Advertisement

Biotechnology of Miscanthus

  • S. J. Dalton
Chapter

Abstract

Miscanthus x giganteus is a natural hybrid C4 grass genotype of great size and of a proven utility for biomass cropping, but its growing range is restricted by cold susceptibility. New requirements for fermentability and many other characteristics have also arisen over the last 10 years. However, the Miscanthus x giganteus genotype is not very easily included in breeding programmes because it is a sterile triploid hybrid and cannot produce seed. The genetic resources of the parental species M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus and related species are being collected, studied and analysed using many new genomic and transcriptomic molecular tools. Breeders have selected new cultivars from within the genetic pool of Miscanthus sinensis and have also created new Miscanthus x giganteus and other interspecific hybrids. There is also progress in creating new intergeneric hybrids with close relatives such as sugarcane and sorghum. Initially the main purpose of biotechnology research was to develop cheaper micro-propagation methods for Miscanthus x giganteus, because rhizome propagation was so expensive. More recently, methods of in vitro polyploidy have been developed in the hybrid and two parental species, which will allow the creation of new hybrid combinations and the exploitation of the greater size of polyploids. Genetic transformation by particle bombardment and via Agrobacterium has also been achieved relatively recently and is now being applied to several characteristics potentially involved with fermentation for ethanol production.

Keywords

Simple Sequence Repeat Marker Callus Induction Embryogenic Callus Shoot Apex Naphthalene Acetic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ABA

Abscisic acid

AFLP

Amplified fragment length polymorphism

AOA

Alpha-aminoxyacetic acid

BAC

Bacterial artificial chromosome

BAP

6-benzylaminopurine

Bar

Basta resistance gene

CH

Casein hydrolysate

2,4-D

2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid

DH

Doubled haploid

DHPS

Sulfonamide herbicide resistance gene

DMSO

Dimethylsulphoxide

EST

Expressed sequence tag

FAEA

Ferulic acid esterase gene

FAE

Ferulic acid esterase

G418

Geneticin

GBS

Genotyping-by-sequencing

GA3

Giberellic acid

GFP

Green fluorescent protein

Gfp

Green fluorescent protein gene

GUS

β-glucuronidase

Gus

β-glucuronidase gene

HB

Holley and Baker medium

Hpt

Hygromycin resistance gene

IAA

Indole acetic acid

IBA

Indole-3-butyric acid

2Ip

2-isopentenyladenine

KIN

Kinetin

MAS

Marker assisted selection

MES

2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid

MET

Methionine

MS

Murashige and Skoog medium

NAA

Napthelene acetic acid

nptII

Neomycin phosphotransferase gene

PBZ

Paclobutrazol

PHB

Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid

pinII

Potato proteinase II gene

PPT

Phosphinothricin

PVP

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

QTL

Quantitative trait loci

xyn2

Xylanase gene

RAD

Restriction site associated DNA

RAPD

Random amplification of polymorphic DNA

RFLP

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphism

SSR

Microsatellite simple sequence repeat

TDZ

Thidiazuron

2,4,5-T

2,4,5 trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

UidA

β-glucuronidase gene

Notes

Acknowledgments

I am extremely grateful to Phil Morris for critically reading the manuscript, helping with the figures and for such useful advice, discussion and editing. Thanks also to Ray Bilang for pROB5, Peggy Lemaux for pAct1HPT-4, Peter Quail for pAHC27, Rongda Qu and Elumalai Sivamani for pRESQ48, and Seiichi Toki for pUBA. In addition many thanks to colleagues at IBERS including Tim Langdon for pINH1D, pIOM6 and useful discussion, John Clifton-Brown for photographs and useful discussion, Emma Timms-Taravella for expert molecular analysis, Cathy Morris and Charlotte Hayes for expert cytometry, Ana Winters for collaboration over FAE expression, Samantha Gill and Sue Youell for assistance and to Ian Thomas, Elaine Jensen, Maurice Bosch, Joe Gallagher, Paul Robson, Kerrie Farrar and Iain Donnison for useful discussion and for which I also thank Kai Schwarz and Heike Meyer of the Julius Kühn-Institute.

