in female to male transsexuals. Symposium presented at the New York University: In Translation: Clinical Dialogues Spanning the Transgender Spectrum Conference, New York.
Meier, S., & St. Amand, P. (2010, November). Psychological and medical treatment of the transgender client. Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Texas Psychological Association, Dallas, TX.
Meier, S., Green, J., Dickey, l., & Greatheart, M. (2010a, November). Sexual behaviors, health, and satisfaction of transgender men (FTMs) with and without hormonal and surgical modifications: Preliminary results. In T. Lostutter (Chair), Sexual health and functioning: Using data to inform cognitive behavioral treatments. Symposium presented at the annual conference of the Association of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, San Francisco, CA.
Meier, S., Jimenez, E., Fitzgerald, K., Carnew, M., Labuzan, E., & Aulakh, A. (2010b, November). Family social support and quality of life in FTM transsexuals. Poster presented at the annual conference of the Texas Psychological Association, Dallas, TX.
Meier, S., Keo, R., Harik, L., Acas, M., Nguyen, S., & Borinaga, E. (2010c, November). Can a romantic relationship survive a gender transition? Examining the romantic relationships of female to male (FTM) trans men. Poster presented at the Annual Conference of the Association of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, San Francisco.
Meier, S., Fitzgerald, K., & Pardo, S. (2011). The effects of hormonal gender affirmation treatment on mental health in female to male transsexuals. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health, 15, 281–299.
Meier, S., Pardo, S., Labuski, C., & Babcock, J.C. (2013). Measures of clinical health among female-to-male transgender persons as a function of sexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior (epub ahead of print). doi: 10.1007/s10508-012-0052-2
Meyer, W., Bockting, W., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Coleman, E., DiCeglie, D., Devor, H., Gooren, L., Hage, J., Kirk, S., Kuiper, B., Laub, D., Lawrence, A., Menard, Y., Monstrey, S., Patton, J., Schaefer, L., Webb, A., & Wheeler, C. (2001). Standards of care 6th version. Retrieved on November 1, 2007, from http://www.wpath.org/publications_standards.cfm
Meyerowitz, J. (2004). How sex changed: A history of transsexuality in the United States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Mikalson, P., Pardo, S., & Green, J. (2012). First do no harm: Reducing disparities for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and questioning populations in California. http://www.eqcai.org/atf/cf/%7B8cca0e2f-faec-46c1-8727-cb02a7d1b3cc%7D/FIRST_DO_NO_HARM-LGBTQ_REPORT.PDF. Accessed 13 Jan 2013.
Mizock, L., & Lewis, T. K. (2008). Trauma in transgender populations: Risk, resilience, and clinical care. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 8, 335–354.
Mizock, L., & Fleming, M. (2011). Transgender and gender variant populations with mental illness: Implications for clinical care. Professional Psychology, 42(2), 208–213.
Moir, A., & Jessel, D. (1989). Brain sex. London: Penguin Press.
Möller, B., Schreier, H., Li, A., & Romer, G. (2009). Gender identity disorder in children and children and adolescents. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescents in Health Care, 3, 117–143.
Moore, E., Wisniewski, A., & Dobs, A. (2003). Endocrine treatment of transsexual people: A review of treatment regimens, outcomes, and adverse effects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 88, 3467–3473.
Mueller, A., Gooren, L. J., Naton-Schotz, S., Cupisti, S., Beckmann, M. W., & Dittrich, R. (2008). Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperandrogenemia in female-to-male transsexuals. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93(4), 1408–1411.
Namaste, V. (2000). Invisible lives: The erasure of transsexual and transgendered people. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Nanda, S. (1990). Neither man nor woman: The hijras of India. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
NCTE: National Center for Transgender Equality. (2009, May). Transgender terminology. Retrieved July 2, 2009, from http://nctequality.org/Resources/NCTE_TransTerminology.pdf
Nesteby, J. A. (n.d.). Transgender health: A resource for primary care providers. Boston: MGH Institute of Health Profession. Accessed from http://www.transhealthmass.org/index.html
Nestle, J., Howell, C., & Wilchins, R. (2002). Gender queer. Voices from beyond the sexual binary. New York: Alyson Books.