References

  1. AEBIOM (2011) Annual Statistical Report p 36 European Biomass AssociationGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen D (2008) Genetic improvement of Miscanthus at mendel biotechnology. The 5th annual bioenergy feedstocks symposium. Urbana-Champaign, IL, 10 Jan 2008Google Scholar
  3. Atienza SG, Satovic Z, Petersen KK, Dolstra O, Martín A (2002) Preliminary genetic linkage map of Miscanthus sinensis with RAPD markers. Theor Appl Genet 105:946–952CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Atienza SG, Satovic Z, Petersen KK, Dolstra O, Martín A (2003a) Identification of QTLs influencing agronomic traits in Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. I. Total height, flag-leaf, height and stem diameter. Theor Appl Genet 107:123–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Atienza SG, Satovic Z, Petersen KK, Dolstra O, Martín A (2003b) Identification of QTLs associated with yield and its components in Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Euphytica 132:353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atienza SG, Satovic Z, Petersen KK, Dolstra O, Martín A (2003c) Identification of QTLs influencing combustion quality in Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. II. chlorine and potassium content. Theor Appl Genet 107:857–863CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Atienza SG, Satovic Z, Petersen KK, Dolstra O, Martín A (2003d) Influencing combustion quality of Miscanthus sinensis Anderss: identification of QTLs for calcium, phosphorus and sulphur content. Plant Breed 122:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atienza SG, Ramirez MC, Martin A (2003e) Mapping QTLs controlling flowering date in Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Cereal Res Comm 31:3–4Google Scholar
  9. Baird NA, Etter PD, Atwood TS, Currey MC, Shiver AL, Lewis ZA, Selker EU, Cresko WA, Johnson EA (2008) Rapid SNP discovery and genetic mapping using sequenced RAD markers. PLoS ONE 3(10):e3376. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003376 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bilang R, Iida S, Peterhans A, Potrykus I, Paszkowski J (1991) The 3′-terminal region of the hygromycin-B-resistance gene is important for its activity in Eschiricia coli and Nicotiana tabacum. Gene 100:247–250CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. de O Buanafina MM, Langdon T, Hauck B, Dalton SJ, Morris P (2006) Manipulating the phenolic acid content and digestibility of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) by vacuolar targeted expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase. Appl Bioch Biotech 129(132):416–426Google Scholar
  12. de O Buanafina MM, Langdon T, Hauck B, Dalton SJ, Morris P (2008) Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase increases cell wall digestibility of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Plant Biotechnol J 6:264–280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cesare M, Hodkinson T, Barth S (2010) Chloroplast DNA markers (cpSSRs, SNPs) for Miscanthus, Saccharum and related grasses (Panicoideae, Poaceae) Mol Breeding 26: 539–544Google Scholar
  14. Chen P-Y, Wang C-K, Soong S-C, To K-Y (2003) Complete sequence of the binary vector pBI121 and its application in cloning T-DNA insertion from transgenic plants Mol Breeding 11: 287–293Google Scholar
  15. Christensen AH, Quail P (1991) Ubiquitin promoter-based vectors for high-level expression of selectable and/or screenable marker genes in monocotyledonous plants. Transgen Res 5:213–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Christian DG, Haase E (2001) Agronomy of Miscanthus in Miscanthus for energy and fibre. James and James (ed) Mary Walsh pp 46–68Google Scholar
  17. Cho M-J, Jiang W, Lemaux PG (1998) Transformation of recalcitrant barley cultivars through improvement of regenerability and decreased albinism. Plant Sci 138:229–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chu C-C, Wang C-C, Sun C-S, Hsu C, Yin K-C, Chu C-Y (1975) Establishment of an efficient medium for anther culture in rice through comparative experiments on the nitrogen sources. Sci Sinica 18:659–668Google Scholar
  19. Clifton-Brown JC, Breuer J, Jones MB (2007) Carbon mitigation by the energy crop Miscanthus. Glob Change Biol 13:2296–2307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clifton-Brown J, Robson P, Davey C, Farrar K, Hayes C, Huang L, Jensen E, Jones L, Hinton-Jones M, Maddison A, Meyer H, Norris J, Purdy S, Rodgers C, Schwarz K, Salvatore C, Slavov G, Valentine J, Webster R, Youell S, Donnison I (2013) Breeding Miscanthus for bioenergy. In: Saha M (ed) Biomass crops: breeding and genetics, WileyGoogle Scholar
  21. Cope-Selby N, Donnison IS, Farrar K (2011) Bacterial endophytes in the bioenergy grass Miscanthus. Soc Exp Biol Annual Meeting, GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  22. Dale PJ (1980) A method for in vitro storage of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Ann Bot 45:497–502Google Scholar
  23. Dalton SJ, Bettany AJE, Timms E, Morris P (1999) Co-transformed, diploid Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass), Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) and Lolium temulentum (darnel) plants produced by microprojectile bombardment. Plant Cell Rep 18:721–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dalton SJ, Bettany AJE, Bhat V, Gupta MG, Bailey E, Timms E, Morris P (2003) Genetic transformation of Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk)—an apomictic tropical forage grass. Plant Cell Rep 21:974–980CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dalton SJ, Heywood E, Timms EJ, Morris P (2007) A comparison of maize and rice ubiquitin promoter activity using the uidA (gus) gene in maize: an enhanced rice ubiquitin promoter increases transgene expression in maize compared with the native maize ubiquitin promoter. Plant transformation technologies conference, Vienna, 4–7 Feb 2007Google Scholar
  26. Dalton SJ, Donnison I (2010a) Improved in vitro propagation and establishment in soil of Miscanthus species. 18th European biomass conference, Lyon, 4–7 May 2010Google Scholar
  27. Dalton SJ, Timms-Taravella E, Donnison I (2010b) Improved genetic transformation of Miscanthus sinensis. 18th European Biomass Conference, Lyon, 4–7 May 2010Google Scholar
  28. Dalton SJ, Winters A, Langdon T, Timms-Taravella E, Donnison I (2011a) Genetic transformation of Miscanthus sinensis with FAE. Plant transformation technologies II conference, Vienna, 19–22 Feb 2011Google Scholar
  29. Dalton SJ, Gallagher JA, Winters AL, Langdon T, Timms-Taravella E, Donnison IS (2011b) Genetic transformation of Miscanthus sinensis with a ferulic acid esterase gene. 33rd symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals, Seattle, 2–5 May 2011Google Scholar
  30. Deuter M (2000) Breeding approaches to improvement of yield and quality in Miscanthus grown in Europe, EMI Project, Final report, pp 28–52Google Scholar
  31. Deuter M (2011a) Miscanthus plant named `MBS 7001’ Mendel biotechnology, Inc. World intellectual property organization, United States Patent PP22033 (‘Nagara’)Google Scholar
  32. Deuter M (2011b) Miscanthus plant named ‘MBS 7002’ Mendel biotechnology, Inc. World intellectual property organization, USA Patent PP22047 (‘Lake Erie’)Google Scholar
  33. Deuter M (2011c) Miscanthus plant named ‘MBS 1002’ Mendel biotechnology, Inc. World intellectual property organization, USA Patent PP22127Google Scholar
  34. Eckert B, Weber OB, Kirchhof G, Halbritter A, Stoffels M, Hartmann A (2005) Azospirillum doebereinerae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with the C4-grass Miscanthus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:17–26Google Scholar
  35. Engler D, Chen J (2011) Transformation and engineered trait modification in Miscanthus species. Mendel Biotechnology, Inc. World intellectual property organization, USA Patent US20110047651Google Scholar
  36. Farrar K, Jensen E, Allison G (2011) Defining ideotypes in the biomass crop Miscanthus. Problems and reports from the fourth MPSSG, centre for plant integrative biology, Nottingham, 25 July 2011Google Scholar
  37. Finer JJ, Vain P, Jones MW, McMullen MD (1992) Development of the particle inflow gun for DNA delivery to plant cells. Plant Cell Rep 11:323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fowler PA, McLauchlin AR, Hall LM (2003) The potential industrial uses of forage grasses including Miscanthus. BioComposites Centre, University of Wales, BangorGoogle Scholar
  39. Frame BR, Paque T, Wang K (2006) Maize (Zea mays L.) In: Wang K (ed) Methods in molecular biology. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ, pp185–199Google Scholar