Newfield, E., Hart, S., Dibble, S., & Kohler, L. (2006). Female-to-male transgender quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 15, 1447–1457.
Nuttbrock, L., Bockting, W., Mason, M., Hwahng, S., Rosenblum, A., Macri, M., & Becker, J. (2010). A further assessment of Blanchard’s typology of homosexual versus non-homosexual or autogynephilic gender dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9579-2.
Obedin-Maliver, J., Goldsmith, E., Stewart, L., White, W., Tran, E., Brenman, S., et al. (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender–related content in undergraduate medical education. Journal of the American Medical Association, 306(9), 971–977. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.1255.
O’Gorman, E. (1982). A retrospective study of epidemiological and clinical aspects of 28 transsexual patients. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 231–236.
Okabe, N., Sato, T., Matsumoto, Y., Ido, Y., Terada, S., & Kuroda, S. (2008). Clinical characteristics of patients with gender identity disorder at a Japanese gender identity disorder clinic. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 157(1), 315–318.
Olson, J., Forbes, C., & Belzer, M. (2011). Management of the transgender adolescent. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 165, 171–176.
Pardo, S. (2008). An exploratory study of identity conceptualization and development in a sample of gender nonconforming biological females. Unpublished thesis manuscript.
Penrose, W. (2001). Hidden in history: Female homoeroticism and women of a “Third Nature” in the South Asian past. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 10(1), 3–39.
Prieur, A. (1998). Mema’s house, Mexico City: On transvestites, queens, and machos. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Prince, V. (1969, February). Men who choose to be women. Sexology, 441–444.
Rachlin, K. (1999). Factors which influence individual’s decisions when considering female-to-male genital reconstructive surgery. International Journal of Transgenderism, 3(3). http://www.iiav.nl/ezines/web/IJT/97-03/numbers/symposion/ijt990302.htm
Rachlin, K., Hansbury, G., & Pardo, S. T. (2010). Hysterectomy and oophorectomy experiences of female-to-male transgender individuals. International Journal of Transgenderism, 12, 155–166.
Raj, R. (2002). Towards a transpositive therapeutic model: Developing clinical sensitivity and cultural competence in the effective support of transsexual and transgender clients. International Journal of Transgenderism, 6. Retrieved from http://www.symposion.com/ijt/ijtvo06no02_04.htm
Rametti, G., Carrillo, B., Gómez-Gil, E., Junque, C., Segovia, S., Gomez, Á., & Guillamon, A. (2011). White matter microstructure in female to male transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(2), 199–204. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.05.006.
Ramirez-Valles, J., Garcia, D., Campbell, R., Diaz, R., & Heckathorn, D. (2008). HIV infection, sexual risk behavior, and substance use among latino gay and bisexual men and transgender persons. American Journal of Public Health, 98(6), 1036–1042.
Reed, B., Rhodes, S., Schofield, P., & Wylie, K. (2009). Gender variance in the UK: Prevalence, incidence, growth and geographic distribution. Accessed 8 June 2011 at www.gires.org.uk/assets/Medpro-Assets/GenderVarianceUK-report.pdf
Reddy, G. (2005). With respect to sex: Negotiating Hijra identity in South India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Richmond, K., Burnes, T., & Carroll, G. (2012). Lost in trans-lation: Interpreting systems of trauma for transgender clients. Traumatology, 18, 45–57.
Rosin, H. (2008). A boy’s life. The Atlantic, 302(4), 56–71.
Ross, B. (1984). Remindings and their effects in learning a cognitive skill. Cognitive Psychology, 16(3), 371–416.
Ross, M., & Need, J. (1989). Effects of adequacy of gender reassignment surgery on psychological adjustment: A follow-up of fourteen male-to-female patients. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18(2), 145–153.