  40. Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Exp Cell Res 50:151–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Głowacka K, Jeżowski S, Kaczmarek Z (2009) Polyploidization of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus x giganteus by plant colchicine treatment. Ind Crop Prod 30:444–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Głowacka K, Jeżowski S (2009) Genetic and nongenetic factors influencing callus induction in Miscanthus sinensis (Anderss.) anther cultures. J Appl Genet 50:341–345CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Głowacka K, Jeżowski S, Kaczmarek Z (2010a) The effects of genotype, inflorescence developmental stage and induction medium on callus induction and plant regeneration in two Miscanthus species. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 10:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Głowacka K, Jeżowski S, Kaczmarek Z (2010b) In vitro induction of polyploidy by colchicine treatment of shoots and preliminary characterisation of induced polyploids in two Miscanthus species. Ind Crop Prod 32:88–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Głowacka K, Jeżowski S, Kaczmarek Z (2010c) Impact of colchicine application during callus induction and shoot regeneration on micropropagation and polyploidisation rates in two Miscanthus species. In vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 46: 161–171Google Scholar
  46. Głowacka K (2011) A review of the genetic study of the energy crop Miscanthus. Biomass Bioenerg 35:2445–2454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grare MAR (2010) Variability of salinity response in Miscanthus sinensis, MSC thesis, edepot.wur.nl/155120Google Scholar
  48. Greef JM, Deuter M (1993) Syntaxonomy of Miscanthus x giganteus GREEF and DEU. Angewandte Botanik 67:87–90Google Scholar
  49. Greef JM, Deuter M, JungC Schondelmaier J (1997) Genetic diversity of European Miscanthus species revealed by AFLP fingerprinting. Genet Resour Crop Ev 44:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gubisova M, Gubis J, Zofajova A, Mihalik D, Kraic J (2013) Enhanced in vitro propagation of Miscanthus x giganteus. J Ind Crop Prod 41:279–282Google Scholar
  51. Hamblin MT, Warburton ML, Buckler ES (2007) Empirical comparison of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms in assessment of maize diversity and relatedness. PLoS ONE 2(12): e1367, doi:10.1371journal.pone.0001 0001367Google Scholar
  52. Hansen J, Kristiansen K (1997) Short-term in vitro storage of Miscanthus × ogiformis Honda ‘Giganteus’ as affected by medium composition, temperature, and photon flux density. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 49:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. He R, Pan J, Zhu L, He G (2010) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of large DNA fragments using a BIBAC vector system in rice. Plant Mol Biol Rep 28:613–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Heaton EA, Dohleman FG, Miguez AF, Juvik JA, Lozovaya V, Widholm J, Zabotina OA, McIsaac F, David MB, Voight TB, Boersma NN, Long SP (2010) Miscanthus: a promising biomass crop. Adv Bot Res 56:75–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hernández P, Dorado G, Laurie DA, Martín A, Snape JW (2001) Microsatellites and RFLP probes from maize are efficient sources of molecular markers for the biomass energy crop Miscanthus. Theor Appl Genet 102:616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ho C-W, Wu T-H, Hsu T-W, Huang J-C, Huang C-C, Chiang T-Y (2011) Development of 12 genic microsatellite loci for a biofuel grass, Miscanthus sinensis (Poaceae). Am J Bot 98:201–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hodkinson TR, Chase MW, Lledo MD, Salamin N, Renvoize SA (2002a) Phylogenetics of Miscanthus, Saccharum and related genera (Saccharinae, Andropogoneae, Poaceae) based on DNA sequences from ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid trnL intron and trnL-F intergenic spacers. J Plant Res 115:381–392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hodkinson TR, Chase MW, Renvoize SA (2002b) Characterization of a genetic resource collection for Miscanthus (Saccharinae, Andropogoneae, Poaceae) using AFLP and ISSR PCR. Ann Bot 89:627–636CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Holme IB, Petersen KK (1996) Callus induction and plant regeneration from different explant types of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda ‘Giganteus’. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 45:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Holme IB, Krogstrup P, Hansen J (1997) Embryogenic callus formation, growth and regeneration in callus and suspension cultures of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda ‘Giganteus’ as affected by proline. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 50:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Holme IB (1998) Growth characteristics and nutrient depletion of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda ‘Giganteus’ suspension cultures. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 53:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hung K-H, Chiang T-Y, Chiu C-T, Hsu T-W, Ho C-W (2009) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from a potential biofuel plant Miscanthus sinensis (Poaceae). Conserv Genet 10:1377–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jakob K, Zhou F, Paterson AH (2009) Genetic improvement of C4 grasses as cellulosic biofuel feedstocks. In vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 45: 291–305Google Scholar
  64. Jennings P (2011) Commercial scale Giant Miscanthus. Southeast bioenergy conference, Tifton, Georgia, 9 Aug 2011Google Scholar
  65. Jensen E, Thomas-Jones S, Farrar K, Clifton-Brown J, Donnison I (2008) Unravelling the genetic control of flowering time in the bioenergy grass Miscanthus. Soc Exp Biol, Marseille, 6–10 July 2008Google Scholar
  66. Jørgensen U (2008) Breeding and biotechnology perspectives in Miscanthus. EC-US task force on biotechnology research: workshop on biotechnology for sustainable bioenergy. San Francisco, 21–22 Feb 2008Google Scholar
  67. Juvik J, Kim H-S, Ibrahim K (2007) Miscanthus breeding and improvement. Symposium on biomass feedstocks for energy production in Illinois. Urbana, 1 Nov 2007Google Scholar
  68. Kim H-S, Zhang G, Juvik JA, Widholm JA (2010) Miscanthus x giganteus plant regeneration: effect of callus types, ages and culture methods on regeneration competence. Glob Change Biol Bioenerg 2:192–200Google Scholar
  69. Kirchhof G, Eckert B, Stoffels M, Baldani JI, Reis VM, Hartmann A (2001) Herbaspirillum frisingense sp. nov., a new nitrogen-fixing bacterial species that occurs in C4-fibre plants. Int J Syst Evol Micr 51:157–168Google Scholar
  70. Lee G-J, Jeon YJ, Ma K-Y, Kim I-K, Kim D-S (2011) A whole-genome transcriptome profiling of Miscanthus species in Korea plant and animal genomes XIX conference. San Diego, 15–19 Jan 2011Google Scholar
  71. Lewandowski I, Kahnt G (1993) Development of a tissue culture system with unemerged inflorescences of Miscanthus ‘Giganteus’ for the induction and regeneration of somatic embryoids. Beitr Biol Pflanzen 67:439–451Google Scholar
  72. Lewandowski I (1997) Micropropagation of Miscanthus x giganteus. Biotech Agr Forest 39:241–255Google Scholar
  73. Lewandowski I (1998) Propagation method is an important factor in the growth and development of Miscanthus x giganteus. Ind Crop Prod 8:229–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Li L, Qu R, Kochko A, Fauquet C, Beachy RN (1993) An improved rice transformation system using the biolistic method. Plant Cell Rep 12:250–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lister R, Gregory BD, Ecker JR (2009) Next is now: new technologies for sequencing of genomes, transcriptomes, and beyond. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ma X-F, Jensen E, Alexandrov N, Troukhan M, Zhang L, Thomas-Jones S, Farrar K, Clifton-Brown J, Donnison I, Swaller T (2012) Flavell R (2012) High resolution genetic mapping by genome sequencing reveals genome duplication and tetraploid genetic structure of the diploid Miscanthus sinensis. PLoS ONE 7(3):e33821. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033821 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Matumura M, Hasegawa T, Saijoh Y (1985) Ecological aspects of Miscanthus sinensis var. condensatus, M. x sacchariflorus, and their 3x-, 4x-hybrids. 1. Process of vegetative spread. Research Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University vol 50 pp 423–433Google Scholar
  78. Mendel Biotechnology Inc. (2012) Mendel Biotechnology Inc, and BP biofuels to conduct demonstration field trial of PowerCane™ Miscanthus. http://www.mendelbio.com/newsevents/index.php#ai
  79. Miyamoto T, Kawahara M, Minamisawa K (2004) Novel endophytic nitrogen-fixing Clostridia from the grass Miscanthus sinensis as revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Appl Environ Microb 70:6580–6586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nielsen JM, Brandt K, Hansen J (1993) Long-term effects of thidiazuron are intermediate between benzyladenine, kinetin or isopentenyladenine in Miscanthus sinensis. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 35:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nielsen JM, Hansen J, Brandt K (1995) Synergism of thidiazuron and benzyladenine in axillary shoot formation depends on sequence of application in Miscanthus x ogiformis ‘Giganteus’. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 41:165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nishiwaki A, Mizuguti A, Kuwabara S, Toma Y, Ishigaki G, Miyashita T, Yamada T, Matuura H, Yamaguchi S, Rayburn AL, Akashi R, Stewart JR (2011) Discovery of natural Miscanthus (Poaceae) triploid plants in sympatric populations of Miscanthus sacchariflorus and Miscanthus sinensis in southern Japan. Am J Bot 98:154–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ow DW (2011) Recombinase-mediated gene stacking as a transformation operating system. J Integrative Plant Biol 53:512–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Park JW, Yu Q, Gracia NS, Acuna GM, da Silva JA (2011) Development of new intergeneric cane hybrids, Miscanes, as a source of biomass feedstock for biofuel production. Plant and animal genomes XIX conference, San Diego, 15–19 Jan 2011Google Scholar