Ross, M., Walinder, J., Lundstrom, B., & Thuwe, I. (1981). Cross-cultural approaches to transsexualism: A comparison between Sweden and Australia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 63, 75–82.
Ryan, C., Huebner, D., Diaz, R. M., & Sanchez, J. (2008). Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics, 123, 346–352.
SAFRA. (2009). Country information report: Iran. http://www.safraproject.org/. Accessed 6 May 2010.
Samons, S. (2009). Can this marriage be saved? Addressing male-to-female transgender issues in couples therapy. Sexual and Relationship, 24(2), 152–162.
Schilt, K. (2006). Just one of the guys?: How transmen make gender visible in the workplace. Gender and Society, 20(4), 465–490.
Schilt, K. (2010). Just one of the guys? Transgender men and the persistence of gender inequality. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, IL.
Schilt, K., & Connell, C. (2007). Do workplace gender transitions make gender trouble? Gender, Work and Organization, 14(6), 596–618.
Schilt, K., & Westbrook, L. (2009). Doing gender, doing heteronormativity “gender normals”, transgender people, and the social maintenance of heterosexuality. Gender and Society, 23(4), 440–464.
Schilt., K. & Wiswall, M. (2008). Before and after: Gender transitions, human capital, and workplace experiences. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 8(1), Article 39.
Seil, D. (2004). The diagnosis and treatment of transgendered patients. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy, 8, 99–116.
Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team (SMART). (2009). Best practices for asking questions about sexual orientation on surveys. http://www.law.ucla.edu/williamsinstitute/home.html. Accessed 6 May 2010.
Shipherd, J., Mizock, L., Maguen, S., & Greene, K. (2012). Male-to-female transgender veterans and VA health care utilization. International Journal of Sexual Health, 24, 78–87.
Stanley, A. (2009, February 1). They float like clouds on air do, they enjoy …. The New York Times.
Suniewick, E. (2007). TRANSforming healthcare. San Francisco: Frameline Productions.
Testa, R. J., Sciacca, L. M., Wang, F., Hendricks, M. L., Goldblum, P., Bradford, J., & Bongar, B. (2012). Effects of violence on transgender people. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43, 452–459.
TGEU. (2013). 265 killings of trans people in last 12 months reveals TGEU’s trans murder monitoring project. http://www.tgeu.org/265_Trans_People_killed_in_last_12_Months. Accessed 14 Jan 2013.
Transgender Law Center. (2004). Recommendations for transgender health care. http://www.transgenderlaw.org/resources/tlchealth.htm
Transgender Law Center. (2008). The state of transgender California report: Results from the 2008 California transgender economic health survey. Retrieved from http://www.calcomui.org/images/StateTransCA_report_2009Print.pdf
Transsexual Road Map. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.tsroadmap.com/reality/transgender-name-change.html
Travers, R., Bauer, G., Pyne, J., Bradley, K., Gale, L., & Papadimitriou, M. (2012). Impacts of strong parental support for trans youth. Trans Pulse. http://transpulseproject.ca/research-type/project-report/. Accessed 13 Jan 2013.
Tsoi, W. F. (1988). The prevalence of transsexualism in Singapore. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 78, 501–504.
Valentine, D. (2007). Imagining transgender: An ethnography of a category. Durham: Duke University Press.
Van Borsel, J., De Cuypere, G., Rubens, R., & Destaerke, B. (2000). Voice problems in female-to-male transsexuals. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 35(3), 427–442.
van Goozen, S., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Gooren, L., Frijda, N., & van de Poll, N. (1995). Gender differences in behaviour: Activating effects of cross-sex hormones. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 20, 343–363.
van Kesteren, P. J., Gooren, L. J., & Megans, J. A. (1996). An epidemiological and demographic study of transsexuals in the Netherlands. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25(6), 589.
van Trotsenburg, M. (2010). Gynecological aspects of transgender healthcare. International Journal of Transgenderism, 11(4), 238–246.
Veale, J. (2008). The prevalence of transsexualism among New Zealand passport holders. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42(10), 887–889.