  86. Pepó P, Tóth S (2005) The role of nitrogen and phosphorus source in Miscanthus in vitro cultures. Cereal Res Comm 33:549–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Petersen KK (1997) Callus induction and plant regeneration in Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda ‘Giganteus’ as influenced by benzyladenine. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 49: 137–140Google Scholar
  88. Petersen KK, Hansen J, Krogstrup P (1999) Significance of different carbon sources and sterilization methods on callus induction and plant regeneration of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda ‘Giganteus’. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 58:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Petersen KK, Hagberg P, Kristiansen K (2002) In vitro chromosome doubling of Miscanthus sinensis. Plant Breed 121:445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Petersen KK, Hagberg P, Kristiansen K (2003) Colchicine and oryzalin mediated chromosome doubling in different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 73:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Płażek A, Dubert F, Zur I, Waligorski P (2007) In vitro culture of Miscanthus x giganteus. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych 523:175–184Google Scholar
  92. Płażek A, Dubert F (2010) Improvement of medium for Miscanthus x giganteus callus induction and plant regeneration. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica 52(1):105–110Google Scholar
  93. Płażek A, Dubert F, Janowiak F, Krępski T, Tatrzańska M (2011) Plant age and in vitro or in vivo propagation considerably affect cold tolerance of Miscanthus × giganteus. Eur J Agron 34:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Poirier Y, van Beilen J, Orts B (2007) Biopolymers: crops for biopolymer and platform chemicals. Epobio Workshop, Athens, May 2007Google Scholar
  95. Potrykus I, Saul MW, Petruska J, Paszkowski J, Shillito RD (1979) Direct gene transfer to cells of a graminaceous monocot. Mol Gen Genet 199:183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rayburn AL, Crawford J, Rayburn CM, Juvik JA (2009) Genome size of three Miscanthus species. Plant Mol Biol Rep 27:184–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rooney WL, Hodnett GL, Kuhlman LC, Stelly DM, Price HJ, Price PK (2010) Intergeneric hybrid plants and methods for production thereof. The Texas A&M University. World intellectual property organization, USA. US20100050501Google Scholar
  98. Rothrock RE (2010) Propagation of switchgrass and Miscanthus. Ceres Inc. World intellectual property organization, USA. Patent WO2010011717A2Google Scholar
  99. Sanchez-Serrano JJ, Keil M, O’Connor A, Schell J, Willmitzer L (1987) Wound-induced expression of a potato proteinase inhibitor II gene in transgenic tobacco plants. EMBO J 6:303–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Shin S-B, Abdel-Ghany SE, Reddy ASN (2011) High efficiency regeneration of Miscanthus x giganteus plants. ASPB Plant Biology, Minneapolis, 6–10 Aug 2011Google Scholar
  101. Sivamani E, Qu R (2006) Expression enhancement of a rice polyubiquitin gene promoter. Plant Mol Biol 60:225–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Spangenberg G, Wang ZY, Wu XL, Nagel J, Potrykus I (1995) Transgenic perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plants from microprojectile bombardment of embryogenic suspension cells. Plant Sci 108:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Stewart R, Toma Y, Fernández FG, Nishiwaki A, Yamada T, Bollero G (2009) The ecology and agronomy of “Miscanthus sinensis”, a species important to bioenergy crop development, in its native range in Japan: a review. Glob Change Biol Bioenerg 1–2:126–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sun GZ, Ma MQ, Zhang YQ, Xian XL, Cai XL, Li XP (1999) A medium adapted to embryogenic callus induction and subcultures of wheat. J Hebei Agric Sci 3:24–26Google Scholar
  105. Swaminathan S, Alabady MS, Varala K, de Paoli E, Ho I, Rokhsar DS, Arumuganathan AK, Ming R, Green PJ, Meyers BC, Moose SP, Hudson ME (2010) Genomic and small RNA sequencing of Miscanthus giganteus shows the utility of sorghum as a reference genome sequence for Andropogoneae grasses. Genome Biol 11:R12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Szabados L, Savoure A (2009) Proline: a multifunctional amino acid. Trends Plant Sci 15:89–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Toki S, Takamatsu S, Nojiri C, Ooba S, Anzai H, Iwata M, Christensen A, Quail PH, Uchimiya H (1992) Expression of maize ubiquitin gene promoter-bar chimeric gene in transgenic rice. Plant Physiol 100:1503–1507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Touchell DH, Ranney TG (2012) Chromosome Doubling and Fertility Restoration in Miscanthus × giganteus. ASHS Annual Conference, Miami, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  109. Travella S, Ross SM, Harden J, Everett C, Snape JW, Harwood WA (2005) A comparison of transgenic barley lines produced by particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated techniques. Plant Cell Rep 23:780–789CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Trieu ATN, (2010) Miscanthus transformation methods. Ceres Inc. World intellectual property organization, USA. Patent WO2010065534A3Google Scholar
  111. USDA (2011) Proposed biomass crop assistance program (BCAP) giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) establishment and production in Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Environmental assessment, USDA farm service agency. http://fsa.usda.gov/Internet/FSA_File/finaleagiantmcanthus.pdf
  112. Vain P, McMullen MD, Finer JJ (1993) Osmotic treatment enhances particle bombardment-mediated transient and stable transformation of maize. Plant Cell Rep 12:84–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Visser P, Pignatelli V (2001) Utilization of Miscanthus. In: Jones MB, Walsh M (eds) Miscanthus for energy and fibre. James and James, London, pp 109–154Google Scholar
  114. Wang P, Chen Y (1983) Preliminary study on production of height of pollen H2 generation in winter wheat grown in the field. Acta Agron Sin 9:283–284Google Scholar
  115. Wang X, Yamada T, Kong F-J, Abe Y, Hoshino Y, Sato H, Takamizo T, Kanazawa A, Yamada T (2011) Establishment of an efficient in vitro culture and particle bombardment-mediated transformation systems in Miscanthus sinensis Anderss., a potential bioenergy crop. GCB Bioenergy 3:322–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Widholm JM (2010) Improvement of bioenergy crops via transformation. Energy biosciences institute annual reportGoogle Scholar
  117. Yamada T, Wang X, Kanazawa A, Yamada T, Hoshino Y, Ukaji N (2010) Genetic improvement through a transgenic approach in Miscanthus ssp., a new bioenergy crop. Green revolution 2.0: Food + Energy and Environmental Security, Long Beach, 31 Oct–4 Nov 2010Google Scholar
  118. Yook M-J, Li S-H, Kim D-S (2011) SSRs analysis for genetic diversity in Miscanthus species. Plant and animal genomes XIX conference, San Diego, 15–19 Jan 2011Google Scholar
  119. Yu C-Y, Kim H-S, Rayburn AL, Widholm JM, Juvik JA (2009) Chromosome doubling of the bioenergy crop, Miscanthus × giganteus. GCB Bioenergy 1:404–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhao H, Yu J, You FM, Luo M, Peng JH (2011) Transferability of microsatellite markers from Brachypodium distachyon to Miscanthus sinensis, a potential biomass crop. J Integr Plant Biol 53:232–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Zili Y, Puhua Z, Chengcai C, Xiang L, Wenzhong T, Li W, Shouyun C, Zuoshun T (2004) Establishment of genetic transformation system for Miscanthus sacchariflorus and obtaining of its transgenic plants. High Tech Lett 10:27–31Google Scholar
  122. Zili Y, Liang X, Jianxiong J, Zhiyong C, Jingping T, Lifang H (2010) Hunan agricultural university rapid breeding method of Miscanthus sinensis. Chinese Patent Application No. CN 201010259544 (24 Nov 2010)Google Scholar
  123. Zhang QX, SunY, Hu HK, Chen B, Hong CT, Guo HP, PanYH, Zheng BS (2012). Micropropagation and plant regeneration from embryogenic callus of Miscanthus sinensis. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 48:50–57Google Scholar
  124. Zhou H-F, Li S–S, Ge S (2011) Development of microsatellite markers for Miscanthus sinensis (Poaceae) and cross-amplification in other related species. Am J Bot 98:195–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zub H, Brancourt-Hulmel M (2010) Agronomic and physiological performances of different species of Miscanthus, a major energy crop. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:201–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Studies, Aberystwyth UniversityWalesUK

Personalised recommendations