Veale, J., Clarke, D., & Lomax, T. (2008). Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36(4), 586–597.
Verhulst, F. C., van der Ende, J., Ferdinand, R. F., & Kasius, M. C. (1997). The prevalence of DSM-III-R diagnoses in a national sample of Dutch adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 329–336.
Wallien, M., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. (2008). Psychosexual outcomes of gender-dysphoric children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(12), 1413–1423.
Weitze, C., & Osburg, S. (1996). Transsexualism in Germany: Empirical data on epidemiology and application of the German transsexuals’ act during its first ten years. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25(4), 409–425.
Wieselman, J. (2010). PopWrap exclusive sneak peek: ‘RuPaul’s Drag Race.’ The New York Post. http://www.nypost.com/p/blogs/popwrap/popwrap_exclusive_sneak_peek_rupaul_xHyYPrQuD0feNXwqI7D4uK
Wilchins, R. (1997). Read my lips: Sexual subversion and the end of gender. Ann Arbor: Firebrand Books.
Wilchins, R. (2004). Queer theory, gender theory: An instant primer. New York: Alyson Books.
Wilson, P., Sharp, C., & Carr, S. (1999). The prevalence of gender dysphoria in Scotland: A primary care study. British Journal of General Practice, 49, 991–992.
Winter, S. (2002). Counting kathoey. Accessed 15 Jan 2013 from http://web.hku.hk/~sjwinter/TransgenderASIA/paper_counting_kathoey.htm
Winter, S. (2009). Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific: What does the research tell us? Presented to the Asia Pacific Transgender Network Development Conference, Bangkok.
Winters, S., & Conway, L. (2011). How many trans* people are there? A 2011 update incorporating new data. Accessed from http://web.hku.hk/∼sjwinter/TransgenderASIA/paper-how-many-trans-people-are-there.htm
Winter, S., Chalungsooth, P., The, Y. K., Rojanalert, N., Maneerat, K., Wong, Y. W., Beaumont, A., Ho, L. M. W., Gomez, F., & Macapagal, R. A. (2009). Transpeople, transprejudice and pathologization: A seven-country factor analytic study. International Journal of Sexual Health, 21(2), 96–118.
Winters, K. (2009). Gender madness in American psychiatry: Essays from the struggle for dignity. Charleston: BookSurge Publishing.
World Professional Association for Transgender Health. (2011). Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people(7th ver.). Minneapolis: Author.
Xavier, J., Bobbin, M., Singer, B., & Budd, E. (2005). A needs assessment of trangendered people of color living in Washington, DC. International Journal of Transgenderism, 8(2 & 3), 31–47.
Xavier, J., Honnold, J., & Bradford, J. (2007). The health, health related need, and lifecourse experiences of transgender Virginians. Richmond: Division of Disease Prevention through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Virginia Department of Health. Retrieved from http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/DiseasePrevention/documents/pdf/THISFINALREPORTVol1.pdf
Yu, L. (2009). Gender-related behavior, gender identity, and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. HKU Faculty of Education, PhD thesis.
Zhou, J. N., Hofman, M. A., Gooren, L. J., & Swaab, D. F. (1995). A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality. Nature, 378, 68–70.
Zucker, K., Bradley, S., Owen-Anderson, A., Kibblewhite, S., & Cantor, J. (2008). Is gender identity disorder in adolescents coming out of the closet? Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 34(4), 287–290.
The authors would like to thank Jamison Green, Sean Moundas, Sari Reisner, Lauren Mizock, and Kristen Schilt for their thoughtful comments on earlier editions of this chapter.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Meier, S.C., Labuski, C.M. (2013). The Demographics of the Transgender Population. In: Baumle, A. (eds) International Handbook on the Demography of Sexuality. International Handbooks of Population, vol 5. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5512-3_16
Publisher Name: Springer, Dordrecht
Print ISBN: 978-94-007-5511-6
Online ISBN: 978-94-007-5512-3